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8B. SPECIAL EDUCATION AND COUNSELING

How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
 
 
18843. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF THE CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK V. TOM F., 2005 U.S. DIST. LEXIS 49 (S.D.N.Y., JAN. 4, 2005). This paper provides a legal brief of an education-related Supreme Court case involving a School Districtís contention that a disabled student who had attended private school was NOT entitled to tuition reimbursement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. TAGS: IDEA, disabled students, private school, tuition reimbursement, legal challenge US Supreme Court. Legal Style. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,115 words.   $35
 
18842. CEDAR RAPIDS COMMUNITY SCHOOL DISTRICT V. GARRET F., 526 U.S. 66 (1999). This paper provides a legal brief of a case concerning a School Districtís appeal a courtís ruling that the school district was required under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to pay for the costs of providing continuous one-on-one nursing services for a student (Garret F.) throughout the school day. The brief states the facts of the case, poses the central legal question of the case, states the courtís decision, and discusses the rationale for the courtís decision. TAGS: education law, legal brief, severely disabled students, IDEA individuals with disabilities. Legal format. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. 1,079 words.   $35
 
18840. A. E. V. INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 25, OF ADAIR COUNTY,936 F.2D 472 (10TH CIR. 1991) This paper presents a legal brief of a case involving a school districtís refusal to classify a learning disabled student with behavioral problems as ďseriously emotionally disturbedĒ, thereby disqualifying the student for coverage under the Education for All Handicapped Childrenís Act. In this case, the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the trial courtís ruling in favor of the School Districtís decision to exclude the student from coverage. The brief states the facts of the case, poses the central legal question of the case, states the courtís decision, and discusses the rationale for the courtís decision. TAGS: education law, legal brief, learning disabled, education for all handicapped children, emotional disturbance, children behavior. Legal format. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. 1,092 words.   $35
 
18523. ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATION. This paper compares the concept of assessment as found in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and the earlier Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). NCLB is primarily concerned with assessing academic achievement, whereas IDEA focuses on finding ways to accommodate students with special needs in classrooms. Although NCLB takes precedence over IDEA, it is argued that IDEA continues to provide important guidelines for educators in their effort to meet the specific needs of students with disabilities. KEYWORDS: education assessment disabilities inclusion No Child Left Behind IDEA mainstreaming. APA Style. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,331 words.   $35
 
18518. THE EFFECT OF POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL SUPPORTS ON STUDENTS WITH EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS. This paper provides an analytical literature review on the use of positive behavioral supports to reduce disruptive classroom behaviors among children with emotional and behavioral disorders. Based on an analysis of the findings of sixteen research studies, it is concluded that the use of token economies would be a suitable subject for further examination in this area. KEYWORDS: children emotional behavior disorders education behavioral therapy positive feedback PDD AHDD ADD EBD. APA Style. 25 pages, 42 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 5,414 words.   $133
 
18135. HEARING IMPAIRMENTS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS. This paper describes the causes of hearing impairments and visual impairments, and then discusses how these conditions impact development and educational achievement. Reference is made to some of the educational approaches that have been used for students with these impairments. The paper includes a discussion of the Florida Institute of Rehabilitation Education (FIRE), an organization based in Tallahassee that provides services for persons who are blind or visually impaired and also campaigns on their behalf. KEYWORDS: special education hearing visual impairment Florida. Written 2006. APA Style. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,683 words.   $49
 
18129. COLLEGE COUNSELING SERVICES. This paper discusses the perspectives and activities of counselors at a California college. Specifically, an assessment is made of the counselors' use of Arthur Chickering's student development theory, as well as related theories. In addition to other data sources, the paper draws on information obtained from an interview with one of the college's staff counselors. The paper concludes with recommendations for enhancing counseling services at the center. KEYWORDS: counseling college students development theory Chickering. Written 2006. APA Style. 16 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 3,758 words.   $112
 
18123. DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES: INTERVENTIONS. This paper provides an overview of the educational interventions that are used for students with developmental disabilities. Topics include: screening tests, diagnostic tests, the importance of early intervention, inclusion, educational programs, individual needs, assessment methods, and the need for improvement in existing transition services. KEYWORDS: education developmental disabilities programs services. Written 2006. APA Style. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2,359 words.   $70
 
18114. LEARNING DISABILITIES AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE DISORDERS. This paper describes the similarities and differences between learning disorders (LDs) and emotional disturbance disorders (EDDs), comparing the conditions in terms of incidence, causes, characteristics, and educational implications. It is concluded that both conditions are challenging to teachers, but EDDs are somewhat more so. KEYWORDS: education learning disabilities emotional disorders. Written 2007. APA Style. 12 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,657 words.   $84
 
