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19221. HASSINA SHERJAN HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL CASE STUDY 112029 SOLUTION. This paper provides a Berkeley Research analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School social enterprise case study by Robert G. Eccles, George Serafeim, and Phillippa Eccles on Afghani Hassina Sherjan and her efforts to educate, train and employ Afghan women through organizations such as Aid Afghanistan for Education and Bourni. The case focuses on the purpose and organization of non-profit companies auch as Bourni. The case solution includes problem definition, problem analysis, discussion of alternatives, and recommendations. APA Style. 10 pages, 3 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: Hassina Sherjan case solution, entrepreneurship, leadership, non-profit organizations, social responsibility, women in business, women’s education third world muslim country, Afghanistan, Afghani women, Harvard business case solution.

About Berkeley Research Case Solutions: Berkeley Research has offered authoritative case solutions to Harvard Business School case studies since 1984. We also feature solutions to case studies from other leading graduate business schools including Stanford, Darden, Wharton and Ivey. Our case solutions feature in-depth analysis drawing on appropriate analytical tools including S.W.O.T., P.E.S.T. and Five Forces analyses, and include secondary references from scholarly journals and leading business periodicals. We do not offer student-written essays; all of our case solutions are professionally written by MBA and DBA –degreed writers with proven aptitude and long experience in writing insightful case solutions. Unlike other case solutions made available on the Internet without competent evaluation of their merits, Berkeley Research case solutions are peer reviewed by a panel of case analysts prior to being offered on our website. The strongest and most gratifying endorsement of the quality of our case solutions comes from our customers: over two-thirds of our case study sales are made to repeat customers, graduate students and executives enrolled in some of the most distinguished and selective graduate business programs, and who necessarily set a high bar for analytical rigor and expository clarity. The Berkeley Research case study solution is a premium product intended for a discerning audience.
19071. ONLINE & DISTANCE EDUCATION AT PUBLIC AND PRIVATE NONPROFIT UNIVERSITIES VERSUS ONLINE PROGRAMS AT FOR-PROFIT UNIVERSITIES. This paper explores the similarities and differences between online education/distance learning at 4-year degree granting public universities and non-profit private universities versus online education/distance learning at for-profit colleges and universities, considering the implications for student outcomes and student and faculty satisfaction levels. The comparative analysis considers similarities and differences between public/non-profit versus for-profit universities in terms of admissions requirements, types of degrees pursued, pedagogy, academic resources, academic standards, and student outcomes. Concludes that public and private non-profit universities are superior to for-profit schools in quality of programs, range of services, resources, and student satisfaction and outcomes. APA Style. 12 pages, 71 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources. 3,110 words.

TAGS: online education, distance learning, public universities, for-profit universities, comparative study, admissions, pedagogy, student satisfaction, student outcomes

18894. THE STANFORD BINET INTELLIGENCE TEST: HISTORY, PROS AND CONS. This term paper describes the historical development and psychometric qualities of the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition. The research paper also addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the test and the ethical and legal issues that might arise from its use. The test can be useful in clinical, research and educational settings, as long as certain precautions are followed in interpreting the results. TAGS: Stanford Binet IQ test, psychological assessment, essay, psychometrics, education, cultural bias, intelligence testing. APA Style. 15 pages, 37 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,554 words.   $105
18853. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN AFRICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN. This term paper discusses the evidence showing that African American children, particularly from poor families, tend to score lower on cognitive tests and experience more difficulties in academic achievement. It is argued that certain elements of culture and parenting may contribute to the problem. However, it is also argued that the problem of lower achievement levels among African American children can be alleviated through interventions that encourage increased participation of the parents in their children’s schooling. TAGS: education policy, academic achievement, African Americans, black culture, parenting style, intervention parental involvement, argumentative essay. APA Style. 10 pages, 20 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,393 words.   $70
18762. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION. This paper reflects on the ways educators can use situational leadership, which seeks to adapt leadership styles to environmental conditions and/or the needs of followers. Emphasis is placed on the theories of Hersey and Blanchard, Vroom and Yetton, and Robert J. House. TAGS: education, situational leadership, normative model, Vroom-Yetton, principals, teachers, school administration, path-goal theory. APA Style. 11 pages, 19 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 2,591 words.   $77
18749. PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATION. This paper discusses portfolio assessments, in which a student’s works are collected and evaluated over a period of time. It is noted that the use of portfolio assessments in education declined somewhat following passage of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2002. However, as argued in the paper, portfolio assessment continues to provide a way to improve the quality of education. The approach helps teachers meet individual students’ needs while engaging the students and helping them develop their thinking, comprehension and organizational skills. KEYWORDS: education teaching assessment standardized testing No Child Left Behind. APA Style. 11 pages, 43 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,462 words   $77
18715. EVALUATION OF A PROGRAM TO PREVENT OBESITY IN CHILDREN. This paper is concerned with an evaluation, conducted by Riggs, et al. (2007), of the PATHWAYS program, which is designed to help children overcome the kinds of problems that result in obesity. It is concluded that the evaluation was, for the most part, well-designed and that it demonstrates the value of the PATHWAYS program in teaching children cognitive skills and the ability to control their appetites and behaviors. KEYWORDS: article review evaluation study childhood obesity prevention healthcare program. APA Style. 11 pages, 17 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,462 words.   $77
18712. THE FIRST-YEAR URBAN HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER (PAUL J. WEINBERG). This paper reviews Paul J. Weinberg’s book about his first year as a teacher in an urban high school. The book includes ongoing commentaries by Weinberg’s father, Carl, who has a half-century of experience as an urban teacher and teacher educator. The review concludes that the book offers many interesting and useful insights about the challenges and rewards of teaching at an urban high school. KEYWORDS: book review urban education teaching city schools new teachers. APA Style. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,484 words.   $42
18711. URBAN TEACHING: THE ESSENTIALS (LOIS WEINER) This paper reviews the book Urban Teaching, by Lois Weiner. It is argued that the book is inspiring and that it provides a practical guide for teachers in urban schools. The material in the book is based on theory as well as Weiner’s experiences as a teacher. Weiner thoroughly covers the topic and uses a writing style that engages the reader. KEYWORDS: book review urban education teaching teachers urban schools new teachers. APA Style. 5 pages, 19 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,296 words.   $35
18709. THE USE OF RANDOMIZED GROUPS IN RESEARCH. This paper reviews an article by St. Pierre & Rossi (2006) entitled “Randomize Groups, Not Individuals: A Strategy for Improving Early Childhood Programs.” The article describes an evaluative study of research that has been conducted on U.S. government education and child care programs. The authors of the study conclude that it is important to randomize groups rather than individuals in this type of research. They also recommend an approach to evaluation known as the Early Childhood Education Systematic Improvement Effort (ESIE). Although the review finds certain flaws in the study, it is concluded that St. Pierre & Rossi make some good points as well. KEYWORDS: article review evaluation early childhood education childcare government United States. APA Style. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,530 words.   $70
