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6B. PENOLOGY AND POLICE SCIENCE

How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
 
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18883. THE CRIMES OF ALBERT FISH. This research paper discusses the crimes of the child rapist, torturer, murderer and cannibal, Albert Fish, who was executed in 1936. The term paper uses theories and research findings are used to explain the causes of Fish’s behavior and to describe some steps that should be taken to prevent such crimes from occurring. TAGS: criminology essay, notorious criminals, Albert Fish, psychology, rape, murder, child abuse, criminological theory. APA Style. 16 pages, 41 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 3,693 words.   $112
 
18848. CRIMINALITY ACROSS THE LIFESPAN. This paper explores recent studies taking a life-span development approach which challenge traditional sociological assumptions about the constancy of criminal behavior throughout the lifespan. Critical to these studies is the realization that the link between anti-social behavior in children and criminal behavior in adults is a link that works in only one direction: adult criminals almost invariably showed marked anti-social behavior as children, but most children who exhibit anti-social behavior do not become criminals as adolescents or adults. APA Style. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 1,219 words.
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TAGS: criminality lifespan, juvenile delinquency, adult criminality, older criminals, theories delinquency theory crime theory

  $35
 
18795. ARGUMENTS FOR THE DEATH PENALTY. This term paper describes and refutes the major arguments in favor of the death penalty (deterrence, incapacitation and retribution). Then, the paper argues against the death penalty because of the risk of wrongful convictions, concerns about discrimination, the cost of death penalty cases in contrast to lifelong incarceration, and the trend among democratic nations of rejecting the practice. Includes an annotated bibliography. TAGS: criminology, argumentative essay, death penalty, crime deterrence retribution. APA Style. 12 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,792 words main text, 3,645 words including annotated bibliography.   $84
 
18536. WARTIME RAPE AND MURDER BY US SOLDIERS IN IRAQ. This paper discusses a 2006 criminal case in which five U.S. Army soldiers, stationed in Iraq, raped a fourteen-year-old girl and then killed her and her family. The paper argues that the case can be explained by combining the views of five theoretical perspectives on crime causation: feminist theory, biosocial theory, opportunity theory, psychological theory and social learning (or differential association) theory. KEYWORDS: criminology theory war Iraq us soldier rape murder Iraqi family. APA Style. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,796 words.   $49
 
18118. EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS FOR POLICE OFFICERS. This paper proposes a study to evaluate a recruitment policy at a hypothetical police department, which requires applicants to only have a high school diploma as opposed to a college education. The rationales for the policy are: it provides a larger pool of applicants, it encourages more minorities and women to apply, it helps reduce salary costs, a college education is not needed for the job, and specialized training and education can be provided after hiring. The paper includes a brief literature review, a description of the proposed methodology, and a discussion of anticipated results (it is hypothesized that the recruitment policy in question will be found effective). KEYWORDS: police education policy research design. Written 2006. APA Style. 12 pages, 25 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,903 words.   $84
 
18117. PRIVATE-SECTOR PRISONS. This paper describes a research project for evaluating the comparative merits of private-sector prisons and public-sector prisons. The trend to privatize prisons is controversial, with critics charging that private prisons do not cut costs and do not reduce recidivism rates and, furthermore, they encourage misbehavior among prisoners and guards. The paper reviews the literature on the topic and proposes a method for evaluating the evidence on cost-effectiveness, accountability, safety, and recidivism. Although the evidence on private prisons is inconclusive at this time, it is argued that they might nonetheless provide a viable way of dealing with the problems of high costs and a growing inmate population. One suggestion for improving the performance of private prisons is to include accountability requirements in the contracts made between corrections organizations and the government. KEYWORDS: criminal justice corrections private prisons research design. Written 2006. APA Style. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,712 words.   $77
 
18056. EXECUTIONER'S CURRENT BY RICHARD MORAN & MAY GOD HAVE MERCY BY JOHN C. TUCKER. This paper discusses these two books on the death penalty in the U.S. and how they can be used to teach concepts of justice to young students. Moran's book is about the development of the electric chair, including the role played by the inventor Thomas Edison. Tucker's book is about how a procedural error in a death penalty case resulted in possibly exonerating evidence being deemed inadmissible in court. The paper also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each book, their critical implications, and how the ideas and events depicted in each are typical of American justice and society. KEYWORDS: comparative book review death penalty teaching justice. Written 2006. MLA Style. 10 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,471 words.   $70
 
18054. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER & CRIME. This term paper examines the evidence on the number of criminal offenders (in correctional settings) that have been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (APD). The findings have been highly variable and, furthermore, few studies have focused on APD specifically (as opposed to more general categories, such as "mental illness"). Despite this, the evidence appears to show a link between APD and criminal behaviors. It is concluded that there is a need for more and better studies so that effective treatment and education programs can be developed. KEYWORDS: sociopath criminals psychology antisocial personality disorder. Written 2006. APA Style. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,423 words.   $42
 
18028. MIRANDA RIGHTS. This essay addresses the question of whether or not the Miranda Rights really protect the rights of the accused, as they are meant to. The paper covers the history of the rights, the Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination, the right to silence and the presence of counsel, and the waiver of one's rights. Based on the findings in various specific court decisions, it is argued that the Miranda Rights are not effective in every case. Judicial interpretations have resulted in a weakening of the rights and a limiting of their protective power; this is especially true for certain members of society (such as persons of diverse cultural backgrounds and people who are easily intimidated by police interrogations). KEYWORDS: miranda rights fifth amendment self-incrimination argumentative essay. Written 2006. Notes at end of paper, no separate bibliography. 12 pages, 17 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,952 words.   $84
 
18027. INFANTICIDE FORENSIC INVESTIGATIONS. This term paper focuses on five perspectives (as found in five different sources) relating to infant killing and forensic investigations. The perspectives are: (1) educational campaigns have reduced the number of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) cases, thereby helping to reveal bona fide cases of infanticide, (2) there is a need to balance thoroughness with sensitivity in investigations, (3) genetic evidence is becoming increasingly important, (4) procedural rules tend to take precedence over physical evidence in trials, and (5) society is ultimately to blame when mothers commit acts of infanticide. The relative strengths and weaknesses of the claims and arguments in the five chosen sources are discussed. KEYWORDS: forensics infanticide criminal investigation infant deaths killings. Written 2006. APA Style. 15 pages, 14 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,521 words.   $105
 
18010. PRO DEATH PENALTY ARGUMENT. This paper looks at the controversial issue of capital punishment and argues in favor of the practice. Based on expert opinions and study evidence, it is argued that the death penalty is an appropriate punishment for the crime of murder (retribution), it prevents an offender from murdering again (incapacitation), and it helps to prevent others from committing murders (deterrence). The paper also rebuts some of the arguments in opposition to the death penalty. KEYWORDS: death penalty capital punishment controversy argumentative essay. Written 2006. MLA Style. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,450 words.   $42
 
17725. THE ETHICS OF POLICE LINEUPS. Following the observation that eyewitness false identification of suspects during police lineup constitutes a major cause of wrongful convictions, this paper examines the ethics of police lineups. The use, purpose, implementation and major types of lineups (photo and physical; simultaneous and sequential) are discussed. The major strengths and weaknesses of the lineup are considered. Evidence on lineup effectiveness and accuracy as a method of eyewitness identification of suspect is reviewed. Recent efforts to improve the accuracy of eyewitness identification through revisions to lineup format and implementation have failed to adequately address the problem of mistaken identification. It is argued that the continued use of lineups to identify suspects is unethical, given the proven inaccuracy, race bias, and link to wrongful convictions. TAGS: police lineup eyewitness identification false ID criminal justice ethics. APA Style. 12 pages, 52 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources. 3,070 words.

