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6B. PENOLOGY AND POLICE SCIENCE

How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
 
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15011. The Case for Racial Profiling. This paper takes the controversial position that racial profiling – defined as the law enforcement practice of using race as one factor (but not the only factor) in the decision of whether to target an individual for a stop or investigation – has an acceptable and necessary place in American law enforcement. Following a brief overview of the current racial profiling controversy, this analysis presents an empirical and a legal argument in favor of the use of racial profiling. It is argued that racial profiling is empirically justified based on crime statistics showing the greater involvement of members of certain racial and ethnic groups in specific crimes. Based on a review of recent U.S. Supreme Court and U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rulings, it is further argued that the judicious use of racial profiling by law enforcement agencies is legally defensible against both Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment claims. KEYWORDS: racial profiling police practices argumentative essay. APA Style. 14 pages, 53 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources. 4,326 words.   $98
 
15009. Tv Violence & Children. This paper examines the problem of television violence and its effect on young viewers. Following a breif overview of the current scope and distribution of violence on television, the investigation details what researchers have identified as the three potential primary negative effects of increased aggression, desensitization, and fear. The major theoretical models (social learning theory, priming, social development) explaining the transmission of these effects are outlined. Included is a critique of the argument that the viewing of violent TV contributes to violence in society. The analysis also examines the social, environmental, and contextual factors which influence the distribution of these negative effects. A concluding section considers the policy implications of the research. KEYWORDS: tv violence child development aggression term paper. APA Style. 16 pages, 87 footnotes, 39 bibliographical sources. 6,165 words.   $112
 
15005. The Causes of Crime. Looking at both classical and contemporary theories, the analysis summarizes the major theories of criminal causation, beginning with early "spiritual" explanations for crime and extending through the classical school, the positivist school, and to contemporary environmentalist, individualist, and integrative theories on criminal behavior. Included among the specific theories considered are biological theory, strain theory, subcultural deviance theory, social learning theory, control theory, conflict theory, labeling theory, the theory of differential association, and biosocial theory. An emphasis is placed upon those theories which have been particularly influential in the United States. 24 pages, 115 footnotes, 44 bibliographic references.   $133
 
15004. Police Brutality. This term paper presents a survey and analysis of police brutality in the United States. Includes a close focus on recent brutality scandals in the NYPD and LAPD. Examines some of the common themes in police brutality cases, considering the role of racism, excessive restraints, and other factors. Identifies impediments to addressing the problem, including the “blue wall of silence” amongst officers and the lack of transparency and public disclosure in investigations. Makes recommendations for change. KEYWORDS: police brutality blue wall police community relations essay. APA Style. 15 pages, 62 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources. 5,500 words.   $105
 
14703. Women in British Prisons in the 19th and 20th Centuries. This paper provides a critical overview and analysis of women’s imprisonment in Great Britain during the 19th and 20th centuries. The first section provides a brief background on the history of women’s imprisonment in Great Britain and looks at women’s imprisonment during the first half of the 19th century. The second section, covering the period 1850-1895, looks at women’s imprisonment in Britain during the consolidation and centralization of the system and the shift to a highly punitive model. The third section, covering the period 1895-1960, reviews the gradual establishment of the 20th century model of rehabilitation. The fourth section covers the period from 1960 up to the present-day and considers important recent trends and shifts in women’s imprisonment, including the emphasis on the medical/psychiatric model, the increase in the number of female prisoners, and the changing demographics of women prisoners in Great Britain. KEYWORDS: women’s imprisonment women prisons Britain history female prisoners uk. APA Style. 32 pages, 154 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 9,700 words.   $133
 
14104. Medical Marijuana Controversy. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the legal, medical and ethical aspects of the current medical marijuana controversy in the United States. Following a history of marijuana and an overview of U.S. policy towards medical marijuana, the analysis examines the medical case for and against the use of medical marijuana, looking at the pharmacology of the drug, the proposed and established medical uses for marijuana, and the short- and long-term consequences of marijuana use. The essay concludes with a summary of the findings and a set of recommendations for policy change and future scientific research on this controversial issue. KEYWORDS: medicinal marijuana term paper medical uses cannabis. APA Style. 15 pages, 46 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references. 5,195 words.   $105
 
14083. Death Penalty in the United Kingdom. Argues that the death penalty, abolished in the 1960s, was eliminated because of the will of politicians rather than the will of the British public. The discussion includes reference to opinion polls, the workings of the British political system, and international pressures. 16 pages, 47 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $112
 
14078. Differential Association Theory and School Violence. This research paper applies Sutherland's theory to the idea that school violence is caused by peer pressure and related factors. It is also argued that the theory helps explain gender differences in juvenile violence, and some suggestions for alleviating school violence are considered. 20 pages, 26 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.
RELATED PAPERS

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TAGS: juvenile delinquency theory crime theory differential association social learning labeling gangs youth violence school violence criminality delinquents crime causation.