18706. TRUANCY IN URBAN EDUCATION. Using a social psychology perspective, this paper examines the problem of truancy as it exists in urban schools in the United States and other parts of the world. A review of the literature describes the extent of the problem, the factors that contribute to it, the consequences of truancy, and recommendations that have been made to resolve or minimize the problem. Includes outline. KEYWORDS: urban schools truancy school attendance skipping school. APA Style. 8 pages, 14 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 1,939 words.   $56
18705. THE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT SURVEY. This paper reviews an article by Rescorla & Alley (2001), regarding their test of the validity and reliability of the Language Development Survey (LDS), a parent-report checklist that is designed to uncover delays in language development in children. The test confirms the validity and reliability of the assessment tool; however, there is a risk of bias in the study because the LDS was developed by Rescorla. KEYWORDS: article review language development assessment testing child developmentAPA Style. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,392 words.   $42
18702. THE DEVIL IS IN THE DETAILS (GANDHI, ET AL.). This paper reviews an article by Gandhi, et al. (2007), regarding a study that was concerned with the use of evidence-based practices in the development of programs. Specifically, the study evaluated the evidence used to support five school-based drug abuse prevention programs as found on seven prominent best-practices lists. According to the study’s findings, there is need for improvement in how school leaders select the drug abuse prevention programs that they intend to implement. KEYWORDS: article review evaluation school-based drug abuse prevention education. APA Style. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,407 words.   $70
18694. HOME-SCHOOL CONNECTION. This paper argues that education is enhanced when there are strong connections between home and school. According to the evidence, this is especially true in the case of disadvantaged children. The paper considers some of the strategies that can be used by teachers and administrators to increase the involvement of parents and other family members. KEYWORDS: education teaching parents strategies parental involvement. APA Style. 5 pages, 18 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,286 words.   $35
18661. CURRICULUM DESIGN FOR STUDENTS’ INDIVIDUAL NEEDS. This paper discusses the approaches that educators have used to design curricula that are responsive to the individual needs of young students. Major models of curriculum individuation including differentiated instruction and the universal instruction design are discussed. Teachers can engage students by drawing on their previous knowledge and using techniques such as journaling. In particular, teachers should seek to understand their students by developing home/school partnerships. KEYWORDS: teaching curriculum design individuation differentiated instruction universal design for learning.. APA Style. 10 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,370 words.   $70
18655. MULTICULTURAL LITERATURE IN THE CLASSROOM. This paper notes that it is challenging to teach literacy to children from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. According to research evidence, multicultural literature helps to engage such students and thereby helps them improve their reading skills and academic performance. However, there are also certain limitations that need to be addressed with this approach (such as limits in teachers’ attitudes and abilities, and resistance among students). Recommendations are provided for dealing with these challenges. Includes annotated bibliography. KEYWORDS: teaching diversity multicultural literature reading skills. APA Style. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 1,310 words.   $42
18570. ALIGNING CLASSROOM ASSESSMENTS TO CURRICULUM STANDARDS. This paper examines the importance of instructors aligning assessments with state-imposed curriculum standards in Florida. Examples of assessments by three secondary-school teachers are used to illustrate this concept. All three of the teachers demonstrated a conscious effort to meet specified standards in their lesson plans. In addition, they all used specific types of assessments that were intended to measure whether or not their students had attained those standards. KEYWORDS: teacher assessments state educational standards teaching to standards. APA Style. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
18569. FLORIDA’S EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS. This paper describes various ways that classroom lesson objectives can be designed to reflect the educational standards of a particular state – in this case, Florida. Three examples were drawn from the practices of actual teachers and three more examples were created hypothetically. The paper also discusses the importance of educators using assessment methods to be sure that learning objectives are being met. It is noted that teachers and administrators need to interpret standards to a certain extent while simultaneously being sure that the general learning standards are being fulfilled. KEYWORDS: educational standards florida educational assessments learning objectives. APA Style. 8 pages, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,103 words.   $56
18568. SCHOOL DIVERSITY PROFILES: FIVE DISTRICTS. This paper presents school diversity profiles for five U.S. school districts. Each profile examines the ways that teachers and administrators in the district are encouraged to identify and address diversity needs and issues among their students. Two of the profiles describe what the district is currently doing and what it can do to improve its efforts. The other three profiles focus on specific issues pertaining to racial diversity, special needs and socioeconomic needs. Four of the profiles are based on teacher perspectives and one is based on the use of school policy documents. KEYWORDS: racial ethnic diversity schools teacher perspectives diversity management globalization Hispanics African Americans Asian Americans. APA Style. 15 pages, 26 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,573 words.   $105
18566. INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES IN SOCIAL STUDIES. This paper presents an analysis and review of four journal articles on instructional approaches in social studies for middle school and high school students: 1) Bringing the Ice Maiden to life: engaging adolescents in learning through picture book read-alouds in contents areas. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy (2005); 2) Writing to learn in social studies. The Social Studies (2006); 3) The social (studies) side of technology. Technology & Learning (1997); and 4) Bringing real world interaction into the classroom. Curriculum Administrator (2000). For each article, there is a summary followed by a personal response. A concluding discussion compares and contrasts the instructional methods described in the articles. KEYWORDS: social studies instruction curriculum lesson plans article reviews middle school high school. APA Style. 12 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 3,018 words.   $84
18565. THE GREAT GATSBY FOR CLASSROOM SPRINGBOARD ACTIVITIES. In this paper, excerpts from F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby are used for springboard activities in a middle-school classroom. Various passages from the novel are used as a basis for instructional activities in the content areas of social studies, science, art, mathematics, and computer technology. The paper includes an overview and discussion of the activities, and then specific lesson plans in science, art, mathematics, and computer science follow. KEYWORDS: middle school education literature springboard activities math art science lesson plans motivating books. APA Style. 20 pages, 24 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 4,820 words.   $133
18564. EVALUATION OF AN 8TH GRADE HISTORY TEXTBOOK. This paper provides an evaluation of a middle school history textbook, The American Journey, by Appleby, Brinkley and McPherson (2005). The book is evaluated using the Fry Readability Formula, the Cloze Procedure, and the Content Area Reading Inventory (CARI). Concludes that the book is challenging to eighth-grade readers but it is nonetheless potentially useful for teaching them in the content-area of American history. KEYWORDS: middle school students curriculum textbooks history text evaluation readability. APA Style. 15 pages, 17 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 3,750 words.   $105
18541. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY IN THE CLASSROOM. This paper discusses how the social cognitive theory of child development can be applied to classroom settings for the purpose of motivating students and improving their behavior and self-efficacy. For example, the theory provides guidelines for the use of modeling and for the development of effective reward systems. KEYWORDS: Bandura self-efficacy education teaching social cognitive theory modeling. APA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,320 words.   $42