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17629. THE FUTURE OF COMPUTER CRIME. This paper provides an overview and analysis of computer crime, with a focus on what computer crime will be like in the future. Following a review of literature on computer crime, the analysis discusses the worst case scenario, the best case scenario, and finally, the most logical scenario for the future of computer crime. The worst case scenario involves a massive cyberterrorism attack, the best case involves the elimination of computer crime (or at least its impact) via effective countermeasures; and the most likely scenario is that computer crime will persist and expand along with the simultaneous development of effective countermeasures. KEYWORDS: computer crime cyberterrorism cybercrime hacking denial of service worms virus futurism future scenarios countermeasures. APA Style. 22 pages, 71 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 5,160 words.   $133
 
17626. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER IN CORRECTIONAL SETTINGS. This paper examines the evidence on antisocial personality disorder in correctional settings with the objective of determining the extent and scope of the problem. The paper begins with a brief overview of antisocial personality and then reviews the literature on antisocial personality disorder among prison inmates. Concludes that antisocial personality disorder plays a substantial role in causing criminal behaviors. KEYWORDS: antisocial personality disorder sociopathy psychopathy prisoners prisons. Written 2005. APA Style. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,247 words.   $35
 
17625. PRISON OVERCROWING. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of overcrowding in American prisons. The paper explains the causes of prison overcrowding and discusses the problems that such overcrowding creates among prisoners and within society as a whole. It is demonstrated that there are various viable alternatives to imprisonment. It is argued that policymakers should give greater consideration to the use of these alternatives, because doing so will help to reduce the number of prisoners and hence, alleviate the problem of prison overcrowding. KEYWORDS: prison overcrowding prisoners overpopulation prison alternatives. Written 2005. APA Style. 13 pages, 47 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,015 words.   $91
 
17618. LITERATURE REVIEW: THE USE OF PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPTS IN EXPLANATIONS OF POLICE CORRUPTION. This paper provides a review of the scholarly literature on causal factors in police corruption. The objective of the review is to examine the extent to which certain specific concepts (falling into the basic categories of consequentialism/utilitarianism and deontology/duty and principle) are used to argue for interventions against police corruption and to determine which arguments are the most effective in terms of describing the moral dilemma at the heart of the problem. Concludes that most theoretical discussions of police corruption focus on causal explanations rather than on moral issues, per se, and that most of the causal explanations have emphasized the role of sociological and/or psychological factors versus philosophical concepts. KEYWORDS: police corruption causes theory philosophy utilitarianism deontology. Written 2005. APA Style. 14 pages, 28 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,443 words.   $98
 
17555. A COMPARISON OF FOUR CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORIES. This paper provides a comparative analysis of genetic theory, rational choice theory, labeling theory, and feminist criminological theory, emphasizing how these four criminological theories build upon and challenge one another. Concludes that while all four theories offer valuable insights into the possible causes of criminal behavior, each theory is limited by its focus on a relatively narrow of inquiry (i.e., biology, rationality, society or gender relations). Argues that integrated theories offer a stronger and more complete explanation of criminality. TAGS: crime theory labeling rational choice feminist genetic integrated. APA Style. 8 pages, 19 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,905 words.
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17405. THE UNEXPLORED COSTS & EFFECTS OF ‘THREE STRIKES’ LAWS: THE PROBLEM OF THE AGING PRISON POPULATION: A STUDY PROPOSAL. This paper presents a proposal for a study investigating the costs and unintended effects of Three Strikes’ laws through an exploration of the potential relationship between states’ passage of Three Strikes’ laws and the expansion of an older prison population. It is hypothesized that states which have passed three strikes laws are experiencing a more rapid aging of their prison populations than they were prior to the enactment of such laws and that states with three strikes laws are experiencing a more rapid aging of their prison population than states without such laws. Introduces the topic and discusses the significance of the study, presents a review of literature on the topic, and discusses the methodology (specifying procedures for data collection and analysis as well as stating study hypotheses) to be used in the study. KEYWORDS: research study proposal criminology criminal justice three strikes recidivism prisoner aging. Written 2004. 20 pages, 76 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 4,774 words.   $133
 
17390. SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY OF CRIME AND DELINQUENCY. This paper describes and analyzes the social disorganization theory of criminology as developed from theorists in the Chicago School. Considers how the more recent work of Robert Sampson and William Julius Wilson has extended and refined Shaw & McKay’s work to have application in the contemporary era, particularly with regard to urban crime and racial differences in crime. Finally, the analysis looks at Sampson, et al’s construct of collective efficacy as an explanatory variable in why people in socially disorganized communities commit crime. APA Style. 9 pages, 25 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,273 words.
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TAGS: chicago school criminology crime theory social disorganization theory juvenile delinquency theory family peers crime.

  $63
 
17389. CLASSICAL AND POSITIVE SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN CRIMINALITY. This essay describes the classical and positive schools of criminality, as illustrated by Cesare Beccaria (classical) and Cesare Lombroso (positive) and considers what policy recommendations an adherent of each school would make for dealing with crime. KEYWORDS: classical positivist criminology lombroso beccaria criminal theories. Written 2003. APA Style. 7 pages, 10 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,781 words.   $49
 
17385. ANGER MANAGEMENT: SCOPE & EFFECTIVENESS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of anger management programs as they are currently used with adults and youth in the justice system (juvenile and adult), private practice (e.g., substance abuse treatment, in conjunction with psychiatric treatment), and the schools. The objective of the study is to identify the successes and problems with these groups and programs. The first part of the paper provides a survey of anger management programs across the country, divided into sections on anger management for adults and anger management for youth. The second part of the paper reviews the limited number of evaluative studies which have examined the actual effectiveness of various anger management programs. The concluding section enumerates the concerns and limitations with anger management programs and recommends suspending or scaling back use of these programs based on lack of evidence of their effectiveness. KEYWORDS: anger management alternative sentencing substance abuse criminal justice juvenile justice program evaluation. Written 2001. APA Style. 25 pages, 69 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources. 6,424 words.   $133
 