  $133
 
14060. Police Recruitment, Selection & Training. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the issues surrounding the recruitment, selection and training of police officers in the U. S. Among the issues considered in this analysis are affirmative action policies and their impact on police section, the procedures used for officer selection, gender issues, and trends and issues in training. KEWORDS: police recruitment training term paper. APA Style. 20 pages, 52 footnotes, and 36 bibliographical references. 4,709 words.   $133
 
14037. Police Corruption. This termpaper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of police corruption in the United States. Following a survey of corruption scandals across the country (including the LAPD’s Ramparts scandal), the analysis summarizes the common themes in the corruption scandals, discusses the nexus between police corruption and brutality, considers the major factors which contribute to the problem, and looks at some of the recommendations for addressing the problem. KEYWORDS: police corruption brutality corrupt officers LAPD NYPD scandals. APA Style. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 4,166 words.   $84
 
14016. Plea Bargaining. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of plea bargaining in the U. S. criminal justice system. Discusses the forms and processes of plea bargaining, traces its origin and history, outlines the current scope of the practice, and presents the arguments in favor and against the continuance of the practice. Reviews attempts at reforming and/or curtailing plea bargaining and considers the impact of Supreme Court decisions, mandatory minimums and sentencing guidelines. Concludes that plea bargaining is here to stay as the dominant method for disposing of criminal cases. KEYWORDS: plea bargains criminal justice term paper. APA Style. 21 pages, 46 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 5,748 words.   $133
 
13972. Biological Basis of Rape. This research paper, which provides an overview and analysis of rape and rapists, utilizes a review of recent scholarly literature to test the hypothesis that rape has a genetic/biological basis. The paper focuses on the rapist and on rape behavior versus the rape victim and the consequences of rape. Included is an analysis and discussion of alternative hypotheses explaining the etiology of rape, such as psychological, personality, environmental and cultural causes as well as an overview of the varieties of rape. The essay concludes that rapists are a heterogeneous group and that while genetic/biological factors constitute a contributory factor in certain rape subcategories, the etiology of rape can best be conceptualized within a multi-factorial model which considers the varying contributions of biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. KEYWORDS: rape rapists sex offenders causes biology term paper. APA Style. 54 pages, 169 footnotes, 60 bibliographic sources. 14,550 words.   $133
 
13953. Organized Crime in Albania. Argues that organized crime has increased as a result of the nation’s poverty and the failure of the government to take effective action. Included in the discussion are such activities as drug trafficking, stolen car rings, the smuggling of refugees, and pyramid schemes. 12 pages, 38 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $84
 
13949. American Police Administration by Elmer Graper. Review of Graper's 1921 book on the police administration of the time and ways to improve it. Although the book is no longer practical as a police manual, it gives useful historical information on the development of police science. Topics discussed include the use of force, the role of policewomen, officer training, and dealing with juvenile offenders. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliography.   $42
 