18110. TEACHERS' ATTITUDES ON MAINSTREAMING AND INCLUSION. This paper reviews the research literature on how teachers feel about the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Data on the attitudes of both general education teachers and special education teachers are addressed. There are mixed findings on whether teachers are for or against the practice, but there is widespread agreement that problems are encountered in the implementation of inclusion efforts, particularly when students have severe disabilities or serious emotional/behavioral problems. Special education teachers have especially negative views on inclusion, because of their direct experience in dealing with the needs of students with disabilities. In the conclusion, it is argued that inclusion efforts can be improved through such things as teacher training and preparation, administrative support, and close collaboration among teachers. KEYWORDS: special education mainstreaming inclusion teacher attitudes. Written 2006. APA Style. 24 pages, 18 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 5,187 words.   $133
 
18108. CHANGING VIEWS ON SPECIAL EDUCATION. This paper discusses how societal attitudes toward special education are changing over time, and addresses the roles of legislation and litigation in bringing about this change. The idea that special needs children deserve equal educational opportunities is becoming increasingly accepted. There have been challenges in the effort to attain this ideal in America's education system, but the evidence shows that progress is gradually being made. KEYWORDS: special education societal attitudes laws court cases. Written 2006. APA Style. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,157 words.   $63
 
18107. FAMILIES OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES. This paper addresses the roles of family members in dealing with emotional and behavioral disturbances in a child with a disability. It is argued that social context and the characteristics of family members are more influential than family composition and constellation. It is important for parents and siblings to have effective coping styles and to be capable of providing a positive outlook. The paper also discusses the role of family belief systems and the need for social support (both informal and formal). KEYWORDS: children disabilities families coping social support. Written 2006. APA Style. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,980 words.   $84
 
18104. REVIEW OF A PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST REPORT. This paper discusses a test report for a third-grade bilingual student named Felipe, who has been referred for special education because he frequently gets into fights. It is noted that certain key details are omitted from the report, including aspects of family background, ethnic culture, the language barrier, and the student's disciplinary record. Without such details, it cannot be concluded that the student needs special education services as opposed to some other type of intervention. KEYWORDS: psychology special education bilingual education. Written 2006. MLA Style. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,443 words.   $42
 
18094. SOCIODRAMATIC PLAY. This paper starts by noting the trend in early childhood education of emphasizing academic results and neglecting the use of play-related activities. It is argued that certain play activities are useful in the development of preschoolers and special needs students. As long as the play is "mature" play (involving role-playing and the symbolic use of props), it can contribute to such things as creativity, cognitive abilities, social and emotional development, communication skills, and learning about diversity issues. KEYWORDS: education development play. Written 2006. APA Style. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,768 words.   $49
 
18090. AUTISTIC CHILDREN & FAMILIES. This paper discusses the unique challenges faced by families in which there is a child with autism. These challenges include behavioral problems, the blocking of family member needs, and social stigma. It is noted that there are different ways (both negative and positive) that family members might react to the presence of an autistic child. The paper also refers to views on the types of strategies and skills that can help families cope with the challenges. KEYWORDS: autism families coping autistic children family dynamics. Written 2006. APA Style. 14 pages, 37 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,301 words.   $98
 
18079. THE KEYMATH-REVISED SPECIAL EDUCATION ASSESSMENT TEST. This paper provides a critical evaluation of KeyMath-Revised, a test for assessing the math skills of special education students. The paper discusses how the test is used, its content areas, additional materials, and issues of scoring, reliability, and validity. It is concluded that the test is generally useful, despite some minor flaws. KEYWORDS: tests special education math. Written 2006. APA Style. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,271 words.   $35
 
18077. A PERSONAL APPROACH TO SCHOOL COUNSELING. Written in the first person, this paper describes an eclectic approach to school counseling, which is based largely on the theoretical views of William Glasser (the founder of Choice Theory and Reality Therapy), as well as on elements from the work of Alfred Adler and Abraham Maslow. The first section of the paper focuses on philosophical beliefs about human nature; the second section discusses theoretical viewpoints; the third section considers some ways that the personal theoretical orientation can be applied to K-12 settings. KEYWORDS: school counseling theories william glasser choice theory reality therapy alfred adler abraham maslow. Written 2006. APA Style. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,659 words.   $77
 