17384. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE & THE FBI: EMPOWERING THE FIELD OFFICES. This paper recommends a new initiative to empower the field offices in the FBI as a way to address some of the ongoing problems in the Bureau=s counterterrorism and counterintelligence operations. The paper begins with a description of the problem and a discussion of how it would lend itself to improved and effective public management practices. The problem and the proposed initiative are considered in the context of Cohen and Eimicke=s (2002) theories on effective public management practices and Buckingham & Coffman=s (1999) four keys of successful management practices. The discussion and analysis of the proposed empowerment initiative shows how the initiative will: 1) address a current problem or dilemma now faced by the FBI; 2) be cost efficient; 3) be considered innovative by members of the organization; and 4) be favorably received by the public and other customers of the Bureau. KEYWORDS: public management organizational change empowerment change management federal bureau of investigation fbi restructuring counterterrorism operations. Written 2004. APA Style. 13 pages, 39 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3962 words.   $91
 
17376. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND COMMUNITY POLICING: AREAS OF RESISTANCE AND HOW TO OVERCOME THEM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problems and process of organizational change in police agencies moving from a traditional model to a community policing/problem solving model. Following an overview of the community policing model and a discussion of how it differs from the traditional/professional model of policing, the analysis examines the obstacles and internal resistance police agencies are likely to encounter as they attempt to make the transition to community policing. The analysis considers both the individual and the organizational factors impeding change in the police agency. Drawing on the experiences of police agencies which have attempted to make this transition, the investigation seeks to pinpoint the organizational factors that predict difficulty in effecting change as well as to identify those factors which seem to forecast success in the change process. KEYWORDS: organizational change police department community policing change resistance. APA Style. 22 pages, 65 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 6,004 words.   $133
 
17286. CRIME THEORIES. This paper provides a brief overview and discussion of several major crime theories including differential association/learning theory, developmental theories, social learning/subculture theory, routine activities theory, social learning/social bond theory, general theory, and techniques of neutralization theory. Strengths and weaknesses of each theory are considered. True-life crime book, True Confessions: The Unsolved Crimes of Phil Cresta is used to illustrate the differential association theory.11 pages, 21 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,753 words.
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TAGS: crime theory criminology subculture differential association social bond learning theory routine activities delinquency theory delinquents criminals.

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17244. THE CLASSICAL AND POSITIVIST SCHOOLS CRIMINOLOGY. This paper compares the deterrence theory of Beccaria (the Classical School of criminology) with the biological traits theory of Lombroso (the Positivist School). The paper includes a discussion of the policy recommendations an adherent of each school would make for fighting crime and argues that Lombroso’s approach is discriminatory and ineffective. Keywords: crime theory early history traits. 6 pages; 8 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,428 words.   $42
 
17243. THE REINTEGRATIVE SHAMING THEORY OF JOHN BRAITHWAITE. This paper argues that Braithwaite’s “reintegrative” approach to reducing recidivism among delinquents is more effective than approaches that use “disintegrative shaming” techniques. The strengths and weaknesses of the theory are considered, as well as its usefulness in community-based “restorative justice”. 5 pages; 7 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,257 words.
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17242. JAMES MESSERSCHMIDT'S THEORY OF "DOING GENDER". This paper discusses Messerschmidt’s theory on why men tend to commit more crimes than women, and why each gender tends to commit different types of crime. Men, for example, are constantly seeking ways to express their masculinity, and this need is influenced by factors of age, class, and race. This paper also considers the advantages and disadvantages of the theory in terms of crime control and prevention. Keywords: crime theory gender differences. 5 pages; 6 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,178 words.   $35
 
17241. BIOSOCIAL THEORIES OF CRIME. This paper discusses how biological factors, personality traits, and social (or environmental) factors interact to contribute to crime. The paper includes a discussion of “biological harms,” twin and adoption studies, and studies on the personality traits and body types of delinquents. Keywords: crime theory biology anatomy personality heredity. 6 pages; 8 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,353 words.   $42
 
17240. THE SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY OF CRIME. This paper considers the “Chicago School” of criminology and its view that crime is caused by a breakdown of social controls in certain types of communities. Topics include urban zones, the weakening of social institutions, racial prejudice, social isolation, and the concept of collective efficacy. Keywords: crime theory Sutherland Chicago social problems delinquency. 5 pages; 8 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,102 words.   $35
 
17238. WHITE COLLAR CRIME AND THE "ROUTINE ACTIVITY" PERSPECTIVE. This paper defines white collar crime (both occupational and corporate) and describes the types of offenses related to it. Following this the “routine activity” theory is used to explain the existence of white-collar crime. According to this theory, there are three necessary conditions for crime to occur (motivated offender, suitable target, and lack of capable guardians). Keywords: crime theory adults non-violent crimes fraud insider trading embezzlement. 5 pages; 7 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,188 words.   $35
 
17237. THE SOCIAL BOND THEORY AND THE SELF-CONTROL THEORY. This paper discusses Hirschi’s view that the four elements of ‘social bonds’ play a role in preventing crime. Hirschi’s social bond theory of crime is compared with the view of Gottfredson and Hirschi regarding the role of ‘self-control’ in crime reduction. The basic similarities between the social bond and self-control theories of crime are described. Keywords: crime theory child development parental attachment. 5 pages; 7 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,317 words.   $35
 
17236. CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY. As noted in this paper, critical criminology argues that crime is caused by inequalities in capitalist societies. In addition, it is argued that the rich are often able to receive lighter sentences for crimes than are the poor. The paper also addresses the ongoing debate over the relative strengths and weaknesses of the critical approach to criminology. Keywords: crime theory neo-Marxist inequality. 5 pages; 10 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,246 words.   $35
 
17234. INTEGRATED THEORIES OF CRIMINOLOGY. This paper discusses integrated theories of criminology. Integrated crime theories seek to provide a more thorough perspective on how and why crime occurs than individual theories can provide on their own. The advantages and disadvantages of the integrated approach are considered. An example of an integrated theory is found in the work of Elliott, et al., which combines strain theory, social control theory, and learning theory. Keywords: integrated crime theory Merton Hirschi. 5 pages; 11 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,150 words.   $35
 
17208. THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC): A CRITICAL STEP IN THE PATH TOWARDS GLOBAL GOVERNANCE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the International Criminal Court (ICC) as a positive step towards the development of a system of global governance. The analysis begins with definitions and a review of relevant concepts, including global governance, sovereignty, jus cogens, international criminal law, and universal jurisdiction. The history and purpose of the International Criminal Court is traced, looking both at the history of the Rome Statute itself as well as its historical precedents. The next sections examine the structure, functions, operations, applications and underlying principles of the ICC. The analysis then looks at the opposition to the ICC, with a strong focus on U.S. objections. The conclusion summarizes the strengths and limitations of the ICC and considers the future of the ICC as a tool of global governance. Keywords: International Criminal Court ICC universal jurisdiction sovereignty Rome Statute extradition. Written 2004. 32 pages; 79 footnotes; 32 bibliographic sources. 8,998 words.   $133
 
17205. WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS IN DEATH PENALTY CASES. Focusing on wrongful convictions of innocent persons in death penalty cases, this paper provides a critical overview and analysis of the location and characteristics of micro and macro-level factors with the criminal justice system that seem to be the source of the errors leading to or contributing to the problem of wrongful convictions. Factors considered include problems with eyewitness identification, unreliable or duplicitous informants, prosecutorial misconduct, defense attorney incompetence, false and coerced confessions, forensic errors and fraud, judicial misconduct, systematic racism, problems with the adversarial system and the difficulties of balancing defendants’ right to due process with society’s need for crime control and the criminal justice system’s need for expediency. The concluding analysis looks at some of the steps that might be taken to remedy or reduce the error rate while still providing justice. TAGS: death penalty wrongful conviction prosecutorial misconduct eyewitness identification false confessions forensics judicial error racism crime control. 27 pages; 73 footnotes; 36 bibliographic sources. 7,134 words.