13842. The Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel and the Public Defender. Using some of the ideas and arguments expressed on a "Talk of the Nation" public affairs radio broadcast, this paper analyzes problems in the public defender system and considers the degree to which inadequacies in the public defender system deny indigent defendants' their Sixth Amendment right to counsel as provided in Wainwright and Miranda. 10 pages, 3 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13818. Criminal Justice Ethics: Probation and Parole Officers. An overview and analysis of the standards and codes of ethics applied to probation and parole officers. Considers the officers' obligation to remain immune to corrupt influences along with basic ethical considerations such as client confidentiality, ethical conduct, and professional standards of negligence and liability. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
13801. Drugs Should Be Legalized. Argues in favor of the legalization of all currently illegal drugs as controlled substances. Offers three main arguments for legalization: 1) the supply of illegal drugs and the demand for them can never be stopped; 2) law enforcement and social service systems cannot cope with the problems of underground drug use; and 3) the social and medical costs of continuing the 'war on drugs' far outweighs the potential risks of legalizing and controlling drugs. 7 pages, 3 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
13576. Heroin Dependency. A review and analysis of the problem of heroin dependency. Defines Heroin addiction, describes its signs and symptoms, discusses its consequences for the individual and society; analyzes the physiological, psychological, and sociological factors underlying its causation; and profiles traditional (methadone maintenance) and alternative treatment approaches. Concludes that political factors and discriminatory attitudes towards addicts have precluded the widespread implementation of effective treatment programs. 17 pages, 38 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
13477. Police in Urban America, 1860-1920 (E. H. Monkkonen). Review of book and its argument that the shift in police role from class control to crime control was linked to the bureaucratization of cities. Although the author's conclusions are intriguing, the paper criticizes his use of labeling theory and his view that the changes were "unfortunate." 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
13476. The Police and Modern Society (A. Vollmer). Summary and review of 1936 book. Although some of the views are dated, and the author has a pro-police view that blames society for crime, he also provides insights into issues that still exist today, such as deterrence and drug prohibition. 5 pages, 19 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
13465. The Russian Mafia. Discusses the extent of the organized crime problem in Russia, as well as the difficulties in overcoming it. Also considers how the problem is related to the current economic crisis in the country. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
13425. Juries and Their Impact on the American Justice System. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the impact of juries on the American justice system. The process by which juries render verdicts and exert influence on the justice system is considered from the perspective of communication theory. The analysis and discussion of civil juries will focus particularly on issues related to jury competence in weighing facts and evidence as well as the issue of bias in the determination of monetary awards, while the analysis of criminal juries will focus especially on issues of jury representation, discrimination/bias, and jury nullification. 16 pages, 47 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
13391. The Use of Closed Circuit Tv for Monitoring and Surveillance. Covers the arguments for and against the use of CCTV. Concludes that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, and notes that the problem of violating privacy can be overcome if cameras are unhidden and kept in public work areas. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13389. Rehabilitation of Criminals and Alternatives to Incarceration. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the rehabilitative model of criminal justice and its application in terms of the use of alternatives to incarceration. The analysis begins with an overview of the rehabilitative model and societal and criminal justice attitudes towards punishment. The next section describes various types of alternative intervention programs. Following this is a review of the efficacy of these programs and recommendations of how alternatives to incarceration might be most effectively implemented. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
13314. The Effect of Deterrence on the Crime Rate. This paper reacts to the claim that the threat of punishment has caused the recent reduction in the crime rate. It is argued that deterrence is not effective in reducing crime and that the idea is based on a false assumption about human rationality. Other possible explanations for reduced crime, such as demographic changes, are also discussed. 11 pages, 38 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13304. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Emergency Management in the Aftermath of Tokyo. Focusing on biological and chemical terrorism (an analysis of preparedness for nuclear terrorist attack is excluded from this investigation), this paper considers crisis and emergency management issues. Using the Tokyo subway attack as a starting point and following an overview of the central components of biological/chemical terrorism and weaponry, the analysis examines some of the emergency/crisis management “lessons learned” from the Tokyo incident and attempts to outline an appropriate crisis management plan. 14 pages, 48 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13259. The Legalization of Heroin. Discusses the pros and cons of the issue, as well as drug toleration programs that have been tried in various countries. Concludes that harm-reduction policies are more effective than imprisonment in dealing with heroin addiction. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13233. Heroin and Crime. Examines evidence from studies showing the extent of crime and types of crimes committed. Also discusses policy implications, and argues for the allocation of treatment to those who are most likely to succeed. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13157. Community Corrections in the 1950'S. Discusses the major trends and issues in U.S. probation and parole practices at the time. Includes such topics as the need to rehabilitate offenders, the need for qualified probation and parole officers, and the need for reduced case loads. Also covers the importance of presentence investigations, public education, and other issues. 21 pages, 92 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13143. Drug Trafficking and Corruption in Mexico. Describes the extent of the problem and gives several examples of news stories that show evidence of drug corruption among Mexican officials. Discusses recent steps toward overcoming the problem, but notes that the problem is deeply entrenched because of the nation's economic difficulties. Concludes by arguing that the U.S. needs to place more emphasis on reducing the demand for drugs, rather than simply trying to cut off the supply. 21 pages, 96 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13135. Software Piracy. Examines the problem of software policy in international business. Defines the problems and its scope, looking at why software piracy has become such a problem and considering its impact on the global software industry, corporations, end users, and developing countries. Identifies and assesses options to solve the problem (considering technological, legislative, educational, management and tort approaches), selects an option, and presents a defense for this selection. Argues that solving the problem of software piracy requires a holistic approach combining technological (encryption strategies), legislative (amendments to copyright laws), and educational (awareness campaigns aimed at companies, end users, and developing countries) strategies. 20p. 134f. 51f.   $133
 
