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18888. THE NAKED APE (DESMOND MORRIS). This term paper reviews The Naked Ape, a book that views the lives of human beings from a zoological perspective. Although certain flaws are found in the author’s arguments, the essay concludes that Morris makes a good point in claiming that humans need to be aware of their animal nature so they can keep it under control. TAGS: book review, evolution, zoology, argumentative essay, anthropology, Naked Ape. MLA Style. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,698 words.   $49
18663. THE PHARAOHS OF EGYPT. As discussed in this paper, the pharaohs played a vital role in ancient Egyptian civilization because they were regarded as semi-divine intermediaries between the people and the gods. Based on the Egyptian belief in an afterlife, efforts were made to be sure that the pharaohs joined the gods after they died. This led to the development of funerary cults and also had an impact on the design of tombs (i.e., pyramid tombs became increasingly large and impressive). KEYWORDS: Egypt pharaohs religion pyramids. MLA Style. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,332 words.   $35
18547. THE PYRAMIDS OF ANCIENT EGYPT. This paper discusses the historical development of the Egyptian pyramids and the modern-day speculations about how they were built. The paper also argues that the size and shape of the most famous pyramids are a reflection of the religious and cultural values of ancient Egyptian society. Specifically, the pyramids were designed to reflect the power and divinity of the pharaohs entombed in them, and to assist the pharaohs on their journey through the afterlife. There is also evidence that the pyramids were symbolic of the Egyptian sun cult, which was associated with the pharaohs. KEYWORDS: Religion Egypt pharaohs pyramids. APA Style. 9 pages, 31 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,297 words.   $63
18214. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL CHOICES OF CLOTHING. This paper investigates the claim, “clothing choices are deeply personal and yet simultaneously social.” Using various examples from the literature on material culture and identity, it is concluded that people use clothes to express personal identity and also in anticipation of societal reactions. The examples are concerned with studies of British women and groups of people in Zambia and India. KEYWORDS: fashion clothes identity sociology anthropology Britain Zambia India. MLA Style. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
18206. “AUTHORITY” AND “POWER” IN RELIGION. As discussed in this paper, “authority” refers to a reliable source of divine knowledge (scripture, tradition, religious leaders, personal experience) and “power” refers to the ability to do certain things (magic power, a state of consciousness, self-control, an attribute of God). It is noted that these terms have different specific meanings in the context of different religious beliefs. KEYWORDS: religion, authority, power. MLA Style. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
18081. TWO VIEWS ON RELIGION AND RITUAL: TALAL ASAD & ROBERT H. SHARF. This paper compares the views of Talal Asad ("The Construction of Religion as an Anthropological Category") and Robert H. Sharf ("Ritual"), and the efforts of the two writers to arrive at non-"universalist" definitions of religion and/or ritual. Asad writes from a Western perspective and is concerned with the role of power in religion; Sharf looks at ritual from an Eastern (Buddhist) perspective and uses "performative theory," which metaphorically equates ritual to music or childhood play. It is argued that Asad is overly theoretical and that Sharf does a better job of explaining ritual performance and the practical benefits of ritual experience. KEYWORDS: comparative analysis essay religion ritual buddhism. MLA Style. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $70
18078. EDWARD HALL’S CULTURAL UNCONSCIOUS. This paper discusses the views of Edward T. Hall (expressed in Beyond Culture) on the existence of a "cultural unconscious" that covertly drives human behavior. According to Hall, bureaucratic institutions play a role in perpetuating this phenomenon. In addition, he argues that there is a need to go "beyond" culture in order to alleviate the problems caused by failures in cross-cultural communication. The paper also includes a discussion of how Tzvetan Todorov's book The Conquest of America provides ahistorical illustration of Hall's view of culture as an "irrational force." KEYWORDS: cross-cultural communication psychoanalysis edward t. hall cultural unconscious todorov spanish conquest america. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 11 pages, 22 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 2,788 words.   $77
17585. EVOLUTIONARY VIEWPOINTS OF TWO 19TH CENTURY CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS. This paper provides a comparison and analysis of the evolutionary viewpoints of two 19th century cultural anthropologists: Englishman Edward B. Tylor and American Lewis Henry Morgan. Compares each theorist’s view on evolution, on reasons for differences among human societies, on research emphasis, and on social order and family development. KEYWORDS: human culture cultural anthropology 19th century theorists evolution. MLA Style. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1524 words.   $42
17413. THE DOBE JU/’HOANSI: A HUNTING & GATHERING SOCIETY CONFRONTS MODERNITY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Dobe Ju/’hoansi (a band of indigenous hunters and gatherers living in the northwest Kalahari Desert) and the global forces influencing them. After a brief discussion of !Kung Bushmen nomenclature, the first part of the paper provides a general orientation on the Dobe Ju/’hoansi, considering their racial and linguistic antecedents, location, population, social structure, historical relations with other societies and recent historical occurrences. The second part of the paper examines the recent (present-day) circumstances of the group, looking at the external forces influencing them and their internal and external resources available for cultural survival. A concluding section makes suggestions on future research and comments on the problems and benefits of the various reference materials used. KEYWORDS: African primitive culture hunter gatherer societies bushmen Kung. 14 pages, 17 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 5,296 words.   $98