18523. ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATION. This paper compares the concept of assessment as found in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and the earlier Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). NCLB is primarily concerned with assessing academic achievement, whereas IDEA focuses on finding ways to accommodate students with special needs in classrooms. Although NCLB takes precedence over IDEA, it is argued that IDEA continues to provide important guidelines for educators in their effort to meet the specific needs of students with disabilities. KEYWORDS: education assessment disabilities inclusion No Child Left Behind IDEA mainstreaming. APA Style. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,331 words.   $35
18518. THE EFFECT OF POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL SUPPORTS ON STUDENTS WITH EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS. This paper provides an analytical literature review on the use of positive behavioral supports to reduce disruptive classroom behaviors among children with emotional and behavioral disorders. Based on an analysis of the findings of sixteen research studies, it is concluded that the use of token economies would be a suitable subject for further examination in this area. KEYWORDS: children emotional behavior disorders education behavioral therapy positive feedback PDD AHDD ADD EBD. APA Style. 25 pages, 42 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 5,414 words.   $133
18334. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. Vocational education (also known as CTE, or Career and Technical Education) arose in the U.S. in the late 19th Century in response to needs for a skilled workforce. It is noted that vocational education today is concerned more with the development of technical skills than manual labor skills. The paper covers the development of vocational education in the U.S., including the negative impact of the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. It is argued that vocational education should continue to receive federal funding, despite the recent emphasis on academic standards, because it still plays an important role in education and the national economy. KEYWORDS: education American history vocational training No Child Left Behind Act. APA Style. 7 pages, 22 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 1,958 words.   $49
18318. A COMPARISON OF FOUR TEACHING STRATEGIES. This paper discusses four teaching strategies: direct instruction, cooperative learning, questioning, and discovery. A chart is provided that compares the strategies and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Using a first-person point of view, questioning strategies are chosen as the most suitable approach for teaching a lesson on the Boston Tea Party to a secondary-level social studies classroom. The lesson plan for accomplishing this is described. KEYWORDS: education teaching social studies American history. APA Style. 9 pages, 4 footnotes in text, 8 bibliographic sources.   $63
18317. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODELS. This paper describes and compares three instructional design models: the constructivist model, the elaboration model, and the ARCS model (“ARCS” refers to strategies for increasing Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction). It is argued that all three models have advantages, but the paper’s author (using a first-person point of view) chooses the ARCS model as the most suitable one for designing classroom instruction because it is easy to use, emphasizes motivation, and is concerned with encouraging lifelong learning. KEYWORDS: education teaching strategies instruction models. APA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes in text, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
18315. FOUR ARTICLES ON INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES IN SOCIAL SCIENCE CLASSROOMS. This paper is concerned with four journal articles (from the period 1997-2006) on instructional approaches that can be used in social science classrooms (read-aloud, writing to learn, the technological approach, and the interactive approach). Each article is summarized, followed by a personal reaction. Then, the methods described in each article are compared and contrasted. KEYWORDS: education teaching social science article review. APA Style. 13 pages, 18 footnotes in text, 7 bibliographic sources.   $91
18312. ARTICLE REVIEW: “EX UNO PLURES,” BY DIANE RAVITCH. This paper critically reviews Ravitch’s article, which appeared in a 2001 issue of Education Next. The author’s thesis is that American schools are not teaching about the “common culture,” as they should be. In the review, it is argued that Ravitch is not very convincing in making her case. Her evidence is anecdotal or based on personal observations, and there are flaws to be found in her argumentative style (such as generalizations and unsupported claims). KEYWORDS: education teaching article review. MLA Style. 6 pages, 12 footnotes in text, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
18221. THE SHORTAGE OF QUALIFIED MATH AND SCIENCE TEACHERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS. This paper looks at the shortage of math and science teachers in economic terms, as a “market failure” in the U.S. education system. It is argued that the problem is caused by an imbalance between demand and supply. It is also argued that there is a need for economic incentives (such as tax credits) to enhance the recruitment and retention of qualified teachers. KEYWORDS: education math science teachers economics. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $42
18210. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS. This paper discusses teaching strategies based on the “sheltered instruction” approach, which seeks to balance academic development and language acquisition for English Language Learners (ELLs). Specific methods for engaging students include teacher modeling, the use of “wait time,” building background, grouping, feedback, and vocabulary development. Teachers are encouraged to be familiar with multiple strategies, in order to meet the needs of individual students. KEYWORDS: education teaching English language acquisition. APA Style. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
18207. “SCHOOL REFORM AND STUDENT LEARNING: A MULTICULTURAL PERSPECTIVE.” This paper reviews an article by Sonja Nieto, which argues against the use of “deficit models” in education and the overemphasis on testing to measure school success. The reviewer finds Nieto convincing in her description of the five conditions needed for successful school reform from a multicultural perspective. KEYWORDS: education school reform multiculturalism. MLA Style. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
18131. READING ASSESSMENT CASE STUDY. This paper is a hypothetical case study of a reading assessment that was conducted with a first-grade girl. The girl's family background and class performance are described. This is followed by a description of the results of various tests that were administered (covering such things as letter identification, reading errors, word recognition, phonemic awareness, etc.). The test results are interpreted in terms of the child's reading abilities and needs, and the paper concludes with some recommendations for meeting those needs. KEYWORDS: education reading assessment testing case study. APA Style. 11 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,611 words.   $77
18120. CLASSROOM APPLICATION OF LEARNING THEORIES. Based on a series of classroom observations, this paper describes how social cognitive theories and constructivist learning theories are used in the education of young students. The observations also revealed the use of behavioral techniques by the teachers. KEYWORDS: education teaching theories social cognitive constructivism behaviorism. APA Style. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources, 2 page appendix including observations. 2,199 words including appendix.   $42
18119. BEHAVIORISM IN THE CLASSROOM. This paper uses classroom observations in order to discuss the use of reinforcements in early education, with an emphasis on the approaches known as Applied Behavior Management and Cognitive Behavior Modification. The paper also discusses the criticisms of the behavioral approach, as well as some of the existing alternatives (cognitive learning, the social-cognitive approach, and the humanistic approach). It is concluded that the humanistic approach is the best alternative, because it increases self-concept and intrinsic motivation, and it is focused on the needs of individual students. KEYWORDS: education teaching behaviorism cognitive humanistic. APA Style. 7 pages, 17 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,603 words.   $49