12645. Computer Crime and Business. This report provides an analysis and overview of the problem of business-based (i.e., that emanating from and targeted at businesses) computer crime in the United States. The analysis begins with an overview of the current scope of the problem, examining the frequency of occurrence, the number of businesses involved, the estimated costs of the crime, and the types of people committing these crimes. Also considered are some of the reasons behind the growth in business-based computer crime during the past few years. The next section explores the types of computer crimes, including industrial espionage, theft, fraud, piracy, and sabotage. The final section examines the scope of current efforts to protect businesses from computer crime. 12 pages, 63 footnotes, 35 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
12628. Security and Electronic Commerce. A thorough and concise overview and analysis of security issues related to electronic commerce. Reviews some of the common security concerns voiced by both Internet merchants (e.g., threats to proprietary information, corporate network, data transmission, network resources, and company reputation) and Internet users/customers (e.g., threats to privacy, financial security, etc.). Presents business security plans encompassing techniques such as encryption, firewalls, passwords, and proper configuration of systems as well as reviewing proprietary systems (e.g., SET, EFT, etc.). Argues that the lack of a coordinated institutional control over the Internet represents one of the biggest challenges to maintaining security. Predicts that as daily transactions become more secure, the risk of large-scale criminal attack will loom as the biggest concern. 14p., 38b., 8b.   $98
 
12414. Immigrant Smuggling. Discusses the factors motivation illegal immigration into the U.S., as well as the differences between Mexican "coyotes" and Chinese "snakeheads." Also covers efforts by U.S. authorities to stop immigrant smuggling. Includes outline. 11 pages, 42 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
12412. Infanticide. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of infanticide in modern developed societies (particularly the US), with a close focus on the systems of classification and widely held theories of motivation behind this crime. The paper begins with a background overview of the definitions, history and epidemiology of infanticide. Drawing upon current psychological and sociological literature, the remainder of the investigation examines some of the factors that motivate adults to kill children and infants. 13 pages, 39 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
12411. Are Prison Boot Camps an Effective Form of Incarceration? Following a review of literature on penal boot camps (tracing their history, goals, characteristics, use, evidence of effectiveness), this paper presents a research design for a study aimed at appraising the effectiveness of boot camps as an alternative to traditional incarceration. The proposed study, which compares outcomes for 500 boot camp inmates against outcomes for 500 matched controls in traditional institutions, seeks to test the hypothesis that: a) prison boot camps are a cost-effectiveness alternative to traditional incarceration; and b) prison boot camps are an effective alternative to traditional incarceration on prisoner outcome measures of recidivism and behavior change. 15 pages, 42 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
12410. Is the Federal Criminal Justice System Truly a "System?" Argues that it is a system because, although it is large, complex and fragmented, there is also coherence and cooperation between the different branches of specialization. The paper also argues that the separation of powers is a vital aspect of American politics. 8 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
12409. Helter Skelter (Bugliosi and Gentry). Review of book by prosecutor in 197 trial of Charles Manson. Discusses how the case was built, including the search for a motive and the effort to show that Manson held control over his followers. 8 pages, 15 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
 