17378. A COMPARISON OF ETHNOLOGIC THEORIES BASED ON ANTHROPOLOGIST ELLIOT LIEBOW'S 1967 STUDY, TALLY'S CORNER: A STUDY OF NEGRO STREETCORNER MEN. This paper draws on anthropologist Elliot Liebow's 1967 study, Tally's Corner: a Study of Negro Streetcorner Men, as a basis to compare and contrast some ethnographic and sociological theories about poverty and about how the poor feel about themselves and their situation, including how the social conditions might affect their socioeconomic status. Liebow’s work is considered in light of the views of contemporary theorists such as Wilson, Wolfgang, Ferracutti and Murray. KEYWORDS: elliot liebow tallys corner streetcorner men ethnologic theory. 8 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
17327. THE NATIVE AMERICANS OF MOUNDVILLE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the society, politics, economy and culture of the indigenous peoples known as the Moundville Indians. Home to thousands of Native Americans, the site known as Moundville in central Alabama was one of the many ceremonial centers associated with the Mississippian culture, which flourished in the southeastern region of the United States between 750 AD and 1500 AD. This paper reviews the extant archeological literature on these mound-building societies and describes the social structure, economic life, religious beliefs, agriculture, and structures of everyday life of the Moundville Indians who reached the peak of their influence between 1200-1500. KEYWORDS: American Indians mound building societies. 9 pages, 37 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,160 words.   $63
17233. "AKE: THE YEARS OF CHILDHOOD" BY WOLE SOYINKA (BOOK REVIEW). This paper discusses how Soyinka’s autobiographical work represents the impact of colonial modernism on the Yoruba society of Nigeria. Religious beliefs, technology, and changes in culture and consumption are described. Keywords: Yoruba Nigeria society. 7 pages; 17 footnotes; 1 bibliographic sources. 1,612 words.   $49
17230. "THE WOMAN WITH THE ZEBRA'S PENIS" BY CAMILLA POWER AND IAN WATTS. This article, which appeared in a 1997 issue of the “Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute” is concerned with “symbolic gender reversals” in the initiation rituals of two African tribes (the Khoisan and the Hadza). This paper discusses how the finding in the article relate to established anthropological theories, and it disputes the “sex-strike” theory used by the article’s authors. Keywords: anthropology initiation rites gender African tribes. 6 pages; 6 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,443 words.   $42
17166. THE "COMMON CULTURE" OF YOUTH. This essay explores the concept of youth and identity formation with reference to social differentiation in terms of race, ethnicity, class, gender, age, and locality. The analysis considers to what extent and in what sense there exists a ‘common culture’ of youth. It is argued that there is a common culture of youth. It is argued that there is a common culture of youth in the sense that youths of various ages, gender, ethnic, racial and geographic backgrounds make use of similar modes of cultural expression (e.g. music, dress, etc.), although the specifics of this expression are influenced by race, ethnicity, gender, age, and locality. It is further argued that young people use culture to create and define their identities. 25 pages; 62 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 6,493 words.   $133
17121. HOFESTEDE ON CHINESE AND AMERICAN VALUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT. This paper discusses and analyzes Geert Hofstede’s value dimensions of national culture within the context of two different national cultures: Chinese and American. The analysis compares and contrasts the dominant cultural values of each within the framework of Hofstede’s original four dimensions – power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, and masculinity-femininity – and within the framework of his subsequently identified fifth dimension: long-term orientation, also labeled Confucian Dynamism. Following a brief overview of Hofstede’s research, the analysis compares and contrasts American and Chinese culture across the five dimensions and considers the implications for management. 10 pages; 34 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 2,385 words.   $70
17112. DISEASE AND DEMOGRAPHY: WEST NILE VIRUS AND MALARIA IN THE U.S. This paper provides an anthropological overview of the arrival of West Nile Virus (WNV) and malaria in the United States, focusing on the Washington, D.C. area. The analysis describes the facts surrounding the arrival of these diseases; discusses the demographics; considers how they are spread and identifies people at risk in the area; reviews the efforts to stop the spread of the diseases; and makes suggestions on future actions aimed at controlling the diseases. Keywords: mosquitoes disease malaria West Nile US. 9 pages; 23 footnotes; 16 bibliographic sources. 2,401 words.   $63
15878. ARCHAELOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT PETRA. This paper examines the evidence from the excavations at Petra regarding the roles played by hydraulic systems and trade in the success of the Nabataeans, who occupied the site from the 6th century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D. The data are interpreted in accordance with the cultural materialist approach. Includes an annotated bibliography. 11 pages; 34 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 3,539 words.   $77
15863. PYRAMIDS IN PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA, EGYPT, AND MESOPOTAMIA. This paper compares the pyramidal structures in these three cultures and argues that, in terms of architectural features and ritual functions, the Pre-Columbian pyramids have more in common with the Mesopotamian ziggurats than with the Egyptian pyramids. 13 pages; 24 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $91
15766. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: THE CULTURAL CONTEXT. This paper focuses on a particular aspect of the cultural context of discourse: discourses of the Self (e.g., self-identity) and discourses of Other (which label or describe the out-group, discourses representing resistance against or oppression of the other, etc.) among cultural minorities and dominant groups. Through a review of the current literature on the cultural context of discourse analysis, this investigation explores how ethnic/cultural/linguistic minorities define self-identity through discourse; how minorities employ discourse as a strategy of cultural resistance; how dominant groups use discourse to define their own identities and to re-define those of minorities; and how discourses are used as tools of oppression and reinforcers of stereotypes. Five appendices provide detailed examples of linguistic/culturally-specific assessments.KEYWORDS: language culture discourse analysis linquistics communications stereotypes. 15 pages, 41 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources. 5,345 words.   $105