18110. TEACHERS' ATTITUDES ON MAINSTREAMING AND INCLUSION. This paper reviews the research literature on how teachers feel about the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Data on the attitudes of both general education teachers and special education teachers are addressed. There are mixed findings on whether teachers are for or against the practice, but there is widespread agreement that problems are encountered in the implementation of inclusion efforts, particularly when students have severe disabilities or serious emotional/behavioral problems. Special education teachers have especially negative views on inclusion, because of their direct experience in dealing with the needs of students with disabilities. In the conclusion, it is argued that inclusion efforts can be improved through such things as teacher training and preparation, administrative support, and close collaboration among teachers. KEYWORDS: special education mainstreaming inclusion teacher attitudes. APA Style. 24 pages, 18 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 5,187 words.   $133
18106. COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING. This paper describes the cognitive view of learning and how it differs from the behaviorist view. Emphasis is placed on the information processing model of memory, which sees the mind as being similar to a computer. It is noted that there are educational implications in the fact that human memory has limited capacity. Some techniques that can be used to improve memory are discussed, including chunking and mnemonics using imagery and loci (or "pegs"). KEYWORDS: education learning cognition memory. APA Style. 6 pages, 12 footnotes in text, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
18103. CHILD OBSERVATION. This paper reports on two 30-minute observations of preschool children, based on the use of one-way windows and videotapes. The observational strategy involved the use of anecdotal records and anecdotal notes. One of the observations took place during playtime activities and other took place during a storybook reading, which was followed by the children drawing their responses to the story. The behaviors of the children and teachers, as well as their interactions, are described and interpreted. KEYWORDS: preschool children observation teachers behaviors. MLA Style. 7 pages, 2 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,756 words.   $49
18102. PRINCIPALS AND TIME MANAGEMENT. This paper discusses the fact that principals generally have busy schedules and demands on their time, and notes that there are various tools that can help them cope with this problem. The paper also discusses the importance of not rushing young students through the learning process. Suggestions for dealing with this include the use of the "Responsible Classroom" model and the use of block scheduling. KEYWORDS: education principals time management scheduling. MLA Style. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,323 words.   $35
18101. PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOLS. This paper discusses the importance of parental involvement in the motivation of students and the role of the principal in maximizing this involvement. The effort includes outreach programs, school/home communications, and the provision of guidelines for parents to help their children improve academically. Some tips are also provided for how principals can effectively handle meetings with angry or frustrated parents. KEYWORDS: education principals parents home school communications. MLA Style. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 1,314 words.   $35
18100. IMPROVING TEACHER PERFORMANCE. This paper is concerned with how principals can help teachers attain their highest possible levels of performance. This effort includes such things as the hiring and retaining of qualified teachers, the use of staff development strategies, and the use of effective change management techniques. The role of teacher collaboration in the process is also addressed. KEYWORDS: education principals teachers performance human resources change management. MLA Style. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 1,505 words.   $42
18099. SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND A POSITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT. This paper discusses the importance of a school's culture in the attainment of a positive learning environment, where students feel motivated to learn and to meet achievement standards. This type of culture is both caring and challenging at the same time. A positive environment includes a feeling of safety, and thus principals need to be skilled in dealing with issues of student discipline. The paper also includes a brief discussion of how a positive culture can help improve the education of African American students (a traditionally disadvantaged group). KEYWORDS: education principals school environment culture African Americans. MLA Style. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,647 words.   $49
18098. PRINCIPALS AND TEACHER TEAMS. This paper discusses the need for principals to encourage teachers to work in collaborative teams for the purpose of improving student achievement. Teams enable teachers to share their knowledge and build a sense of "relational trust." The school's climate, or culture, is a vital part of this effort. In order for teacher teams to be effective, principals need to work toward creating a culture that is positive and supportive. KEYWORDS: principals teachers teams team teaching school culture. MLA Style. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 1,510 words.   $42
18097. PRINCIPALS AND TEACHER HIRING AND EVALUATION. This paper discusses the role of principals in hiring and retaining qualified teachers. For example, certain types of questions should be asked during interviews in order to determine a candidate's "tangible" and "intangible" qualities. After hiring, teachers need to be subjected to an ongoing evaluation process. It is noted that teacher teams can be used to supplement the principal's evaluation efforts. KEYWORDS: education principals teachers human resources hiring evaluation. MLA Style. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,300 words.   $35
18096. PRINCIPALS AND TEACHER PERFORMANCE. This paper discusses some of the ways principals can help teachers improve their performance. For example, principals should use classroom visits to make evaluations and follow this up by providing meaningful (not overly critical) feedback. The paper also addresses the problem of constraints on principals' time and suggests the use of teacher teams to help overcome this problem and to also empower and motivate the teachers. KEYWORDS: education principals teachers time management. MLA Style. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,248 words.   $35
18095. PRINCIPALS AND THE USE OF DATA. This paper discusses the ways principals can use data to improve teaching and learning. Data from both statewide tests and classroom assessments can be useful for this purpose. Emphasis is placed on the use of teacher teams to facilitate this effort. The principal's roles include providing oversight and feedback to the teacher teams, and using data on teacher performance in order to encourage further improvements. KEYWORDS: education principals teachers academic performance data. MLA Style. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,315 words.   $35
18094. SOCIODRAMATIC PLAY. This paper starts by noting the trend in early childhood education of emphasizing academic results and neglecting the use of play-related activities. It is argued that certain play activities are useful in the development of preschoolers and special needs students. As long as the play is "mature" play (involving role-playing and the symbolic use of props), it can contribute to such things as creativity, cognitive abilities, social and emotional development, communication skills, and learning about diversity issues. KEYWORDS: education development play. APA Style. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,768 words.   $49
18093. THE GAP IN READING SCORES. This paper discusses the wide gap in reading scores among U.S. students, which is apparently linked to the relative advantages and disadvantages of children from differing socioeconomic backgrounds. It is argued that a standardized core curriculum is the key to improving equal opportunity in education, because it sets learning expectations and establishes a sense of academic purpose. The paper also discusses the role of principals and schools in addressing this issue. KEYWORDS: education inequalities reading scores curriculum. MLA Style. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,488 words.   $42
18087. SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS. This paper reviews the literature on the roles of administrators, faculty and parents in the development of good school/community relationships. Various studies are discussed, including those of the NNPS (National Network of Partnership Schools), which are found to be limited by their assumptions, values, and goals. The paper also discusses two studies on school partnership programs based on the Comprehensive School Reform (CRS) model, as well as other studies pertaining to the roles of parents (or families), administrators, and teachers. The conclusion summarizes the basic findings of the various studies and points out the areas where more research is needed. KEYWORDS: literature review education school community relations parents administrators teachers. APA Style. 21 pages, 32 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 5,261 words.   $133