12408. Police Incompetence and Misconduct in Criminal Trials and Investigations. Discusses how such things as failure to follow proper procedures, perjury, bribes, and sloppy lab work have a negative impact on the criminal justice system. Also discusses how such problems have surfaced in many recent high-profile cases (such as the O.J. Simpson trial and the Oklahoma City bombing, among others). 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
12407. Chiefs (Stuart Woods). Review of novel about three police chiefs in a Southern town. Covers such issues as racial problems, police administration, and how criminal investigations are carried out. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
12358. Race and the Justice System in America. This paper provides a survey and overview of the issues and evidence concerning racial bias and disparate impact in the U.S. criminal justice system. Focusing closely on black-white issues and the question of disparate impact on African Americans, the analysis looks at racial effects in policing, the pre-trial process, the jury trial, sentencing, appeals, and post-trial disposition and corrections. 18 pages, 39 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
12289. Airport Bomb Detection Technologies. Looks at the new explosive detection systems being developed; thermal neutron activation, computer imaging, and mass spectrometry technologies are described. Costs of the new CTX500 CAT system are noted. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
12178. Are Prison Boot Camps an Effective Form of Incarceration? Following a review of the literature on penal boot camps (tracing their history, goals, characteristics, use, evidence of effectiveness), this paper presents a research design for a study aimed at appraising the effectiveness of boot camps as an alternative to traditional incarceration. The proposed study, which compares outcomes for 500 boot camp inmates against outcomes for 500 match controls in traditional institutions, seeks to test the hypotheses that: a) prison boot camps are a cost-effective alternative to traditional incarceration; and b) prison boot camps are an effective alternative to traditional incarceration on prisoner outcome measures of recidivism and behavior change. Keywords: prison alternatives research design recidivism. 16 pages, 42 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
11983. The (Un) Reliability of Eyewitness Identification. This term paper reviews the major factors which tend to decrease reliability of eyewitness identifications and considers some of the steps which can be taken to increase the reliability of eyewitness identification, including efforts to limit police-based suggestion and misinformation efforts, and efforts to improve witnesses recall. APA Style. 14 pages, 37 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,207 words.

TAGS: eyewitness identification, police lineups, environmental distractions, facial recognition, memory errors, police procedures, wrongful convictions.

RELATED PAPERS

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  $98
 
11844. A Discussion of the Problems of Burglary. Researches the incidence and effects of burglary. Suggests security measures. Explores Lawrence Cohen's "Routine Activities" theory of burglary. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11843. Serial Killers. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the phenomenon of serial murder and a profile of serial killers. In examining the motivations, methodologies, personal histories and personality traits of serial killers, the initial focus is on the male serial killer. A separate section considers the special case of the female serial killer and how she differs from the male serial killer. Includes a statistical profile of serial killing in the U.S., a discussion of the "phases" of the serial kill, and a typology of serial killers. 12 pages, 32 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11842. A Critique of Criminological Theories: Introduction and Evaluation by Ronald Akers. Articulates a variety of theories found in Akers's criminological textbook. Discusses social learning theory, labeling theory, deterrence theories, rational choice theory, biological theories and others. 12 pages, 17 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $84
 
11690. Police Bicycle Patrols. An overview of the development and use of police bicycle patrols. Looks at the rationale for the use of bike patrols; the scope of current bike patrol use throughout the country; training programs, equipment requirements and cost; and the evidence for the effectiveness of police bike patrols. 10 pages, 32 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11661. The Gun Control Controversy: Arguments and Recommendations. Presents an overview of the gun control controversy, summarizing its history, and the arguments on both sides of the issue. Concludes with an argument in favor of strict gun control. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
11642. A Social-Psychological View of the o.j. Simpson Case. Applies social-psychological theories of interpersonal perception ot the case of the public's perception of O.J. Simpson's guilt or innocence. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
11611. Gay Bashing. Investigates gay bashing in contemporary American society. Following a review of trends (incidence, settings) and victim demographics, the analysis focuses on the perpetrators: their demographic composition, their modis operandi, and their motivations. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11596. An Assessment of Clinton's Latin American Drug Program. Serious look at the first two years of Clinton's proposals, through the revelation of new Colombian President Samper's links to cartels. Concludes that Clinton has not given this area of policy high priority attention. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
11528. Decriminalization Is the Best Way to Win the War on Drugs. Considers the case for the legalization or decriminalization of the commonly-used illicit substances such as marijuana, cocaine and heroin. The analysis considers the rationale behind existing laws and then makes the economic, social, historical, pragmatic and moral case for decriminalization or legalization. 10 pages, 39 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11526. l.m. Friedman's Crime and Punishment in American Society. Favorable view of this history of the American criminal justice system, which tries to see the law and its enforcement institutions in the context of larger social changes, and as an aspect of the social power of the ruling groups. Covers American law and society from the 1600s to the 1990s. 8., 1f., 1b.   $56
 