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17184. LAW ENFORCEMENT AND MULTICULTURALISM. This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of multicultural issues in contemporary law enforcement and looks at how police departments are confronting the reality of an increasingly multicultural society. Multicultural issues in law enforcement employment, community policy and community relations, and custody are among the intersecting areas of law enforcement and multiculturalism considered in this essay. Keywords: police multicultural community relations ethnic diversity employment. Written 2004. 11 pages; 29 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 2,789 words.   $77
 
17179. AVIATION & AIR CARGO SECURITY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of current security concerns and issues in the airline and aviation air cargo industry. Following a brief overview of the history of air cargo security, the analysis focuses on the post-September 11th aviation security environment. Security measures implemented in the aftermath of the attacks, including the ‘known shipper’ program and restrictions on some air cargo in passenger planes are described and discussed in terms of their strengths and limitations. Proposals for additional security measures (e.g., arming air cargo pilots, bomb-proofing cargo compartments, advanced notification, more sophisticated tracking and identification of cargo, x-raying all cargo, etc.) and their implications for the aviation cargo industry are considered. Keywords: aviation security airline security air cargo security terrorist threat technology known shipper. Written 2004. 18 pages; 34 footnotes; 20 bibliographic sources. 4,661 words.   $126
 
17167. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN SOUTHEAST ASIA & ASEAN'S RESPONSE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of human trafficking in Southeast Asia. The analysis explores the causes, scope, migratory patterns, and components of human trafficking in and out of the ten member states of ASEAN (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar [Burma], Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). The investigation considers ASEAN’s role in addressing the problem, profiling the history of the association’s involvement in the problem and the steps that it has taken to address the problem to date. The effectiveness of the ASEAN’s efforts are evaluated and recommendations for future action offered. The investigation also looks at the steps that individual member states have taken to address the problem and considers the impact of cooperation (if any) from non-member states. Written 2003. 23 pages; 68 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 6,500 words.   $133
 
17130. RATIONAL CHOICE AND ROUTINE ACTIVITIES THEORIES OF CRIME. Following a brief discussion of the central tenets of each theory, this analysis describes and discusses how the Rational Choice perspective on crime serves as an explanation for robbery and how the Routine Activity theory can work to explain burglary. TAGS: criminological theory delinquency theory crime causation theories rational choice routine activities. 10 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 2,371 words.
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17129. COMPARING TWO CRIMINOLOGY THEORIES: SOCIAL BOND THEORY VERSUS SELF-CONTROL THEORY. This paper compares and contrasts two different theories of criminality: Hirschi’s Social Bond theory and Gottfredson & Hirschi’s subsequently developed Self Control theory. Each theory falls generally with the category of criminological control theories, but they differ on where they place the bulk of the responsibility for criminal motivation (social bond focuses on society and social relations, while self-control theory places the causes of crime within the individual criminal). TAGS: criminological theory crime causation tavis hirschi social bond social control theories juvenile delinquency theory delinquents criminals. APA Style. 8 pages; 13 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,864 words.
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  $63
 
17128. EXPLAINING WHITE COLLAR CRIME. This paper provides an overview and analysis of criminological theories which help to explain white collar crime. While the importance of both Sutherland’s theory of differential association and leftist Critical theory (and its indictment of U.S.-style capitalism) are acknowledged, it is argued that Rosenfeld & Messner’s update and expansion of Merton’s theory of social structure and anomie best explains white collar crime when one accounts for the offender and victim profiles, types of offenses, and the situational/contextual elements of white collar crime. KEYWORDS: criminological theory crime causation white collar crimes critical theory anomie. Written 2003. 10 pages; 19 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 2,399 words.   $70
 
17127. STRAIN THEORY IN CRIMINOLOGY. This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of strain theory as originally formulated by Robert K. Merton and as modified and expanded by Cloward & Ohlin’s work on opportunity theory in subcultures. The analysis also looks at Rosenfeld and Messner’s update of Merton’s anomie theory and their focus on the institutional imbalance of power (with the economy dominating other institutions including family, polity, and education) and the difficulty of addressing the crime problem in the U.S. without making sweeping changes to underlying social institutions. TAGS: crime theory anomie strain robert merton causes crime juvenile delinquency theory criminology. 10 pages; 18 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 2,251 words.
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  $70
 
17124. THE 20TH CENTURY REHABILITATION MODEL AND FEMALE PRISONERS IN GREAT BRITAIN. This paper traces the impact of the development of the 20th century rehabilitation model (as mandated by the Gladstone Committee in 1895) on female prisoners in Great Britain. The impact is noted in terms of changes in prison labor, dress, and prisoner relations as well as in terms of the introduction of educational programs, job training, borstal training, and open prisons. Negative aspects of the developing model are also noted (e.g., failure to update training programs, treatment of female prisoners as mental patients, etc.). KEYWORDS: prison system great britain 20th century rehabilitation model prisons england wales. Written 2003. 9 pages; 20 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 2,634 words.   $63
 
17123. SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS IN THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF WOMEN'S IMPRISONMENT IN GREAT BRITAIN IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES. This paper evaluates the usefulness and problems of historical social research for an investigation and critical review of the history of the imprisonment of women in Great Britain during the 19th and 20th centuries. Written 2003. 9 pages; 20 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 2,280 words.   $63
 
17103. RESEARCH ON SEX DISCRIMINATION IN THE YOUTH JUSTICE SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES. This paper provides a critical analysis and comparison of a few research-based studies investigating how young women suffer systematic discrimination in the youth justice system in England and Wales. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the traditional assumptions regarding female crime and delinquency and a summary of some of the major findings from the early investigations of young women’s encounters with the justice system, as well as synopsis of contemporary feminist positions concerning young women and the justice system. The investigation then turns to a critical analysis and comparison of specific (England & Wales-based) studies, focusing on the relationship between research methods and theoretical findings. Written 2002. 19 pages; 33 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 4,909 words.   $133
 