15739. POWER AND CULTURES. Using American and Japanese cultures as opposing examples, this paper discusses the role of power in cultural understanding and expression. For example, Americans tend to be more individualistic, egalitarian, low-context and confrontational than Japanese people. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $49
15724. AMERINDIANS IN ARGENTINA. This paper examines the fact that only about one percent of the current total population of Argentina consists of Amerindians. This is attributed to harsh and uncaring treatment on the part of European explorers and settlers in the early history of the nation. Various factors are discussed, including forced labor, the introduction of new diseases, the mass immigration of Europeans, and the late 19th Century campaign to eliminate Amerindians in the pampas region. 11 pages, 36 footnotes in text, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
15722. GOODS, POWER, HISTORY (ARNOLD J. BAUER). A discussion of Bauer's study of the "material culture" of Latin America throughout its history. It is argued that Bauer is inconclusive on the extent to which the "material culture" is "manufactured" (imposed by outside forces) or "genuine" (accepted by the people). Despite Bauer's equivocal stance, it is concluded that the "material culture" of Latin America is more "manufactured" than "genuine." 13 pages, 26 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $91
15721. GOODS, POWER, HISTORY (ARNOLD J. BAUER). A discussion of Bauer's study of the "material culture" of Latin America throughout its history. It is argued that Bauer is inconclusive on the extent to which the "material culture" is "manufactured" (imposed by outside forces) or "genuine" (accepted by the people). Despite Bauer's equivocal stance, it is concluded that the "material culture" of Latin America is more "manufactured" than "genuine." 11 pages, 26 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $77
15718. CULTURE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE 20TH CENTURY. This paper discusses the role played by culture in economic and political development, and in such things as local resistance, views on human rights, the influence of religion, and gender inequalities. It is argued that all of these factors are interconnected and that there is a need to work on all of them in order for development to be attained. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
15643. LANGUAGE SHIFT AND LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE AND IDENTITY. This investigation examines the variables associated with language shift and language maintenance, and the relationship between language maintenance and cultural identity among language-minority groups in the United States and elsewhere. The review suggests that socioeconomic and pragmatic considerations are paramount in driving language shift, although dominant culture values which stress the ideal of cultural assimilation and by implication, the superiority of the dominant language encourage shift, both directly and indirectly. This review suggests that the language-cultural identity link is not consistent across groups. In some groups, language is intrinsically linked to ethnic culture and the loss of language is associated with a similar loss of other cultural markers. In other groups, however, strong cultural identity is maintained even in the face of the loss of native language. KEYWORDS: language shift linguistics cultural identity languages ethnicity language minorities us. APA Style. 16 pages, 35 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 4,254 words.   $112
15604. CULTURAL RELATIVISM. The anthropological view of cultural relativism has been interpreted as meaning that the moral decision of people of different cultures or viewpoints should not be judged. This paper argues that there are problems with this claim, and that ambiguity in moral issues has a negative impact on society as a whole. Instead, there is a need for a universal approach to morality, based on the common moral basis that unite all people. 8 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
15581. FREEDOM IN FULANI SOCIAL LIFE (RIESMAN) AND VEILED SENTIMENTS (ABU-LUGHOD). In both of these ethnographic studies, the researchers lived among the people they were studying, and both researchers incorporated their own perspectives and experiences into their methodologies. It is argued that, of the two, Abu-Lughod was more successful in absorbing herself into the culture she studied; as a result, her work is more engaging and provides deeper insights. 13 pages, 34 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $91
15563. MARRIAGE IN ISLAM AND THE WEST. Both cultures view marriage as important to the social order, forbid marriage between blood relations, and advocate similar sex roles for husbands and wives. However, Islam places more emphasis on spirituality and the control of sexuality in marriage than is found among the often-secularized views of the West. It is also argued that many of the elements of Islamic marriage regarded as "bad" by Westerners are due to patriarchal traditions, not to Islamic beliefs themselves. 11 pages, 25 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
15547. IN THE LAND OF GOD AND MAN (SILVANA PATERNOSTRO). Review of book on the threat of the spreads of AIDS among Latin American women, which the author argues is related to the extramarital affairs of "macho" husbands. Criticizes the author's use of "emotionalized" language, but otherwise finds the book useful because it provokes debate on an important health risk issue. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
15542. DEBATE OVER THE ORIGINS OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. In regard to the prehistoric decline of the Neanderthal and the rise of modern humans, this paper compares the "multi-regional" theory (modern man arose in various parts of the world) with the "Out of Africa" theory (modern man arose in a single location). Both sides of the debate are discussed, and it is noted that the issue remains unresolved because of a lack of conclusive evidence. 7 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
15458. NEANDERTHAL SUBSISTENCE BEHAVIOR. Drawing on contemporary zooarcheological and paleolithic archeological approaches, this research paper provides an overview and analysis of Neanderthal subsistence behaviors of early modern humans (i.e. anatomically modern Homo sapiens). The essay considers the influence of geography and examines some of the possible reasons for different subsistence strategies among Neanderthals versus early modern humans (e.g., tool technology, hunting strategies, food processing capabilities, etc.). KEYWORDS: neanderthal man subsistence feeding hunting tool use term paper. APA Style. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $84