18083. TEACHING STUDENTS ABOUT 9/11 & TERRORISM. This paper provides a lesson plan (broken down into five days) for teaching middle school/high school students about 9/11 and the War on Terrorism. The instructional objectives are described, along with activities involving the use of multiple teaching strategies (lecture, group discussion, seatwork, questioning, recitation, audiovisual materials, computer-assisted learning, homework, and cooperative learning). KEYWORDS: teaching lesson plan middle high school 9/11 terrorism. APA Style. 7 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,602 words.   $49
18061. BALANCED LITERACY STRATEGIES. This paper is concerned with "Collaboration, Integration, and Rejection," an article by A. M. Wiseman that appeared in a 2003 issue of The Reading Teacher. Wiseman conducted an observational study of the use of balanced literacy strategies in a Kindergarten classroom. These strategies included read-aloud activities, journal writing, peer interactions, and use of a "dialogic" approach. It is argued that, although Wiseman's study is not empirical in nature, it supports the value of balanced literacy instruction and it provides examples of the practical application of balanced literacy techniques. KEYWORDS: teaching kindergarten balanced literacy strategies. APA Style. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,220 words.   $35
18060. PRINCIPALS AND DATA. This paper discusses how principals can use data to improve teaching and learning in their schools. Topics include the need for change in the national/state assessment test system (in order to make the resultant data more useful), the importance of principals using the classroom assessments of teachers, and the use of computers and a "Just-in-Time" approach in order to have necessary data "embedded" into everyday tasks. KEYWORDS: education principals data assessment testing. MLA Style. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,302 words.   $35
18059. LAURA POLK'S THEORY OF RESILIENCE. This paper discusses how principals can use data to improve teaching and learning in their schools. Topics include the need for change in the national/state assessment test system (in order to make the resultant data more useful), the importance of principals using the classroom assessments of teachers, and the use of computers and a "Just-in-Time" approach in order to have necessary data "embedded" into everyday tasks. KEYWORDS: education principals data assessment testing. MLA Style. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,302 words.   $35
18057. “ONE L” BY SCOTT TUROW & “BARMAN” BY ALEX WELLEN. This paper discusses the perspectives in these two books on law school and preparation for a career as a lawyer. Turow attended Harvard Law School (a "Tier-1" school) and he writes about his experiences as a first year law student. Wellen attended Temple Law School (a "Tier-2" school) and his book is about his experiences in preparing for the bar exam and his first job in a law firm. In both books, the reader learns about the intense specialized training that lawyers receive. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the books, their implications, and their reflection of the realities of American justice and society. The conclusion of the paper describes how the material in the books can be used to teach young students about the concepts of justice. KEYWORDS: teaching justice law school lawyers comparative book review. MLA Style. 11 pages, 18 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,602 words.   $77
18056. EXECUTIONER'S CURRENT BY RICHARD MORAN & MAY GOD HAVE MERCY BY JOHN C. TUCKER. This paper discusses these two books on the death penalty in the U.S. and how they can be used to teach concepts of justice to young students. Moran's book is about the development of the electric chair, including the role played by the inventor Thomas Edison. Tucker's book is about how a procedural error in a death penalty case resulted in possibly exonerating evidence being deemed inadmissible in court. The paper also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each book, their critical implications, and how the ideas and events depicted in each are typical of American justice and society. KEYWORDS: comparative book review death penalty teaching justice. MLA Style. 10 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,471 words.   $70
18055. PRINCIPALS & TIME MANAGEMENT. This term paper is concerned with how school principals can deal with multiple demands on their time while still keeping instruction and student achievement at the forefront. References are made to the views in The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People (Stephen Covey), the anonymous story "Big Rocks," and other sources. In addition, the importance of discipline is discussed, and the use of prioritized lists is recommended. KEYWORDS: education principals time management. MLA Style. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,325 words.   $35
18021. NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT. This paper discusses the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its philosophical assumptions, and its proclaimed intention of improving quality and equality in U.S. education by tying school funding to the results of standardized tests. It is argued that the No Child Left Behind Act is ineffective because it results in "teaching to the test" and a narrowing of the curriculum. In addition, it is overly punitive and it does not provide national-based testing standards for schools in different states to follow. KEYWORDS: education standardized testing federal laws nclb bush administration argumentative essay education policy reform. APA Style. 11 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,791 words.   $77
17767. CHILDHOOD EXPOSURE TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence (spouse abuse, family violence). Following a brief overview of the problem of domestic violence and a discussion of the likely scope of the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence, the essay considers the symptoms and signs of children’s exposure to domestic violence, children’s methods of disclosing violence in the home as well as strategies to draw children out, and the short- and long-term consequences of children’s exposure to family violence and abuse. A concluding section looks at strategies that teachers, community leaders and counselors can take to address the problem. KEYWORDS: spouse abuse children child abuse domestic violence violent families term paper. APA Style. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,326 words.   $77
17749. FACILITATING SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION AMONG HISPANIC SECOND YEAR COLLEGE STUDENTS. Although the numbers of US Hispanics enrolling in and obtaining degrees from post-secondary institutions have increased dramatically over the past decade, Hispanic retention and matriculation rates remain low. This paper presents a proposal for a research study investigating the variables influencing retention among Hispanic second-year returning students at a Major University (MU). Prior research investigating post-secondary educational persistence among Hispanics is reviewed. The proposed study will use a qualitative and phenomenological approach with in-depth interviews of 3 MU student groups: Hispanic students that dropped out after their freshman year; Hispanic students with sophomore or junior year status; and 3) Hispanic alumni with a degree from MU. Data will be analyzed using the constant comparative method. KEYWORDS: research design qualitative study interviews hispanic higher education mexican americans college students academic persistence college retention matriculation graduation. Strict APA Style throughout. 15 pages, 69 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 4,434 words.   $105
17716. THE BENEFITS OF HOMEWORK. This paper provides a brief review of the literature on the benefits of homework for K-12 students. The historical attitudes toward homework are reviewed and the arguments for and against homework are discussed. The literature indicates that homework completion is positively associated with academic performance and student achievement motivation. Parental involvement is found to be an important factor in increasing the beneficial impact of homework on students, especially at the lower grade levels. KEYWORDS: homework academic achievement learning motivation parental involvement. APA Style. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1714 words.   $49
17572. WHY I WANT TO BE A TEACHER. This paper provides a brief, first-person account of why a middle-aged man with a BA in history and an MBA in Finance wants to leave the business world and establish a new career as a high school teacher in Long Island, New York. KEYWORDS: teaching profession career first person accounts. MLA Style. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,441 words.   $42