17010. THE "NEW CRIMINOLOGIES SELF EVERYDAY LIFE." According to criminologist David Garland, crime needs to be regarded as a “routine” activity. Based on this view, it is argued that crime control should be “embedded” at the source of the crime (in the form of cameras, alarms, etc.). This approach is contrasted with the punitive/reactionary approach to fighting crime. Includes a discussion on how these ideas apply to national crime policy. Keywords: crime theory routine activities. 11 pages; 30 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
17008. THE ETHICAL DILEMMA OF DECEPTION IN UNDERCOVER POLICE WORK. Taking a philosophical perspective, this paper discusses the problems of lying, deceit and betrayal of trust inherent in undercover police work. Drawing on the utilitarian, relativist, and justice points of view, it is argued that such work does more good than harm in the long run. Keywords: police ethics undercover. 8 pages; 20 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
17000. "THEORIES OF CRIME" BY CURRAN AND RENZETTI (BOOK REVIEW). This paper provides a chapter-by-chapter summary of this book, which provides an overview of criminological theories. Theories discussed include classical, biological, genetic, psychological, social, subculture, radical and feminist. Keywords: criminology causation theories. Written 2004. 9 pages; 0 footnotes; 1 bibliographic sources. 1,830 words.   $63
 
15995. INTEGRATION OF SERVICES IN THE ADDICTION-TREATMENT FIELD. This paper concerns the movement towards providing integrated criminal justice, mental health, social and substance abuse services within the addiction treatment field. The advantages, disadvantages and overall effectiveness of the integrated approach to substance abuse treatment. Keywords: substance abuse treatment integration. 5 pages; 10 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,341 words.   $35
 
15903. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE. Written from the perspective of a social worker, this paper discusses the signs of child sexual abuse, the family situations that increase the likelihood of its occurrence, and the characteristics of offenders. The paper addresses the need to distinguish between real and false cases of child sexual abuse, as well as the various approaches to treatment that are available for victims. 12 pages; 27 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15895. THE PROTECTION OF CHILDREN FROM SEXUAL PREDATORS ACT (PL 105-314). This paper discusses this 1998 federal law designed to protect children from sexual predators, providing an overview of the components of the law and the problems which prompted its passage (e.g., child pornography on the Internet, access to online porn by children, and sexual predators online). The political, economic, and administrative feasibility of the law is also discussed. 24 pages; 56 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15887. MANAGEMENT AND SUPERVISION IN LAW ENFORCEMENT. This paper discusses the importance of management and supervision in law enforcement, and argues that the most effective approach is one that takes the “human element” into account. Also includes information on how to identify and train managerial/supervisory candidates. 6 pages; 18 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15847. COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS IN EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT. This paper addresses the importance of communications systems in emergency management and considers various proposals for improving such systems in the wake of the terrorist attacks of 9/11. Topics addressed include: the need for redundancy (back-up systems); the need for interoperability; and the idea of enabling civilian-based emergency managers to connect to military communications systems. 14 pages; 40 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources, 2 appendices.   $98
 
15840. "THEORIES OF CRIME" BY CURRAN AND RENZETTI (BOOK REVIEW). This paper presents a chapter-by-chapter summary of this important book on criminology. The topics include hereditary, psychological, social, subcultural, radical, and feminist theories of crime causation. 8 pages; 0 footnotes; 1 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15816. JUSTICE IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. This paper considers the inherent tension between the components of the criminal justice system which emphasize “initiative,” oftentimes at the expense of adherence to rules and regulations, and the “rule of law,” which emphasizes the rights of individual citizens and is designed to maintain constraints on the initiative of legal officials. The tension between these two forces leads to the charge that the criminal justice system often fails in its mission to actually obtain “justice”. This paper discusses this situation as it relates to the three major segments of the criminal justice system: law enforcement, courts, and corrections. Concludes that while it appears that the criminal justice system does often fail to secure justice, it does not seem that the solution to this problem is to be found in eliminating either individual rights or the ability of criminal law professionals to utilize “constrained” forms of initiative. In order for the criminal justice system to attain a greater sense of justice, some type of cooperative balance needs to be found between these two major forces. KEYWORDS: criminal justice order legality individual rights judicial constraints. Written 2004. APA Style. 18 pages, 41 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 4,154 words.   $126
 
15785. THE RECREATIONAL DRUG ECSTASY: THE PROBLEM AND SOME ATTEMPTED SOLUTIONS. Provides an overview and analysis of the recreational drug Ecstasy (aka "E", XTC). Outlines the chemical basis of the drug, describes its main effects and health risks; discusses it use and abuse during the 1970's, and its more recent popularity as a "club drug." Emphasizes the health risks of the drug. Briefly discusses supply and distribution patterns and current law enforcement efforts to discourage use. Considers various individual, school- and family-based psychological (psychotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, etc.) and drug education programs to address the problem. 9 pages, 32 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15760. RAPE: A MULTIFACETED AND VARIED CRIME. Beginning with a discussion of acquaintance rape (date and marital) and then considering homosexual rape and the major varieties of stranger rape, this research paper makes general distinctions between several different categories of rape and provides background information on the characteristics of the rapists who commit these rapes. The essay considers the major factors which differentiate types of rape and rapists and provides an overview of FBI classification schemes and pattern rapists, including the serial rapists and the sex killer. KEYWORDS: rape rapists sex offenders term paper. APA Style. 18 pages, 33 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
15759. RAPE AND RAPISTS. Following a brief definition of rape and a discussion of some of the methodological difficulties in studying rape behavior and rapists, this term paper provides a summary overview of the varieties of rape (e.g., acquaintance rape, stranger rape, male-on-male rape) and types of rapists (e.g., date rapists, serial rapists, sadistic rapists, classification schemes), and then considers the causes of rape, looking at co-factors in rape behavior, antecedents in rape, and psychological, social, and biological theories which attempt to explain rape behavior. KEYWORDS: rape rapists sex offenders term paper. APA Style. 11 pages, 63 footnotes, 40 bibliographic sources. 4,081 words.   $77
 
15756. WOMEN WHO KILL THEIR HUSBANDS AND THE BATTERED WOMAN DEFENSE IN THE U.S. AND U.K. This paper provides a comparative analysis of how the criminal justice systems in the United States versus England and Wales treats women accused of killing their husbands. The analysis begins with a general overview of spousal homicide, and its central features in the U.S. and the U.K. Following this, the historical treatment of women murderers and the legal evolution of self-defense law will be examined. This is followed by an examination of the current and evolving legal status of women who kill their husbands in the U.S. and the U.K., with a close focus on the expansion of the battered woman's syndrome self-defense strategy in the U.S. and the reliance on provocation defenses in the U.K. KEYWORDS: battered women syndrome spouse abuse victim retaliation female killers. 15 pages, 36 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 4,185 words.   $105
 