15441. INVOLUNTARY RESETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT: CAN ANTHROPOLOGY HELP? This paper reviews the literature on the involuntary resettlement of indigenous peoples as a consequence of economic and environmental development programs (e.g., dams, urban developments, environmental protection programs, river diversions) and considers how anthropology can be used to help mitigate the negative impact of resettlement on people’s lives. Keywords: anthropology forced migration developing countries environment infrastructure. 10 pages; 19 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
15299. POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AMONG SWAT PATHANS (BARTH). Examines the use of the interactionist approach in this 1959 anthropological study, and the view that individual rational choices play a vital role in the formation of political alliances. Barth's approach can be criticized because it focuses on the actions of leaders and thus fails to give a full account of Swat Pathans; nevertheless, the study is useful for what it reveals about political leadership in the society. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $42
15246. NEANDERTHAL MAN. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of Neanderthal Man. The paper considers the time period of Neanderthal's existence, examines the ecological factors (climate, resources), depicts Neanderthal biology, anatomy and lifestyle, and considers interactions with modern man (Cro-Magnon). The essay examines some of the new findings on Neanderthal man and looks closely at the continuing controversy concerning the place of Neanderthal in human evolution. KEYWORDS: neanderthal man human evolution biology term paper. APA Style. 12 pages, 59 footnotes, 26 bibliographic references.   $84
15200. POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AMONG SWAT PATHANS (BARTH). Examines the use of the interactionist approach in this 1959 anthropological study, and the view that individual rational choices play a vital role in the formation of political alliances. Barth's approach can be criticized because it focuses on the actions of leaders and thus fails to give a full account of Swat Pathans; nevertheless, the study is useful for what it reveals about political leadership in the society. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $49
15195. GAMBLING CASINOS ON NATIVE AMERICAN RESERVATIONS. Critics claim that the casinos encourage crime, corruption, compulsive gambling, tribal divisions, and other problems. However, this paper argues for allowing casinos because they are a sovereign right and provide various economic benefits. 7 pages, 22 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $49
15165. WORLDVIEWS: CROSS-CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS OF HUMAN BELIEFS (NINIAN SMART). A review of Smart's book on the six dimensions of religion, and how they can be found to one extent or another in all of the major religions. Smart's book also considers how different worldviews have an impact on the religious beliefs of different cultures. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $49
15163. REVIEW OF BOOK: FEMINISM AND RELIGION (RITA GROSS). This paper reviews Gross's book on how feminism has changed both the practice of religion and the academic study of religion. It is argued that the author's use of survey evidence is convincing, and her views on the need for an open-minded perspective and on the "postpatriarchal future of religion" are also discussed. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $42
15161. THE DOMINANT DISCOURSE OF DEVELOPMENT ANTHROPOLOGY. In a 1991 article, Arturo Escobar argued that development anthropology is still dependent on a post-World War II discourse that supports an imperialistic Western-based world-view. This paper examines Escobar's views on this subject, as well as the views of some of his critics. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $70
15158. THE CONTROVERSY OVER WHALE SLAUGHTER. Discusses the arguments against the killing of whales (including claims that it is cruel and unnecessary, and that whales are an endangered species) and the arguments in favor of allowing it (which are mainly based on the rights of indigenous peoples and the cultural traditions of nations such as Norway and Japan). Concludes by referring to some of the proposed compromise solutions to the problem. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $49
15157. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. An overview of the civilization, including a discussion of the role of the Nile River and other natural resources. Also discusses the art and religious beliefs of the Egyptians, and notes that although a similar culture persisted throughout the civilization's 3000-year history, changes and variations can be seen as well. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $49
15100. ANTHROPOLOGY’S CONTRIBUTIONS TO DEVELOPMENT POLICY. This paper explores what contributions the discipline of anthropology can make to development policy and practice. The essay argues that anthropology in general and specific anthropological findings can and should inform both policymakers and the public in general about the course that economic development policy should take. The paper examines the difficult and problematical aspects of the relationship between anthropology and economic development and concludes with an examination of the limits that block a complete scientific understanding and guidance of the development process. KEYWORDS: anthropology economic development policy. Chicago Parenthetical Style. 10 pages, footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
15070. NATIVE AMERICANS AND ALCOHOLISM. Following a brief overview of the general population characteristics and health status of Native Americans, the analysis examines the historical and cultural roots of alcoholism in Native Americans, profiles current alcohol consumption patterns and their relation to morbidity and mortality among this group, and considers efforts to address this major health concern. KEYWORDS: american indians native americans alcohol alcoholism drinking health term paper. APA Style. 15 pages, 31 footnotes, 16 bibliographic references. 3,919 words.   $105
14099. FRENCH GASTRONOMY. Covers the history of French cooking from the Middle Ages to the present day. Includes information on noted chefs and writers, regional differences in foods and dishes, and recent trends such as nouvelle cuisine and the acceptance of international influences. 20 pages, 90 footnotes, 14 bibliographical references.   $133