17564. ETHICAL QUESTIONS FOR SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY/COUNSELING PRACTICE. Drawing on the APA’s (2002) “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct,” this paper considers ethical aspects of five questions/situations related to the practice of school psychology and/or school counseling: 1) a school psychologist struggles requirements for parental consent for student testing; 2) a college-level counselor considers the possible causes for an ESL student’s academic performance problems; 3) a school psychologist discusses testing with the mother of a fourth grader having difficulty with mathematics; 4) the supervisor of a school psychology intern proposes a shortcut to expedite recordkeeping related to testing; and 5) a school counselor with no formal training in autism evaluation has been told to act as the school’s “resident expert” on the disorder. KEYWORDS: school counseling school psychology school psychologists school counselors ethics ethical principals psychologists. APA Style. 11 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,689 words.   $77
17558. HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS: PREVENTION PROGRAMS. Following a brief introductory overview of the scope of the problem of high school dropouts, this paper provides an overview of the history of dropout prevention programs (focusing on interventions at the secondary school level), with the aim of evaluating the research-based programs that have been described as the “best” in terms of their effectiveness. KEYWORDS: dropout prevention high school dropouts school leaving research program effectiveness. APA Style. 11 pages, 48 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,558 words.   $77
17502. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTHY ADOLESCENT SEXUALITY IN AN ERA OF AIDS. This paper examines the obstacles that teens face in developing healthy and responsible sexual identities in an era of HIV and AIDS, as well as the ways in which society can support the development of healthy adolescent sexuality. Argues that much of the education that teens receive on sexuality is filtered through a moral lens and grounded in the often erroneous assumption that drastic measures are needed to reduce and subdue the supposed inherent hyper-sexuality of teens. KEYWORDS: Strict APA Style throughout. 13 Pages, 33 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,082 words.   $91
17455. PROBLEMS FACING NEW TEACHERS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of problems facing new teachers (both general and special education) and the kinds of supports and/or interventions that have been found to help new teachers cope with these problems. The analysis is based on a review of scholarly journals and personal reflection from the perspective of a graduate student in education. The analysis reveals that major problem areas for new teachers include the need for practical information, the gap between expectations and reality, relationships with students and classroom management, relationships with parents, relationships with faculty, and time and financial pressures. The problems faced by general and special education teachers are similar, although new special education teachers confront particular problems related to supervision of para-professionals and practical skills needed for the development of IEPs. New teachers need both practical and emotional support to alleviate these problems. Well designed induction programs, ongoing mentor relationships, administrative support, and access to practical resources can work to address the problems faced by new teachers. KEYWORDS: novice teachers mentors induction orientation special education. 17 pages; 31 footnotes; 15 bibliographic sources. 3,843 words.   $119
17427. NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND AND READING FIRST. Are the requirements and educational reforms included in Reading First likely to lead to significant improvements in the literacy levels of the mainly socially and economically-disadvantaged children it targets? This research question is the starting point for this paper which provides an overview and analysis of Reading First and its implications for children’s literacy improvements based on a review and synthesis of the scholarly literature on the topic. Following an overview of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and the Reading First Initiative, the positives and negatives of Reading First are assessed. The concluding section presents a summary of the findings and takes a position against Reading First. KEYWORDS: literacy education federal programs reading student testing. 12 pages, 45 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 2,927 words.   $84
17424. HISTORY & EVOLUTION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history and evolution of vocational education in the United States. The social, economic, political and educational influences leading to the passage of the 1917 Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act are discussed. The paper identifies the major educational theorists and outlines the ideas that shaped the development of vocational education. The evolution of vocational education through the 20th century and into this century is traced. The paper looks at how vocational educational programs and their underlying philosophies have changed to meet new social, economic, and technological demands. KEYWORDS: vocational education tech-prep educational reform Perkins Act. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 2,882 words.   $77
17418. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS: PROBLEM, THEORY & INTERVENTION. This paper examines the phenomenon of learned helplessness, an orientation in the learner leading to both motivational and cognitive disturbances (and related deficits in performance). The academic literature on learned helplessness in both children and adults is reviewed. Drawing primarily on Seligman’s reformulated theory of learned helplessness, but also considering Dweck’s self-theories, the paper describes the problem of learned helplessness and examines its underlying mechanisms. Cognitive intervention strategies to address the problem consistent with Seligman’s and Dweck’s models are presented and discussed. A plan to evaluate the impact of these strategies, and a discussion of why learning may have failed to occur is also presented. KEYWORDS: learning theory motivation failure identity attributional retraining social cognitive theory. 20 pages, 134 footnotes, 46 bibliographic references. 4,698 words.   $133
17388. COOPERATIVE LEARNING: EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENT STUDENTS. This investigation explores the use of cooperative learning methods as a way to help maximize the success of language minority students. Following a brief overview of the definition, theoretical foundation, and significant forms of cooperative learning, the investigation reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the use of cooperative learning with ESL (English as a Second Language) and LEP (Limited English Proficient) students in both monolingual and bilingual settings. While the majority of research to date has focused on the use of cooperative learning with Spanish/English bilinguals and/or native-Spanish speaking students in U.S. classrooms, studies involving other language-minority subjects suggest that cooperative learning can serve as an effective strategy for maximizing educational outcomes among ESL and LEP students from a broad spectrum of language backgrounds. KEYWORDS: language learning strategies cooperative learning limited english proficient english as second language students esl lep students. APA Style. 13 pages, 35 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 4,115 words.   $91
17355. ZERO TOLERANCE FOR SCHOOL BULLYING. This paper argues that schools should enforce a zero tolerance policy in regard to bullying and other forms of violence among students. The paper describes the scope of the bullying problem in schools (focusing on the United States and also providing comparative information from Canada and Europe), including a discussion of the estimated number of bullying incidents and an overview of bullying’s harmful impact on students and the school in general. Defines the meaning of “zero tolerance” and argues that there is evidence to support the effectiveness of a zero tolerance policy in reducing or even eliminating bullying problems in schools. KEYWORDS: bullying bullies school discipline zero tolerance. 6 pages, 20 footnotes,7 bibliographic sources. 1,595 words.   $42
17344. ARE SMALLER SCHOOLS BETTER SCHOOLS? A recent article in Education World by Diane Dunne is the starting point for this paper which considers the view that smaller schools help to increase academic achievement and reduce behavioral problems among students. Agrees with the arguments contained in Dunne’s article and argues that the new evidence shows that it is time to change the prevailing opinion on school size that existed earlier in America’s educational history. KEYWORDS: class size school size small classrooms educational effectiveness academic achievement. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,256 word.   $35