15745. POLICE CRISIS LEADERSHIP. This paper discusses how police leaders should respond to terrorist attacks, hostage situations, and other "crisis events." It is argued that, although a Human Resources approach should generally be used in police leadership, a crisis requires the use of an adaptable "situational" approach to leadership. The phases of handling a crisis are discussed, including pre-planning (including such things as training exercises and interagency coordination), field leadership, and debriefing after the event. 16 pages, 31 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
15723. THE ROLE AND ADEQUACY OF PUNISHMENT. This paper argues that punishment is a complex issue and the views on its adequacy are relative. This is shown by comparing the views of such writers as Michel Foucault, Hannah Arendt (on the Adolf Eichmann trial) and Marcia Clark (on the O.J. Simpson trial). In addition, the views in various works of literature are referred to such as To Kill a Mockingbird, The Scarlet Letter and Measure for Measure. 11 pages, 21 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15684. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG ABUSE AND CRIME IN THE U.K. This paper critically examines the evidence of a link between drug abuse and crime in Great Britain. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the basis for the current government's claim of an "irrefutable link" between drug abuse and crime and for the government's implied assertion that the link is causal. Following this, the literature on drug abuse-crime linkages is reviewed and alternative explanations for the drug/crime connection considered. 10 pages, 34 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15683. IMPACT OF THE WOOLF REPORT ON BRITISH PRISON POLICY SINCE 1991. This paper discusses and analyzes the impact of the Woolf Report on British prison policy (and British prison conditions) over the eleven years since its publication. The paper begins with a brief overview of the events leading up to the commissioning of the Woolf Report and a discussion of the major recommendations for reform included in the report. Following this is an assessment of the impact of the Report, both in terms of its impact on government prison policy and in terms of its impact on prison conditions. KEYWORDS: prison reform uk home office woolf report criminal justice policy england wales. 13 pages, 48 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,443 words.   $91
 
15677. FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY: RAPE & SEXUAL ASSAULT. This research paper provides an overview of both the established and the newer techniques and methodologies for locating, collecting, and analyzing evidence in rape and sexual assault cases. The essay includes a description of the major sources and types of evidence and a discussion of the sexual assault examination of the victim. KEYWORDS: forensics rape investigation sexual assault evidence collection DNA crime. APA Style. 10 pages, 21 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 2,662 words.   $70
 
15664. RESEARCH DESIGN PROPOSAL: EXAMINING MANDATORY MINIMUMS IN DRUG SENTENCING. This paper presents a proposal for a criminal justice research design. The proposed study would examine how federal judges, federal prosecutors, legislators, and the general voting public view mandatory minimum sentencing laws in drug offenses. Reviews the literature on the impact of mandatory minimums and the disparate views of these laws taken by judges, prosecutors, legislators and the public. States five hypotheses for testing and describes the methodology (study design, samples and sampling procedures, instruments) for the study. Includes sample questions from the proposed survey instrument. KEYWORDS: mandatory minimums judicial sentencing policy research design criminology deterrence theory punitive justice. 22 pages, 58 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 5,778 words.   $133
 
15658. THE TRIAL AND CONVICTION OF SIRHAN SIRHAN: WARPED JUSTICE AND THE ASSASSINATION OF RFK. Without reference to Sirhan's ultimate guilt or innocence, this term paper provides an overview and analysis of the performance of Sirhan's defense team during his 1969 trial for the murder of Robert F. Kennedy. The essay argues that the defense team's strategy and performance had a profoundly negative impact on the outcome of the trial and that the shortcomings in the defense team's performance were so significant as to render the legitimacy of Sirhan's conviction questionable. KEYWORDS: rfk assassination sirhan sirhan murder trial defense strategy assessment essay. APA Style. 17 pages, 32 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 4,486 words.   $119
 
15651. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BRITAIN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of and responses to domestic violence in Great Britain. The specific focus of this study is the role of criminal justice agencies in Great Britain dealing with domestic violence. Profiles the current scope of the problem, traces the history of the legal treatment of domestic violence in England, profiles historical and current laws pertaining to domestic violence and examines the role of police and the Crown Prosecution Service in dealing with the problem. KEYWORDS: domestic violence spouse abuse criminal justice britain essay. APA Style. 21 pages, 67 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 5,526 words.   $133
 
15650. WOMEN IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of how women are treated within the criminal justice system in England and Wales. The investigation begins with a general overview of women's status in British crime statistics and of the general orientation of the criminal justice system towards women offenders. The analysis then takes a closer look at how the CJS treats women by examining the position of two distinct groups of female offenders: 1) women of color, and 2) female killers and/or perpetrators of serious violent crime. Another major section examines the status of women in the prisons of England and Wales. The concluding section considers the implications of the treatment of women for the implementation of justice in Britain. KEYWORDS: female killers uk criminal justice women prison essay. APA Style. 21 pages, 87 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 5,904 words.   $133
 
15648. ONLINE GAMBLING: A SOCIO-LEGAL ANALYSIS. This paper provides a legal perspective on Internet gambling, examining the various social, political, and legal issues raised by the proliferation of this new form of gambling. Following an overview of the major political/social positions surrounding online gambling, the investigation profiles and legal position of Internet gambling, looking at state law, federal law, and proposed legislation. Concludes that existing federal and state law is adequate to prosecute Internet gambling operators, including those in foreign jurisdictions, yet notes that enforcement will remain problematic at best. KEYWORDS: internet casinos online gambling law gaming industry. APA Style. 15 pages, 43 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 4,210 words.   $105
 
15632. RAPISTS: TYPES, CO-FACTORS, AND ANTECEDENTS. After briefly identifying the differences between rapists and other sexual offenders and providing a general overview of the heterogeneity of rapists, this paper discusses some of the major typologies or schemata used to categorize rapists and explores some of the psychological, environmental, and other antecedent factors which appear to be associated with rape and rapists. KEYWORDS: rape rapists sex offenders types causes criminality term paper. APA Style. 9 pages, 41 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 2,657 words.   $63
 
15631. EXPLAINING RAPE: CURRENT & EMERGING MODELS. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the current and emerging explanations for rape. The first part of the report focuses on recent literature concerning biological/genetic theories of rape. The second part of the paper reviews a broad range of single-factor and multiple-factor theories of rape, including psychodynamic theory, personality theory, sexual preference theory, feminist theory, socio-biological theory, and integrative theories. KEYWORDS: theory rape causes explanatory models sex offenses rapists term paper. APA Style. 21 pages, 96 footnotes, 37 bibliographic sources. 5,803 words.   $133
 
15620. SYSTEMATIC GENDER BIAS IN YOUTH JUSTICE IN ENGLAND AND WALES. A brief overview and analysis of systematic discrimination against young women and girls in the youth justice system of England and Wales. Argues that while the existence of gender bias in the system is indisputable, its nature is complex. On some levels (e.g., cautions versus sentencing) young women appear to be treated more leniently than young men. On the other hand, young women are treated more harshly than young men in terms of sentencing on first convictions and remanded to secure local accommodations. Other areas of juvenile justice showing evidence of gender bias include disparate treatment for status offenses, differences in prison environment, differential policies on adult/youth mixing, and the preoccupation with sexual aspects or possible sexual consequences of young women's criminal behavior. KEYWORDS: discrimination against women girls gender bias uk juvenile justice system britain. APA Style. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,771 words.   $70
 