14047. THE CULTURAL CONTEXT OF PERSONAL EXPRESSION. An essay in cultural anthropology discussing various cultures' approach towards and acceptance of individual expressions of sentiments which appear to contradict cultural norms. Compares the treatment of personal expression in the Tiv of West Africa, the Bedouin of Egypt, the Pygmies of the Congo, and the artist in modern Western societies. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.   $42
14046. MAGIC RITUAL IN THREE CULTURES. This term paper examines and compares magical practices and beliefs in three cultures: 1) the Nuer of Sudan, the Dobuans of the South Pacific, and the Afro-Caribbean followers of Vodou. The paper concludes that while the basic ideas behind magic are similar in the three cultures, the exact practices of magic reflect different views on the supernatural and how the world functions. KEYWORDS: supernatural comparative religion folk beliefs magic superstition nuer dobuan vodou voodoo. MLA Style. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
14032. HISTORY IN ORAL AND WRITTEN FORMS OF THE JORDANIAN BEDOUIN. This paper presents an analysis of history making in the oral and written forms of the Jordanian Bedouin as depicted by Andrew Shryock (1997) in his book, Nationalism and the Genealogical Imagination. Supporting documentation is drawn from Abu-Lughod’s (1986) study of Western Egyptian Bedouin oral lyric poetry and Khoury and Kostiner’s (1990) Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East. Shryock’s 1997 work and his interpretation of the Jordanian Bedouin’s history-making process is analyzed from the perspective of significant theorists in the field of ethnography and anthropology including Bakhtin (1986), Said (1979, 1989), Clifford, and Spivak (1988). Keywords: ethnography jordan bedouin term paper oral history. APA Style. 25 pages, 34 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $133
13983. WESTERN EXPANSION & NATIVE AMERICANS. This termpaper examines the impact of Western expansion on Native Americans during the 1890s. The essay argues that the decade that began with the conclusion of the Western frontier effected the end of the Indian frontier. Includes an analysis of the Dawes Act and the break-up of the reservations; the Ghost Dance and the massacre at Wounded Knee; and the impact of assimilationist policies such as the standardization of Indian boarding schools and the prohibitions on Indian tribal practices and rituals. KEYWORDS: native americans american indians western frontier white expansion term paper. APA Style. 20 pages, 35 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3,560 words.   $133
13871. GENDER RELATIONS AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES. An analysis in cultural anthropology which explores the relationship between the gender relations of a society and its economic organization, considering if there is a typical style corresponding to traditional versus modern societies. Examples for analysis are drawn from the Kung, Inuit, Navajo, Neur, and Divaru peoples along with others. Concludes that while there is a crude and inconsistent tendency for the relative equality between the sexes to be positively correlated with relative equality in gender-based economic contributions, these tendencies are heavily influenced by cultural beliefs and historical factors. 10 pages, 18 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $70
13848. Patterns of Culture (Ruth Benedict). This critique of the 1934 book finds that although Benedict’s claims are mostly valid, her argumentative style has many fallacies and is thus confusing to the reader. The major themes of the book (such as cultural relativity, racism, the definition of “abnormality” in societies, and the role of culture in determining behavior) are also discussed. 5 pages, 16footnotes,1bibliography.   $35
13844. RACE AND INTELLIGENCE. Traces the history and current controversies surrounding the purported racially-based differences in intelligence and aptitude. Describes the historical development of the concept of race and the evolution of Social Darwinism and its dogma on racially-based differences. Considers current theories about race and intelligence as developed by Jensen and others. Concludes that race cannot be linked to intelligence tests because race is not a valid scientific, genetic or biological concept. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $49
13832. JUDAISM AND ISLAM ON POLYGAMY. Explores the history and meaning of polygamy in Judaism and Islam, comparing and contrasting its legal and social acceptance in the two faiths. Argues that while polygamy remains more tolerated among some modern Muslim groups than among modern Jews, the two religions share a common biblical heritage with regard to marriage and polygamy. 15 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $105
13802. THE THREE UNIVERSAL ARCHETYPES: ROMAN, JEWISH, GREEK. A brief essay explicating three universal archetypes: 1) the Roman culture of the will; 2) the Greek culture of the mind; and 3) the Jewish culture of the heart. Considers the legacy of each archetype in terms of its influence on Western society, philosophy and religion. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $42
13767. ARCHETYPES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO WESTERN CULTURE. Explores the contribution of each of the three basic cultural archetypes to the rise of Christian civilization in Europe. Argues that the Roman culture of will is the most important influence, although both the Greek culture of mind and the Jewish culture of heart make important contributions. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $42
13668. AZTEC CULTURE: SOCIAL HIERARCHY AND RELIGION. Examines the relationship between the hierarchical social and economic structure of Aztec society, the social and functional structure of the Aztec system of the deities, and the larger cosmological view which was reflected in those structures. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
13663. ASIAN-AMERICAN CULTURE. A brief essay examining the culture, history and values of Asian-American immigrants and their progeny. Considers the heterogeneity of the Asian-American category and the tendency to assume cultural homogeneity among this immigrant group. Profiles family values, educational achievement, and political participation among Asian-Americans. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
13645. ARTICLE REVIEW: "STEEL AXES FOR STONE AGE AUSTRALIANS" BY LAURISTON SHARP. Critical review and analysis of this 1952 anthropology article in which the author takes a functional perspective on the changes wrought by the introduction of European-made steel axes into the social technology of an aboriginal tribe of Cape York Peninsula in Australia. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