17328. THE THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS A CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TOOL. This paper discusses how Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences can be used in managing student behavior in the classroom. Following a brief description and overview of the theory of multiple intelligences, the paper describes various ways that the theory can be used in classroom management, including the management of student behavior, both in controlling problem behavior and stimulating student learning. KEYWORDS: multiple intelligences student behavior classroom management. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,432 words.   $42
17287. DISMANTLING DESEGREGATION. Using the text Dismantling Desegregation as a guideline, this paper argues that the recent “re-segregation” trend is an aspect of a larger trend involving the promotion of a conservative agenda. Outlines desegregation policy as it emerged following the Brown v. Board of Education case and then traces the progressive dismantling of desegregation under successive Republican Administrations beginning with Nixon and extending through George W. Bush. Summarizes the major Supreme Court cases relevant to the issue, focusing on Renquist court in the 1990s and cases such as Board of Education of Oklahoma City v. Dowell, Freeman v. Pitts and Missouri v. Jenkins. KEYWORDS: school segregation desegregation Supreme Court decisions race education conservative agenda. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,238 words.   $35
17222. THE COLLEGE GRADING SYSTEM. This paper describes the arguments against using the contemporary system of college grading based on letter grades. Argues that despite its shortcomings, the existing system (letter grades) is still superior to the proposed alternatives. The “grade inflation” controversy is addressed, and suggestions are made for using grades as a positive force in higher education. Keywords: college students evaluation methods grading systems inflation. 6 pages; 17 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources. 1,445 words.   $42
17185. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT RISK. Focusing on the secondary school level, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the growing problem of at-risk students – children who are at risk for fa8ilure in school and in life. Following a definition of terms and a discussion of the individual and social consequences of the problem, the individual, family, and school-level factors associated with risk are discussed. The inter-relationships among risk factors and the links between school failure and negative life outcomes are discussed. The analysis then turns to a discussion of approaches to addressing the problem. The essay identifies some of the factors which may protect against risk and considers the effectiveness of various strategies aimed at reducing risk among already identified at-risk students. A concluding section summarizes the main findings and makes suggestions on issues for future research on this problem. Keywords: teenagers risks school failure drugs parents. 12 pages; 49 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources. 3,789 words.   $84
17175. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION. This paper discusses and analyzes various aspects of second language acquisition. The first section presents a research design of a study which would test the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis in both its strong and weak versions. The second section compares the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis with the Access to Universal Grammar Hypothesis. The third section discusses similarities and differences between first and second language acquisition. Keywords: linguistics language acquisition theory. Written 2004. 12 pages; 21 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 2,947 words.   $84
17169. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TASKS IN THE INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATIVE CLASSROOM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the scope, components, and sequencing of the communicative language tasks in the interactive communicative classroom. Following a background discussion of the shift to the communicative language approach and a definition of key terms, the literature on task-based instruction within the communicative framework is surveyed. The implications of the research for teachers and students of language instruction are discussed and summarized. The paper aims at contributing to teachers’ and student-teachers’ understanding of communicative language teaching methodology and at helping to provide a practical framework for the implementation of the task-based approach. 17 pages; 37 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 4,479 words.   $119
17143. POVERTY AND CHILDREN'S EDUCATION. This paper analyzes the impact of poverty on a child’s capacity to benefit from schooling. Following a brief review of the literature demonstrating the link between lower income and lower levels of educational achievement, the analysis looks at how poverty influences the child’s initial readiness for learning, parent-child relations, parental school involvement, child nutrition, access to educational resources outside of school, and school environment in ways that negatively impact the child’s ability to benefit from education. 8 pages; 24 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $56
17133. PARENT INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOLS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of recent trends and issues in school parental involvement programs and the drive to create effective school-parent partnerships. With a special focus on language minority parents (parents whose first language is not English) and their bilingual or language minority children, the paper includes a review of the scope and parameters of existing programs, an overview of the outcomes of parental involvement programs, and an analysis of the major barriers and impediments to increasing parental involvement in schools. Keywords: parents schools education involvement multicultural multilingual. 12 pages; 43 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 4,233 words.   $84
17101. GENDER AND ACHIEVEMENT IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM. This paper reviews the current academic literature on the relationship between gender and achievement in the elementary classroom. The gender/achievement relationship is considered within the framework of the debate on gender equity in education and the broader perspective of gender disparities in academic achievement across the educational continuum. Focusing on girls and boys at the elementary (K-6) grade level, the analysis examines the literature investigating the varying impact of society, parents, teachers, peers and individual motivation on boys' and girls' academic achievement. KEYWORDS: gender differences education elementary gender academic achievement girls boys. Written in 2002. APA Style. 37 pages; 193 footnotes; 65 bibliographic sources. 10,572 words.   $133
15976. EXPOSITORY TEACHING AND DISCOVERY LEARNING. This paper compares and contrasts these two approaches to teaching. Expository teaching is the traditional method of classroom teaching and discovery learning is an approach in which the student takes an active part in the learning process. Argues that discovery learning is best suited for advanced students, science and technology courses, and distance-learning courses, although sometimes the two approaches can be effectively combined in a single course. 8 pages; 22 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources. 1,896 words.   $56
15975. HOW STUDENTS ARE MOTIVATED TO STUDY. This paper compares the behavioral and cognitive viewpoints on student motivation. Argues that while both perspectives have value, the cognitive approach provides a better explanation of student motivation. 8 pages; 24 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 1,952 words.   $56
15858. THE JOB OF TEACHING. This paper explores teaching as job. The paper argues that teaching is not as easy as some people claim. On the contrary, the requirements for obtaining a credential and becoming certified are demanding, and the job itself is extremely challenging. Yet, despite these concerns, the unique rewards of teaching make the effort worthwhile. 5 pages; 16 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
15819. MY PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHING. Written in the first person, this paper addresses the need for an ethical worldview in becoming an effective teacher. The philosophy of Pragmatism is used as a basis for the author's personal educational philosophy, and the paper also discusses the importance of using "experiential teaching" techniques and treating students as individuals. 10 pages; 17 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 2,574 words.   $70
15809. SEXUAL ABUSE AND LOW ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN LATINAS. This paper provides a literature review as background for setting up a study on the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence (and lack of treatment) and low academic achievement in Hispanic females. KEYWORDS: Hispanic women education academic achievement child sexual abuse. 13 pages; 43 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources. 3,523 words.   $91