18076. INTELLIGENCE TESTS. This paper compares the Stanford-Binet Test and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, two norm-referenced tests that are commonly used for measuring intelligence. The paper includes a discussion of why the current editions of the test (SB5 and WISC-IV) were changed from their previous editions, the differing philosophical orientations of the two tests, and the concerns that have been raised about possible cultural bias. It is concluded that both tests have high levels of reliability and validity, but the SB5 is better overall for intelligence assessment. KEYWORDS: standardized intelligence tests stanford-binet wechsler reliability validity . Written 2006. APA Style. 9 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,277 words.   $63
 
18075. DIAGNOSTIC MATHEMATICS INVENTORY/MATHEMATICS SYSTEM (DMI/MS). This paper evaluates this criterion-referenced test for assessing specific math abilities in young students with mild disabilities. The test is criticized for its limited coverage of content areas and for its manual not including reliability or validity data. Despite these flaws, it is argued that the test is useful for identifying learning areas in need of instructional emphasis. KEYWORDS: DMI/MS special education testing math. Written 2006. APA Style. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,261 words.   $35
 
18074. TESTS FOR ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER. This paper provides a comparative evaluation of two norm-referenced tests for assessing attention deficit disorder symptoms in children (the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale, or ADDES, and the Connors Rating Scales). The paper addresses issues of accuracy, reliability, and validity, and argues that ADDES is better overall. KEYWORDS: ADD testing ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Written 2006. APA Style. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,413 words.   $42
 
18052. SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS AND HOMEWORK. This term paper examines the research evidence on the difficulties and challenges faced by special education students in completing their homework. Factors may include student characteristics, teacher deficits, lack of parental involvement, and flaws in teacher-parent-student communication. The paper also briefly discusses intervention strategies. KEYWORDS: special education homework parental involvement teacher communication. Written 2006. APA Style. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,215 words.   $35
 
18011. SPECIAL EDUCATION AND INCLUSION. This term paper discusses the inclusion of children with physical, emotional, and learning disabilities in regular classrooms. According to the evidence, inclusion improves math ability and academic achievement in general. However, inclusion also results in various challenges and difficulties for teachers. Three helpful approaches to inclusive teaching are considered: the collaborative, peer-assisted, and individualized approaches. KEYWORDS: special education inclusion teaching strategies. Written 2006. 11 pages, 18 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,516 words.   $77
 
17747. CRITICAL REVIEW OF A RESEARCH ARTICLE ON INCREASING PEER INTERACTIONS FOR SEVERELY DISABLED STUDENTS VIA PARAPROFESSIONAL TRAINING. This paper critically reviews and analyzes Causton-Theoharis & Malmgrenís (2005) research article (published in the journal Exceptional Children) on using a paraprofessional training program to increase peer interactions for students with severe disabilities in regular classrooms. The review describes research participants, research setting, research hypotheses and questions, summary of research procedures, summary of findings and then critiques the research, considering its importance and limitations. The concluding section considers how the study might be useful to teachers. KEYWORDS: special education severely disabled children peer interactions paraprofessionals training intervention. Written 2006. APA Style. 15 pages, 33 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,441 words.   $105
 
17595. EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN: AN INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL EDUCATION BY WILLIAM L. HEWARD. This paper provides a critical review and analysis of this special education textbook. The analysis provides background on the author, describes the central features of the textbook and considers the scope, breadth and depth of the text. Concludes that while the text provides a good overview of special education for the entry level student, it lacks the type of specific detail sought by more advanced students or professionals. KEYWORDS: book review college text special education. Written 2005. APA Style. 12 pages, 18 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,748 words.   $84
 
17412. A PERSONAL APPROACH TO ADLERIAN SCHOOL COUNSELING. Writing from the first person, this paper describes how a school counselor would apply Alfred Adlerís theory of individual psychology and associated counseling techniques in a school setting. Provides examples of Adlerian techniques and discusses what type of personality a counselor would need in order to be comfortable in taking the Adlerian approach. KEYWORDS: school counselor personal approach Adler. Written 2004. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 1,584 words.   $42
 
17411. AN ADLERIAN APPROACH TO SCHOOL COUNSELING. This paper presents a discussion and analysis of the application of an Adlerian theoretical orientation to school counseling. The paper discusses how Alfred Adlerís individual psychology (and its related philosophies and techniques) fits with the roles, therapeutic goals, and techniques of the contemporary school counselor. It is argued that the Adlerian approach is well-suited to meeting the developmental needs of students and well-positioned to address contemporary challenges related to changing student and societal needs. Keywords: counseling education Adler individual psychology. Written 2004. 12 pages, 51 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 2,873 words.   $84
 