13612. THE ARCHITECTURE OF PRE-COLUMBIAN MEXICO. A particular style, which was influenced by religious beliefs, can be seen in the ceremonial centers of the Olmec, Maya, Toltec and Aztec cultures. This paper discusses both monumental works and residences, and covers such topics as city organization and wall decorations. In addition, examples are drawn from various sites throughout the region. 16 pages, 72 footnotes in text, 10 bibliographic sources.   $112
13607. THE CULTURE OF INDIA. Focuses on the diversity of religious beliefs and language in the country, as well as the importance of social and gender roles. In addition, the concluding paragraph gives some views on what people should know when they travel to India to do business. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $42
13591. NEO-CLASSICISM AND MARXISM IN ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY. Examines the merits and limitations of these two theoretical approaches. In the conclusion, it is suggested that the best way to analyze the economics of differing cultures is through merging the ideas of both approaches. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $63
13570. NATIVE ANTHROPOLOGY. Considers the view that ethnographic research is best done by the “insiders” of a given culture. Concludes that insider views are important not only because they are better but because they supplement the views of outsider anthropologists. 8 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $56
13569. CAPITALISM, PATRIARCHY AND GENDER RELATIONS. Discusses feminist and anthropological theories on this subject and concludes that, despite the controversies, the concepts of patriarchy and capitalism are at least helpful in explaining the origins of gender inequalities. 8 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $56
13565. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN SOCIAL DISTANCE: ARABS AND AMERICANS. Drawing on Edward Hall's 1959 theory of social relations based on proxemics (the structure of personal space), this paper explores the differences between the non-verbal and social behaviors of Arabs and Americans, to see how Hall's theory has faired over the quarter-century in which relations between the two groups have greatly increased. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $42
13545. NATIVE AMERICAN INFLUENCES ON U.S. POLITICS. How the Iroquois Confederacy and similar groups influenced the founding fathers and thus U.S. politics as practiced today. Includes such concepts as the unity of states under a federal government, representative government, the use of compromises, and the power to impeach, among others. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
13527. THE ENDURING LEGACY OF CHINESE CULTURAL NORMS. The focus of this paper is on the continuing influence of traditional Chinese cultural and social norms in the day-to-day activities of Chinese business and economics. The first section examines the role of guanxi (art of relationships) in contemporary Chinese society within the PRC. The second section looks at the influence of Chinese cultural values in Taiwan (the ROC), with particular attention to the apparent contradiction between those who claim that "Chinese culture" has been a catalyst for economic development in Taiwan and elsewhere, and those who, citing China itself, see "Chinese culture" in Weberian terms as an impediment to economic progress. KEYWORDS: China Taiwan culture economic development term paper. APA Style. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $84
13485. ETHNIC MUTILATION AND RITUAL SCARIFICATION. Analyzes what practices such as scarification, neck stretching, genital mutilation and footbinding tell us about cultural constructions of beauty and ethnic identity. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
13467. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOTEM POLES AND SHAMANISM. Discusses how the totem poles of the Pacific Northwest Indians were derived from a shamanic worldview, as well as the ways in which shamans were depicted on poles or involved in making them. Also draws parallels between shamanic initiations and the ceremonies relating to totem animals. 12 pages, 44 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $84
13403. THE HISTORY OF WINE. Traces the history of wine production and consumption from earliest times to the present day. Includes the development of wine in France, Italy, Germany, and America, and covers such topics as the 19th century blight and the impact of Prohibition. 11 pages, 45 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
13368. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES ON TOTEMISM. A brief overview and analysis of totemism. Defines and presents clear examples of totemism, discusses some prominent anthropologists' objectives to the concept of totemism, and places totemism within the context of modern anthropological thinking. 6 pages, 23 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
13367. THE SPIRIT OF RATIONALISM AND THE GREAT TRANSITION. A brief essay which addresses the question, "What was the Great Transition that instigated what we now call modern society?" Argues that the central, catalytic theme within the Industrial Revolution expounded by Schumpeter, Boulding, Desai, O'Connell and others. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $42
13357. COMMUNITY AND REVOLUTION: THE CASE OF ANDEAN VILLAGE LIFE, 1980-1995. Drawing on Meyerson's literary-anthropological portrait (Tambo: Life in an Andean Village) as well as the recent scholarly literature, this paper investigates the effects of Peru's political turmoil between 1980 and 1995 on the life of the Andean villagers, focusing on the political adjustments to Peru's Sendero Luminoso rebellion, as well as other socioeconomic effects of Peru's turmoil on the average villager. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
13327. HUNTER-GATHERER SOCIAL STRUCTURES. The paper describes the main features of hunter-gatherer social structures and considers to what extent they are a response to social pressures versus natural pressures. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
13326. IS HETEROSEXUALITY GENETICALLY ENGINEERED. Considers whether or not humans are 'genetically engineered' to form heterosexual bonds based on the evidence of chimpanzees. Drawing on the sociobiological and primatology literature, argues that despite genetic influences, heterosexual bonding is primarily a process of enculturation. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $42
13186. REACTIONS OF WOMEN TO PATRIARCHY IN NON-WESTERN SOCIETIES. Anthropological study based on the view that sexuality is "socially constructed." Examines sexual and marital alternatives in various countries in order to show that a wide range of attitudes and norms exist in these areas. 10 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