15618. THE SOCIOLOGY OF DEVIANCE: THE PERSPECTIVE OF BECKER. This paper critically examines Howard Becker's labeling theory (1963) view that "social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance." The first section provides an explication of Becker's statement within the broader context of labeling theory and social deviance. The next section considers Becker's formulations within the context of specific examples. Finally, the analysis examines the possibility of bringing the labeled outsider back "inside" through a process using Braithwaite's theory of re-integrative shaming. 15 pages, 27 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
15608. PROSTITUTION AS A SOCIAL PROBLEM. A feminist sociological perspective is used to explain the problem of prostitution. It is noted that feminists are divided over this issue; some see "sex work" as a women's right, while others see prostitution as a form of patriarchal oppression. However, both sides agree that there is a need to stop prosecuting women who engage in prostitution; instead more emphasis should be placed on enforcing the laws that protect women from male abuse. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15607. POLICE STRESS. This paper discusses the causes of police stress and notes that stress reactions can either have a positive or negative impact on psychology and health. "Mismanaged stress" results in high suicide rates and other problems for police officers. With this view in mind, the paper includes a discussion of coping strategies that can be used to alleviate the stress reactions. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15597. "MEGAN'S LAW" AS A VIOLATION OF THE EX POST FACTO CLAUSE. It is argued that the notification provisions of sex-offender registration laws are a violation of the Constitution's prohibition against retroactive punishments. In making this argument, various Federal Court and Supreme Court opinions, as well as the debate over how "punishment" is defined, are discussed. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15582. CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES AND "MEGAN'S LAW." This paper concerns the laws that have arisen since the 1990's regarding registration and community notification in cases involving released sex offenders. It is argued that despite the apparent unconstitutional elements in the laws (relating to such issues as bill of attainder, the Ex Post Facto clause, double jeopardy and cruel and unusual punishment), they have been mostly upheld by the courts for the sake of "community protection." 11 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15558. THE PRIVATE SECURITY INDUSTRY. This paper provides a brief history of the industry, up through the period of booming growth in the late 20th Century and the continuing growth in the aftermath of the 9-11 terrorist attacks. In addition, the controversies over the use of "rent-a-cops" are discussed, and it is concluded that private security fulfills a need that is not met by public police. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
15556. JEWISH GANGSTERS AND ORGANIZED CRIME IN THE 1920'S AND 1930'S. The first part of the paper discusses notable Jewish crime figures, their activities, and how they operated. The second part of the paper examines various theoretical views on why so many second-generation Jewish immigrants became involved in organized crime during their time. 10 pages, 38 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15535. VIDEOTAPING POLICE INTERROGATIONS. Presents the arguments for and against the use of videotapes, and concludes that the arguments in favor of their use are more compelling. For example, they help reduce police abuse, provide strong evidence in court, and reduce the occurrence of false confessions. Includes outline. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15522. POLICE ADMINISTRATION (O. W. WILSON). A paper on the significance of this 1950 book in relation to the police reforms of the early 20th Century. Wilson was concerned with "professionalizing" the police and making them more efficient and less corrupt. Wilson's basic ideas are discussed, and it is claimed that many of his guidelines are still used by the nation's police departments in the present day. 9 pages, 22 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
 
15501. WARRANTLESS SEARCHES. This paper concerns the Supreme Court cases in which exceptions have been made to the Constitutional requirement for a warrant when police officers make searches or seizures. The Court has narrowly defined the instances in which such exceptions can be made. The paper also discusses the importance of probable cause and the view that privacy is more protected in the home than in public places. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15495. POLICE ROLE IN THE CONTEMPORARY ERA: AN ADMINISTRATIVE LAW ANALYSIS. This paper provides an analysis of the role of the police officer as viewed from the perspective of administrative law. The first section provides a brief definition and overview of the concept of administrative law and its application related to the proper role of law enforcement. The next section examines the evolution of the police role during the contemporary post-reform era, tracing the shift from the professional model to the current interest in problem-oriented and community-policing models. A concluding section summarizes the findings and speculates on the future role of the police officer. KEYWORDS: police departments officer roles community policy problem oriented model police reform. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 18 pages, 29 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references + Table of Cases   $126
 
15494. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF THE POLICE OFFICER. This paper provides a historical analysis of the role of the police officer as viewed from the perspective of administrative law. The first section below provides a brief definition and overview of the concept of administrative law and its application related to the proper role of law enforcement. Following this, we will consider the historical role of the police officer dating from the inauguration of municipal police departments in the United States in the mid-19th century through the 20th century "reform era" ending in the late 1960s with the passage of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 and the creation of the Law Enforcement Education Program (LEEP). KEYWORDS: administrative law justice police history law enforcement 19th century reform era omnibus crime control act. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 18 pages, 28 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references + Table of Cases.   $126
 
15493. WELLS FARGO.COM VERSUS NETBANK. "Clicks & Bricks" versus "Clicks and Clicks" in Internet Banking. This term paper provides an overview and comparative analysis of a pure-Internet and a "clicks and mortar" Internet bank, specifically examining the biggest Internet-only (NetBank) and the biggest real-world based Internet banking competitor (Wells Fargo.com). Following a profile and analysis of the Internet banking operating environment, the paper compares Wells Fargo & NetBank using a SWOT analysis. KEYWORDS: banking industry internet banks online banking swot marketing strategy competitive analysis term paper. APA Style. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references.   $77
 
15492. THE IMPACT OF COMPUTER HACKERS ON ONLINE BUSINESSES. Discussed various types of attacks, including denial of service attacks and attacks that have been made on Microsoft Corporation. It is argued that small businesses as well as large ones are vulnerable to hackers; it is also argued that hacking is a serious and ongoing problem, and therefore businesses need to keep up with the latest technologies, just as hackers do. 11 pages, 36 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.   $77
 
15491. COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST HACKERS. This paper is concerned with what businesses can do to protect themselves against computer hackers. Includes the need for a formal security program, the use of computer programs such as firewalls, the controversy of hiring "good" hackers to fight "bad" hackers, and other issues. 10 pages, 32 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references.   $70
 
15481. INSANITY: LEGAL VERSUS PSYCHIATRIC VIEWPOINTS. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of legal versus psychiatric/medical views of insanity with a particular focus on the insanity defense and the legal approach to mental illness in the criminal courts. The essay begins with a historical background on the development of the insanity defense. Following this, we consider the use and components of the insanity defense in contemporary American jurisprudence, looking at the acceptance of the insanity defense as a valid legal strategy in various jurisdictions, the alternatives to the insanity defense, and the psychiatric and legal issues surrounding insanity defenses and the disposition of acquitted defendants. KEYWORDS: law psychiatry legal status mentally ill persons insanity defense term paper. Written 2001. APA Style. 13 pages, 48 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 5,502 words.   $91
 