11521. Addressing the Problem of Family Violence. Compares and analyzes the rationale, prevalence, and efficacy of various treatment models and programs used to address the problem of family violence. Profiles causal models of family violence, common features and major approaches to treatment. Discusses specific studies testing the efficacy of the criminal justice, sociological, and psychological-educational approaches to treatment. 20 pages, 59 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11520. Boot Camps: A Bad Alternative for Juvenile Justice. This paper looks at the problems and prospects of prison boot camps as alternative juvenile justice. Following a review of the boot camp concept, including a discussion of objectives, factors encouraging their formation, current prevalence, techniques, and success/failure rates, it is argued that the boot camp idea has not been and will never be a valid alternative in juvenile justice. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11384. The History of Organized Policing in England. Review and analysis of traditional and revisionist historians' views on the origins and functions of organized policing in Britain. Provides an overview of the 18th century law enforcement precedents, the establishment of the first British police force in 1829, and the subsequent history of policing in the 19th century. Drawing on Hobsbawn's Primitive Rebels and Thompson's Making of the English Working Class, examines in particular how events (riots) surrounding the rise of the English working class and the Industrial Revolution fostered the development of organized policing. 26 pages, 53 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11369. California's Three Strikes -- the Wrong Approach. Considers California's "Three Strikes" mandatory sentencing law, explaining its history and intent. Using criminal justice theory, argues that the law will not meet its objectives and will have a number of unintended side effects. Suggests alternative approaches. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11366. Labeling Theory. Following a brief summary of labeling theory, this paper analyzes four significant research articles examining the validity of the theory. Concludes that labeling theory is valid. Discusses criminal justice policy implications. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11365. The Death Penalty and the Racial Justice Act. An analysis and explication of the Racial Justice Act, which proposes to address problems of racial discrimination in the implementation of the death penalty. Considers Supreme Court arguments for and against the Act, reviews pertinent case law, and examines legal studies of the discrimination in justice issues raised by the Act. 20 pages, 41 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11364. Socio-Economic Status and Black-White Homicide Rates. A review of literature and content analysis study testing the hypothesis that socioeconmic variables explain the higher rate of homicides among blacks (versus whites). Descriptions of racial variation in homicide and theories postulating explanations for the variation are presented. The study finds little support for the hypothesis that socioeconomic variables explain the racial differences in homicide rates. 10 pages, 36 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11361. The Cultural Roots of Violence. Explores the issue of whether violence is culturally created, looking specifically at the case of the U.S. Based on a brief review of literature, examines the argument that violence is culturally created versus the opposing side which argues other causative factors. Supports that notion that cultural beliefs are a root causative factor in America's high violent crime rate. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
11360. Date Rape. Examines the date rape phenomenon and the controversy surrounding it. After considering the definition and estimated prevalence of date rape, the analysis looks at the causes and mitigating factors involved. Included is an examination of some of the factors (gender, personal belief systems) involved in the attribution of responsibility for date rape. 6 pages, 24 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
11318. Domestic Violence. Overview of the problem of domestic violence, focusing on male-female spouse abuse. Defines the problem and describes its current incidence. Examines the structural (family, social, legal) and interpersonal dynamics of domestic violence. Considers the role of contributing factors such as alcohol. Looks at intervention/prevention strategies and their relative effectiveness. 14 pages, 30 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
11317. Elder Abuse. Overview and analysis of the problem of elder abuse. Defines the problem, considers its prevalence in contemporary society and the reasons for its growth, and examines legal, community and family-based prevention and intervention strategies. 12 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11315. The Right to Legal Counsel in the u.s., u.k., Italy, Japan and Saudi Arabia. This paper investigates these five countries' position on the right to legal counsel for defendants and accused persons in criminal proceedings. Includes a discussion and analysis of the development and application of the right to counsel under federal due process in the United States, considering Constitutional provisions, statutory material, and recent case law impacting the breadth and scope of the right to counsel. Using the U.S. system as a foundation for comparison, the existence and\or extent of the right to counsel in the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan and Saudi Arabia are then each considered. The final section presents a summary comparison of the right to counsel within all five legal systems under investigation. 30 pages, 78 footnotes, 51 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11305. Executive Protection in Corporate America. Profile of the current conditions and status in executive protection. Presents the rationale behind and the need for executive protection, citing examples of recent cases of executive victimization. Presents an overview of the current "state of the art" in executive protection, detailing protective measures in the home office or workplace, while traveling, and for the home and family. Assesses how well today's executives are protected and looks at future needs and trends in executive protection. 18 pages, 48 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
11295. Article Review: "Police Shootings After the Garner Decision." Review and critique of an article reporting on two criminal justice researchers' empirical study of how community pressure, new laws and changes in administrative policy impacted the Memphis Police Department's use of deadly force and the pattern of racial discrimination apparent in the shooting practices. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
11294. Article Review: "One and Two Person Patrols." Review and critique of a criminal justice article which reviews the results of other studies examining the efficacy of one-person versus two-person police car patrols. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
11179. Life Imprisonment for Habitual Criminals: An Evaluation of Pros and Cons. Discussion of proposed "3 strikes and you're out" concept in which habitual criminals would be permanently incarcerated after a third felony conviction. Describes Clinton Administration position and other pending crime control programs. 11 pages, 27 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11175. Tqm in Law Enforcement. A review and assessment of total quality management (TQM) in policing. Defines TQM, discusses its central philosophy and characteristics and analyzes common problems in implementation. Reviews the impetus for TQM in policing and the common strategies- focused on community-oriented policing- adopted by police departments. 12 pages, 32 footnotes, 30 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11172. j.m. Pollock's Women, Prison and Crime. Critiques and describes book that focuses on ways in which women are treated by penal system in U.S., problems encountered by this group, and differences in prison for men and women. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
11034. Prison Overcrowding. Presents scope of problem and criteria for evaluating severity in individual prisons, effect of overcrowding on inmates, obstacles to consensus on issue. Options are evaluated on basis of prisoner welfare, cost, effectiveness, and political feasibility. Main options are more physical capacity, alternatives to incarceration (intensive probation, house arrest, half-way houses, and community service), shortening sentences, and status quo. Concludes promoting alternatives to incarceration is best policy. 22 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11022. Prison Rape. The phenomenon of rape in prison is examined as an expression of power relations, submission-domination, and as an extension of heterosexual forms of aggression. Problems with AIDS and violence in the penal system are noted. 7 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
10564B. An Argument for the Death Penalty. See Section 6B. 11 pages, 43 footnotes, 21 bibliographic references.   $77
 