13175. VARIETIES OF SELF: ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE AGE OF UNCERTAINTY. Well-informed summary of the development of a 'feminist' school in anthropology, its relation to other critical movements in social science, and the question of objectivity/subjectivity in fieldwork. Includes the "first wave" of feminism in anthropology in the 1800's, the modern movement of feminism in anthro since 1971, growth of doubt that the fieldworker can ever be "neutral," similarities and conflicts between feminist school and the self-consciously "post-modern" school that peaked in the late 1980's, and a survey of recent attitudes toward and treatments of the objectivity/subjectivity problem in fieldwork. 9 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
13151. THE AMISH. Discusses the origins of the sect in the sixteenth century, and its subsequent migration to America. Also discusses the unique beliefs and lifestyle of the Amish, as well as such controversies as the group's refusal to fight in wars, and its rejection of the public school education system. 11 pages, 38 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
13138. ASIAN VALUES & THE ASIAN BUSINESS STYLE. Presents an overview of key elements in Asian business style and culture among those Asian nations heavily influenced by Confucianism, particularly China and expatriate Chinese businesses in Southeast Asia. Includes an overview of the cultural foundations of business organization in Chinese-dominated or influenced Asian nations as explained by Geert Hofstede (1985, 1991). Subsequent sections examine the dominance of the family business structure and the role and importance of 'relationships' and 'connections' in Asian business practices.. A concluding section briefly takes up the issue of whether "Asian values" can reasonably be held at all accountable for either the Asian economic miracle of the 1970s and 1980s or the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. 14 pages, 38 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $98
13090. CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN HEALTH CARE: THE NATIVE AMERICAN. To illustrate the importance of cultural sensitivity in health care interactions, this paper provides an overview of Native American approaches and beliefs about health and illness. Some of the major questions considered in this investigation include the following: How do Native Americans view health and illness? How do Native American healing practices differ from those of the dominant culture? Do Native Americans have any special health care concerns relating to their culture or lifestyle? The starting point for this overview was an interview with a Native American man. The interview material is supplemented by and supported with information drawn from a review of scholarly literature on Native American health systems. 12 pages, 22 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $84
12633. CULTURE AND INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK. This investigation presents an overview of the interaction between culture and management around the globe. In addition to defining culture and identifying some of the major culturally-bound variables of management style, the analysis considers some of the main approaches - and the problems therein - to studying culture in comparative management. KEYWORDS: globalization culture management international managers cultural factors global business. APA Style. 10 pages, 41 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $70
12615. IN-GROUP VS. OUT-GROUP DISTINCTIONS IN COLLECTIVIST CULTURES. Implications for International Business. This paper provides a close focus on Hofstede's (1991) observation that "the distinction between in-group and out-groups which is so essential in the collectivist culture pattern has far-reaching consequences for business relationships, beyond those between employers and employees" (p. 66). Following an overview of Hofstede's (1991) individualist-collectivist dimension of culture and a more detailed discussion of its implications for the in-group versus out-group distinction, the analysis examines the consequences of the collectivist cultures' treatment of in- and out-groups for international business relationships, looking specifically at its impact on inter- and extra-firm negotiations, organizational structures, and HRM (human resources management) structures and processes. 15 pages, 51 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $105
12603. HUMAN ANIMAL TRANSFORMATION IN MYTH AND FAIRY TALE. Looks at the different treatments of human-animal metamorphoses, focusing on European folk tales. The animal bridegroom cycle, the discovery of the lost spouse, siblings, parents or children, and aspects of sexual and psychological revelation in the myths are examined. 8 pages, 12 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $56
12352. THE IMPORTANCE OF BEES TO HUMAN LIFE. Discusses the different types of bees and their way of life, as well as covering the history of the development of innovations in beekeeping. Also considers the benefits of honey and other products, and contrasts these with such threats as stings and killer bees. In addition, the paper describes the recent decline in the domestic bee population and the search for solutions to this problem. 11 pages, 45 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
12351. WHAT HAPPENED TO THE CLASSIC MAYA? Solid overview of the Classic Maya civilization and the mystery of its disappearance around 800-900 AD. Includes origins of Maya civilization from 1000 B.C. and summary of its culture, thorough review of the 1990's scholarly debate on the nature of Mayan government (separate city-states or regional alliances?) and nature of Mayan warfare (single combat of elite warriors or resource aggrandizement?) and problems of translating Mayan glyphs, the enigmatic evidence on disappearance and possible theories: drought, political collapse, conquest by new social system at Chichen Itza and their Mexican allies, or evolutionary transformation. 12p., 17b., 36 notes in text.   $84
12350. THE TRANSFORMATION OF A SYMBOL: THE SWASTIKA. Calm, thorough discussion of how the swastika went from an innocent 10,000 year history as a decorative motif to a device contaminated by Nazi associations for generations to come. Includes examples of earliest knows swastikas in ancient artifact, design variations, attempts (all unsuccessful) to prove a specific meaning for the ancient swastika, summary of work of 19th Century ethnographers on swastika, role of Schliemann, Burnouf and Zmigrodski in linking swastika to late 19th Cent. German anti-Semitism, beginnings of the Nazis, Hitler's personal role in defining and designing swastika as THE central symbol of Nazism. 12p., 5b., 35 notes in text.   $84