15479. COMPARATIVE JUSTICE: ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO INCARCERATION REGARDING SUBSTANCE ABUSERS IN THE U.S., BRITISH & DUTCH SYSTEMS. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the domestic drug policies of three liberal Western democracies: United States, Great Britain (the focus will be on England as the policies vary somewhat in other regions of the UK), and the Netherlands. The paper focuses on the three criminal justice systems' treatment of the substance user/abuser, with a particular focus on alternative approaches to incarceration in the U.S., English and Dutch criminal justice systems. KEYWORDS: comparative criminal justice systems drug crimes US UK Netherlands substance abusers treatment punishment term paper. APA Style. 29 pages, 71 footnotes, 33 bibliographic references.   $133
 
15464. JACK RUBY: CONSPIRATOR IN THE KENNEDY ASSASSINATION. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of Jack Ruby's personal and criminal background, and considers his associations with mobsters and law enforcement officials. The essay considers Ruby's motivations for killing Oswald and examines theorists' view of Ruby's potential role as a co-conspirator. The term paper concludes that Ruby was not part of a larger conspiracy and finds that Ruby's motivations for killing Oswald were linked with his emotional instability. KEYWORDS: jfk president kennedy assassination jack ruby conspiracy lee harvey oswald term paper. APA Style. 16 pages, 35 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
15459. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER & SERIAL KILLERS. This paper explores the personality of the serial killer, concentrating specifically on the role of one specific personality disorder – antisocial personality disorder – in serial murder. The analysis begins with a definition of terms, including a definition and outline of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder. The analysis reviews the literature on serial murder and personality, examining the link between antisocial personality disorder and the behavior of serial killers, briefly illustrating with examples of known serial killers such as Ted Bundy, John Wayne Gacy, Henry Lee Lucas and others. A concluding section briefly considers the appropriateness of incarceration for these individuals. Keywords: sociopath psychopath personality murder serial killing mental defect illness criminal justice. APA Style. 12 pages; 27 footnotes; 15 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15437. GENETICS AND CRIME. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversial theory that criminal behavior has genetic roots, considering the reasons why biological and and genetic in particular and theories of crime causation are so controversial, examining the central tenets of the theory, and considering the evidence supporting the theory based on family, twin, adoption, and gene-environment interaction studies. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15238. UNIVERSITY SEXUAL HARASSMENT CODES. This paper considers whether university sexual harassment policies violate the First Amendment (free speech) rights of professors' and students. Reviews existing case law on academic freedom, First Amendment rights of public employees, and applicable university sexual harassment cases. Concludes that a First Amendment challenge to the vague "hostile environment" standards in these policies is possible. KEYWORDS: first amendment free speech sexual harassment codes university academic freedom. APA Style. 15 pages, 64 footnotes, 41 bibliographic sources (including cases). 5,053 words.   $105
 
15214. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN THE 1993 WACO INCIDENT. This paper discusses the actions of the BATF and the FBI in the siege on the Branch Davidians that ended in the deaths of more than 80 people. The government's use of paramilitary tactics and flammable tear gas is discussed, as well as the denials of the Justice Department and the manipulations of evidence that followed the incident. It is also noted that new controversies have continued to arise despite the Danforth investigation's exoneration of the government. 12 pages, 37 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15167. THE WESTIES (ENGLISH) AND WISEGUY (PILEGGI). A comparison of these two books on organized crime gangs. Includes discussions of the extreme violence of the main characters, illegal activities, the ability of gang bosses to run operations while in prison, the lives of mob wives, police investigations, and friction between gang members. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.   $70
 
15048. CHEATING IN CASINOS. The methods used by cheaters in various games; the use of teams and employee collaborators; and the counter measures of casinos to stop cheating, including the use of surveillance cameras and computer databases. 11 pages, 49 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $77
 
15014. INTERNET GAMBLING. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Internet gambling. Following an overview and profile of the history and current scope of the Internet gambling and a discussion of the reasons why the U.S. is likely to continue to maintain a strong position against Internet gambling, the research paper reviews the various legal and regulatory approaches to curtailing Internet gambling. Included is a discussion of the varied approaches of non-U.S. jurisdictions and the treatment of Internet gambling under international law; existing and proposed federal law concerning Internet gambling; and state laws on Internet gambling and a review of recent federal and state court cases concerning Internet gambling. The concluding section speculates on the future of Internet gambling and makes recommendations on federal/state action in this arena. KEYWORDS: internet gambling online gaming term paper. 27 pages, 105 footnotes, 41 bibliographic sources. 9,123 words.   $133
 
15011. THE CASE FOR RACIAL PROFILING. This paper takes the controversial position that racial profiling – defined as the law enforcement practice of using race as one factor (but not the only factor) in the decision of whether to target an individual for a stop or investigation – has an acceptable and necessary place in American law enforcement. Following a brief overview of the current racial profiling controversy, this analysis presents an empirical and a legal argument in favor of the use of racial profiling. It is argued that racial profiling is empirically justified based on crime statistics showing the greater involvement of members of certain racial and ethnic groups in specific crimes. Based on a review of recent U.S. Supreme Court and U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals rulings, it is further argued that the judicious use of racial profiling by law enforcement agencies is legally defensible against both Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment claims. KEYWORDS: racial profiling police practices argumentative essay. Written 2000. APA Style. 14 pages, 53 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources. 4,326 words.   $98
 
15009. TV VIOLENCE & CHILDREN. This paper examines the problem of television violence and its effect on young viewers. Following a breif overview of the current scope and distribution of violence on television, the investigation details what researchers have identified as the three potential primary negative effects of increased aggression, desensitization, and fear. The major theoretical models (social learning theory, priming, social development) explaining the transmission of these effects are outlined. Included is a critique of the argument that the viewing of violent TV contributes to violence in society. The analysis also examines the social, environmental, and contextual factors which influence the distribution of these negative effects. A concluding section considers the policy implications of the research. KEYWORDS: tv violence child development aggression term paper. Written 2000. APA Style. 16 pages, 87 footnotes, 39 bibliographical sources. 6,165 words.   $112
 
15005. THE CAUSES OF CRIME. Looking at both classical and contemporary theories, the analysis summarizes the major theories of criminal causation, beginning with early "spiritual" explanations for crime and extending through the classical school, the positivist school, and to contemporary environmentalist, individualist, and integrative theories on criminal behavior. Included among the specific theories considered are biological theory, strain theory, subcultural deviance theory, social learning theory, control theory, conflict theory, labeling theory, the theory of differential association, and biosocial theory. An emphasis is placed upon those theories which have been particularly influential in the United States. 24 pages, 115 footnotes, 44 bibliographic references.   $133
 
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