10564A. An Argument Against the Death Penalty. Following a brief summary of the history and current status of capital punishment in the United States, this paper presents an overview of ethical, legal, practical, and economic arguments and concludes with a brief recommendation for future policy decisions. 11 pages, 43 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10509. The Dr. Sam Shepard Murder Case. Thoroughly researched paper which recounts the events of a glamorous 1954 murder case in which no one was ever convicted. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 39 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
10423. Controlling the Cocaine Problem: Geographic Perspective. A detailed discussion of the history of cocaine's role in Latin America and the nature of the market in the United States. 20 pages, 56 footnotes, 62 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
10334. Introduction to the Criminal Justice System. Robin and Anson's text on the American criminal justice system is reviewed in detail. A chapter by chapter description is provided. 7 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
10333. Management Information Systems at the Fbi. This paper profiles and investigates management systems (MIS) at the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Following an overview of the FBI's primary management information system -- NCIC -- the analysis explores the Bureau's MIS subsystems and programs including automatic figerprint identification, DNA profiling, the use of electronic bulletin boards, and the use and development of expert systems and artificial intelligence programs. Current controversies in implementation and prospects for future MIS development are also noted. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
10318. Employee Drug Testing and Social Welfare: The Case of Police Officers. This paper considers the political, legal and social issues involved in employee drug testing within the occupational category of the public sector -- police officers. The analysis considers the problem in terms of a social welfare issue: the rights of the police officers to privacy are weighed against the need for public safety. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
10256. Polygraph Examination and the Psychology of Lie Detection. A brief study of the history and development of polygraph machines, describing their reliability, applications in law enforcement, and limits as legal evidence. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
10255. Psychology for Law Enforcement Officers. An overview, analysis and summary of a standard textbook collecting articles on criminal psychology, testing, and other aspects of psychology relating to police science. The volume is seen as useful, but dated. 7 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source., + Glossary of Terms.   $49
 