12155. "DUST TRACKS ON A ROAD" BY ZORA NEAL HURSTON (BOOK REVIEW). This paper presents a favorable review of the African-American anthropologist/novelist's 1941 autobiography. Argues that Hurston's method of self-examination created a work that is essentially an autobiography of her artistic self. Refutes Maya Angelou's contention that Hurston neglected issues of racial conflict. Keywords: race relations famous black women. 7 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. Notes in text.   $49
12105. NISA: THE LIFE AND WORDS OF A !KUNG WOMAN BY MARJORIE SHOSTAK. Critique of the 1981 anthropological study of the !Kung San, a group of people living in the Kalahari Desert. Particularly emphasizes the perspective of the women in the society. Concludes that the book is informative and deals with issues all people can relate to. 6 pages, 32 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
12000. THE NUER (1940) BY E.E. EVANS-PRITCHARD AND THE NUER CONQUEST (1985) BY RAYMOND C. KELLY. Compares and contrasts these two works on why the African Nuer tribe expanded its territorial size during the 19th century. The argument that the expansion was caused by overpopulation and political divisions (Evans-Prichard) is contrasted with the idea that a cattle economy required the Nuer to seek out more land (Kelly). 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
11925. EVOLUTION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR. A brief overview of evolutionary psychology, one of the most rapidly developing and controversial subdisciplines within the field of evolutionary biology. Following an overview of the history of its development, and a discussion of the major assumptions of the discipline, the analysis briefly considers major areas of application. 6 pages, 26 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $42
11801. THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF THE OJIBWA. This paper describes the early migration of the Ojibwa, the first interaction between the Ojibwa and European settlers, the economic decline of the Ojibwa in modern America, and present remnants of Ojibwa culture. 7 pages, 4 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $49
11800. CULINARY PATTERNS IN THE SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE NEW WORLD. Explores the clash in diets between Spanish explorers and native "Indians". Argues that these Indians incorporated aspects of the Spanish diet, like pork, while retaining their own cuisine. Also explores the exportation of maize and cacao from the New World to the Old World. 12 pages, 19 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $84
11701. THE FUSS OVER LUCY: SCIENTIFIC CONTROVERSY AND THE PRIMITIVE HOMIND AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFARENSIS. Discusses and analyzes the A. afarensis discovery represented by Lucy and her fossil hominid "relatives" found in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. The analysis looks closely at the scientific debate surrounding the discoveries and Johanson's claims, considering them also in light of recent new fossil hominid discoveries. 18 pages, 36 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.   $126
11694. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS AND TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES. See Section 7D. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $70
11694. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS AND TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES. Drawing on Braudel's The Wheels of Commerce and Heilbroner's The Making of Economic Society, the paper investigates the question: "Could the Industrial Revolution have occurred in a traditional (pre-capitalist) society? Why or why not?" Concludes that a traditional society could not have produced an Industrial Revolution, because of its dependence on many different economic and social circumstances linked to capitalist societies. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $70
11501. EMOTION IN THE WORK OF OBEYESKEERE AND LUTZ. Thorough comparison of the treatment of human emotion in the work of two anthropologists studying non-Western cultures; Obeyeskere constructs an elaborate theoretical framework contrasting two types of guilt with same as social controls in his study of Sinhalese ascetics, while Lutz takes a more basic, observational approach in showing how cultural norms create two completely different sets of values and norms for emotional expression, comparing the Ifaluk of Micronesia with modern America. 9 pages, 21 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $63
11500. WHAT IS SOCIOBOLOGY? Provocative review of an article by Sociobiology founder E.O. Wilson. Criticizes Wilson's ability to explain his theory, contrasts his basic thrust that human behavior is genetically determined with his many apologies that the details of culture cannot be genetically determined. Attempts to apply his abstract pronouncements to concrete examples of animal and human behavior show that Wilson cannot say anything meaningful to add to the existing discussions on human ethics, meanings and motivations. 8p. Notes in Text, 1b.   $56
11153. THE TRICKSTER IN NATIVE AMERICAN MYTHOLOGY. Examines the origins, core myth, and numerous variants of the Trickster in the myths, tales and religion of Native American peoples. Stories of Coyote, Raven, Hare, First Man and other versions of the Trickster creator myth are examined in detail. 23 pages, 27 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
11152. PEYOTE IN NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGION. Examines the origins, history and rituals of the peyote cult, distinguishing between the ancient peyote practices of the Mexican Indians and the modern-day revival of peyotism among the indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. Rituals, symbols and rules of the practice are described in detail. 20 pages, 31 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
11140. AFRICAN WILDLIFE RESERVES VS. TRIBAL TERRITORIAL RIGHTS. Discusses the effect of the Kenyan Maasai Mara game Reserve on the Maasai population. Presents history of Maasai (hunters and nomadic cattle herders) and the development of African wildlife preserves. Considers the impact of growing population and concurrent agricultural demands, tourism, and new data establishing the Maasai's lifestyle as environmentally sound. Concludes the best solution is to allow Maasai more grazing land, even on the game preserve. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $91
11127. SIR WALTER RALEGH'S "NATURE, THAT WASHED HER HANDS IN MILK" AND SIR PHILIP SIDNEY'S "THOU BLIND MAN'S MARK." Compares the Native and Petrarchan traditions in English verse. Demonstrates Ralegh's clear development of a topic and Sidney's concentration of various nuances of a single idea. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
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