15768. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN PALESTINE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history and current status of the education system in Palestine, focusing on the West Bank and Gaza. The analysis traces the history of the system, describing the major features of the system as it existed under the various authorities and as it exists today, and analyzing the systems in terms of equality, access, equity, and financing. The social, political, and economic factors in the region which work against the development and maintenance of an effective educational system are considered. Changes and challenges within the Palestinian educational system during the period of the first intifada (1987-1995) are considered. While the primary focus of the report is on the K-12 educational system, the analysis also includes a section on the development and status of Palestinian higher education in the occupied territories. 14 pages, 43 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $98
15746. THE IMPACT OF CLASSROOM SIZE REDUCTION ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT. Early experiments in class size reduction indicated that it could improve student performance; however, the 1996 initiative in California stirred up controversy and it was charged that - among other things - such efforts encourage the hiring of inexperienced and under-qualified teachers. This paper argues that class size reduction can have a positive impact, but the programs need to be well designed and carefully implemented, and they need to be tied to other educational reform efforts. 12 pages, 44 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $84
15657. PREVENTING AND RESPONDING TO VIOLENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: COUNSELING INTERVENTIONS AND COUNSELOR ROLES. This reesarch paper provides an overview and analysis of counselors' current and potential roles in addressing the problem of school violence in U.S. secondary (high schools) schools. The report looks at appropriate counselor roles and counseling interventions from the perspective of counseling theory and traditional counselor roles with adolescent populations. The essay begins with a brief overview of current thinking on the causes of school violence. The next section considers the traditional and evolving role of the school counselor. The next part of the paper focuses on appropriate roles and interventions for counselors attempting to address the problem of school violence in the secondary schools. KEYWORDS: school violence school counselors counseling interventions high school students term papers. APA Style. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources. 4,346 words.   $98
15635. DEVELOPING POSITIVE HIGH SCHOOL COMMUNITY RELATIONS. Focusing on the high school, this paper provides an overview and analysis of high school public relations as a vital strategy for developing and maintaining positive high school-community relations. Following an overview of the definition and rationale for public relations in the high school, the analysis examines the components and tactics of a good high school public relations campaign. The application of the program in both athletic and academic departments is considered. KEYWORDS: school community relations public relations campaign high schools. MLA Style. 17 pages, 27 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 4,092 words.   $119
15626. MATH TEACHER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING. This paper presents a rationale and design for a mathematics staff development symposium for beginning math teachers in a private school community and/or district. The symposium aims at imparting practical and theoretical knowledge necessary for effective mathematics teaching. The first section presents the rationale for the symposium through the use of a review of the literature on effective mathematics teaching, problems in existing match teacher preparation, and current trends in math teacher in-service training. Based on the problems and opportunities identified in this literature review, the symposium objectives are then presented. The next section details the general parameters of the program, its application to the district/community as a whole as well as to individual teachers; the program's foundation on the principles of adult development and learning; and the role of administration and parents. The final sections of the paper present a detailed outline of the proposed symposium, including a timeline and detailed methods of several aspects of the plan. KEYWORDS: teacher training mathematics education. APA Style. 25 pages, 51 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources. 6,489 words.   $133
15598. DYSLEXIA. A paper on the learning disability that affects children's ability to read. It is argued that the best approach to this problem involved early detection, the use of teaching strategies tailored to individual needs, and the use of a "multi-sensory" approach to learning. 7 pages, 26 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
15595. MENTORING OF NEW TEACHERS. Mentoring can provide a way to overcome the high turnover rates in the teaching profession because mentors provide guidance, support and encouragement to new teachers. This paper provides a program design for training experienced teachers to serve as mentors and describes the components that are needed for an effective mentoring training program. 8 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.   $56
15566. AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS AND GANG ACTIVITIES. It is argued that there is an increased risk of delinquent behavior when youths are unsupervised during after-school hours. Although there are some arguments against the effectiveness of after-school programs, there is also a great deal of evidence (both empirical and evaluative) that such programs at least help in reducing gang activity. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $56
15530. EXPLAINING TERRORISM TO CHILDREN. In response to September 11, 2001 attacks in New York, this paper discusses ways to explain such things as death and terrorism to children. Various ideas are discussed, including the need for reassuring without "pampering," and the importance of parents and other caregivers serving as role models. 6 pages, 22 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $42
15505. MISDIAGNOSIS AND MISLABELING OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN CHILDREN. Discusses the evidence that African-American children are more likely to be labeled "mentally retarded" or "emotionally disabled" and thus placed in special education classes; yet they still do not receive the help or support they need. The negative impacts of this problem are discussed, as well as views on the reasons for its occurrence and some proposed solutions. 17 pages, 55 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $119
15461. FOSTER CARE AND COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN. This term paper explores the impact of out-of-home placement (foster care) on the emotional and cognitive development of school-aged children, with a close focus on the impact of foster care on children's academic achievement and school behavior. The essay concludes that children in the foster care system are at much higher risk of cognitive and emotional development delays then children in the general community. The paper finds that placement disruptions and other factors in the foster care environment contribute to these problems. KEYWORDS: foster care psychological educational impact developmental delay foster families. APA Style. 18 pages, 62 footnotes, 30 bibliographic references.   $126
15225. THE WRITING PROCESS MOVEMENT. In contrast to the "product" approach to teaching composition, with its emphasis on the correct use of grammar and standard English, the "process" approach emphasizes learning the steps in the writing process, and encouraging students to express their own stories in their own voice. It is argued that this approach increases student motivation, thereby making it easier for the rules of grammar to be learned over the course of time. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $77
15189. BULLYING. The scope of the problem is discussed, as well as the types of victims, the variables associated with bullying, the consequences of bullying, and suggestions for ways to work toward overcoming the problem. Also included is a discussion of gender differences in the behaviors of both bullies and victims. 14 pages, 49 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $98
15171. ARGUMENT AGAINST SCHOOL VOUCHERS. Various arguments against vouchers are discussed, including the fact that they take money from the public schools that need it. In addition, there is evidence that voucher programs don't work as intended, and there are flaws in the studies that claim to support them. Two charts (from a study comparing test scores for voucher students and public school students) are included as an appendix. 6 pages text + charts, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $42
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