10254. The Media and the Mafia. A brief survey of the media's glamorization of the Mafia; reviews the Mafia's history and looks at films depicting Mafia figures over the last few decades. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
10212. American Crime Syndicates. The origins and history of the Mafia crime syndicate and its successors are described. Comparisons with the modern Colombian cartel and the original Italian Mafia are made. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
10140. Trends in Airport Security. Describes new devices, techniques and approaches to preventing terrorism in airports. Contains executive summary and two charts. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
10139. The Criminology of Edwin Sutherland. The life and work of the American criminologis are reviewed; Sutherland's theory of differential association in the causes of crime, his development of the concepts of white collar crime and the career criminal, and the modern revisions of his theory are all noted in detail. 17 pages, 34 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
10137. Crime in Germany. Report discusses German culture pre- and post- wall, drug use/gun use and crime, the German justice system, enforcement authority of police, deterrents to crime, neighborhoods and crime, gangs and youth subculture, and school patterns and activities. 10 pages, 21 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
10129. Women on Death Row. The crimes, backgrounds and living conditions of women condemned to death in the U.S. are examined; the background of execution of women is reviewed, and prospects for a resumption in the 1990s are noted. 10 pages, 21 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
10071. Computer Crime: A Major, but Not Unstoppable, Problem. An investigation and analysis of the problem of computer crime. Examines the magnitude and scope of the problem, considering its costs, its perpetrators, its victims, and its forms. Argues that while computer crime is a major problem, it is does not pose an unresolvable dilemma. Contends that administrative, personnel, physical, legal and technological methods can and should be utilized to control the problem. Concludes with an action plan for curtailing computer crime. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
10070. Violence and Popular Culture in America. Examines the changing character and depiction of violence in American popular culture from the 1960s to the 1990s; shifting patterns of political and protest violence are noted. 23 pages, 34 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
10064. Organized Crime During the Prohibition Era. The rise of organized gangs and gang warfare during the 1920-1933 prohibition of alcohol is studied. Competition of Irish, Italian, and Jewish gangsters for control of liquor and vice is detailed. 15 pages, 32 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
10030. Economic and Political Factors in the Latin American Drug Trade. An examination of the underlying economic and political forces which make it virtually impossible for the Latin American nations to prevent the growing processing of illegal drugs. Reasons cited include the economic incentives presented to Third World nations, the weakness of Latin American governments to control production, and the contradictory messages sent by American foreign policy. Concludes that supply-side policies of eradication and intervention are doomed to failure. 31 pages, 42 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
10027. International Drug Control Treaties: History, Prospects and Problems. A comprehensive overview of the international efforts at control of drug abuse problems and their attendant problems of illicit drug production and illicit drug trafficking. History, purpose and scope of int'l drug treates are described in detail, focusing on the two major internation drug conventions. The concluding section considers the efffectiveness and future prospects for the existing treaties and organizations. Problems in the current approach and alternative approaches are presented and considered. 30 pages, 52 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
09957. White Collar Crime. Looks at the extent of the imbalance between the enforcement efforts against white collar and street crime in order to consider how lay enforcement agencies might better serve the taxpaying public by focusing more on the kinds of crime which cost society the most. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
09956. Vietnam Veterans and Crime. Focusing on Vietnam-era veterans and the problem of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); examines the connection between combat experience and post-war criminal behavior. Concludes that the high incidence of criminal behavior among Vietnam Veterans, and of violent criminal behavior among Vets of particularly brutal combat, appears to be the inevitable psychological and social price our country must pay for sending a generation of young men to war. 15 pages, 28 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
09955. Managing Aids Prisoners. Prison policies in the handling of AIDS patients and HIV-positive inmates are examined. Numbers of inmates, various stae programs and policies, and myths about the spread of AIDS are reviewed, and policy suggestions made. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
09954. Capital Punishment and the Church. Examines the religious arguments for and against capital punishment, in an effort to determine the validity of the various arguments and scriptural references. Takes the position that while the Biblical and theological arguments supporting the death penalty are legitimate in their own right, a more compelling case against capital punishment can be made from a careful consideration of the Christian position on the sanctity of life and the supreme authority of God in all such matters. 11 pages, 19 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
09953. The Mcmartin Preschool Child Molestation Case. A brief review and analysis of the McMartin case, arguing that the case demonstrates some of the difficulties involved in charges of sexual abuse of children. The role of issues such as the credibility of child testimony, the emotional nature of the crime, and public awareness of the problem is discussed. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
09951. Hugh Barlow's Introduction to Criminology. A summary review and analysis of Barlow's criminology text which focuses on the study of crime as a behavior shaped by society as well as on society's reactions to that behavior. Analyzes author's bias, style, readability of the material, and usefulness of the information presented. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
 
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