17388. COOPERATIVE LEARNING: EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENT STUDENTS. This investigation explores the use of cooperative learning methods as a way to help maximize the success of language minority students. Following a brief overview of the definition, theoretical foundation, and significant forms of cooperative learning, the investigation reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the use of cooperative learning with ESL (English as a Second Language) and LEP (Limited English Proficient) students in both monolingual and bilingual settings. While the majority of research to date has focused on the use of cooperative learning with Spanish/English bilinguals and/or native-Spanish speaking students in U.S. classrooms, studies involving other language-minority subjects suggest that cooperative learning can serve as an effective strategy for maximizing educational outcomes among ESL and LEP students from a broad spectrum of language backgrounds. KEYWORDS: language learning strategies cooperative learning limited english proficient english as second language students esl lep students. Written 2002. APA Style. 13 pages, 35 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 4,115 words.   $91
 
17185. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT RISK. Focusing on the secondary school level, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the growing problem of at-risk students Ė children who are at risk for fa8ilure in school and in life. Following a definition of terms and a discussion of the individual and social consequences of the problem, the individual, family, and school-level factors associated with risk are discussed. The inter-relationships among risk factors and the links between school failure and negative life outcomes are discussed. The analysis then turns to a discussion of approaches to addressing the problem. The essay identifies some of the factors which may protect against risk and considers the effectiveness of various strategies aimed at reducing risk among already identified at-risk students. A concluding section summarizes the main findings and makes suggestions on issues for future research on this problem. Keywords: teenagers risks school failure drugs parents. Written 2004. 12 pages; 49 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources. 3,789 words.   $84
 
17154. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROFESSIONAL COUNSELOR. This paper considers the essential characteristics of the professional counselor. Proceeding from the assumption that the characteristics of the ideal counselor must match the roles, responsibilities and identity of the counseling profession, the analysis begins with a definition and overview of the counseling profession. Following this, the analysis considers the characteristics of the professional counselor, with specific reference to communication skills, empathy, cognitive abilities, professional knowledge base, ethics, and a social-cultural understanding. Written 2003. 12 pages; 39 footnotes; 21 bibliographic sources. 3,678 words.   $84
 
17144. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN DEAF CHILDREN. Drawing on theories about how spoken language emerges in hearing children, this paper considers how the deaf child learns sign language. Oliver Sacksí book, ďSeeing Voices: A Journey into the World of the DeafĒ is the primary reference used. The analysis demonstrates that Sign Language is a Ďrealí language with distinct structural properties and shows that Sign Language acquisition in the deaf follows the same general pattern as spoken language acquisition in the hearing. Written 2003. 10 pages; 22 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources. 2,307 words.   $70
 
15853. CHILDHOOD AUTISM. This paper describes the characteristics childhood autism and its rate of prevalence. Also discusses the potential causes of autism and the various approaches to treatment, including medication, behavior modification, and other strategies. 11 pages; 33 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15750. TEEN MOTHERS AND SCHOOL-BASED RESOURCE CENTERS. The literature is reviewed regarding the impact of school-based programs in meeting the needs of teen mothers and encouraging them to continue their education. According to the evidence, such programs are generally effective; however, some studies show mixed findings and there are also challenges to implementing the programs. Therefore, it is concluded that there is a need for further research to clarify issues. 26 pages, 46 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15696. GAY TEENS: SEXUAL IDENTITY FORMATION IN THE HIGH SCHOOL YEARS. This paper explores gay and lesbian sexual identity formation during the high school years, looking at how high school youth come to their gay and lesbian sexual identities - the pressures, involved, the biases they encounter, their influences, how their friends and parents react, the process of "coming out," etc. The analysis draws on a review of the academic literature on gay sexual identity formation in the high school years as well as anecdotal and first-person accounts from gay and lesbian youth. KEYWORDS: adolescent sexuality gay teens homosexuals teenage sexual identity lesbians high school. APA Style. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 4,505 words.   $91
 
15657. PREVENTING AND RESPONDING TO VIOLENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: COUNSELING INTERVENTIONS AND COUNSELOR ROLES. This reesarch paper provides an overview and analysis of counselors' current and potential roles in addressing the problem of school violence in U.S. secondary (high schools) schools. The report looks at appropriate counselor roles and counseling interventions from the perspective of counseling theory and traditional counselor roles with adolescent populations. The essay begins with a brief overview of current thinking on the causes of school violence. The next section considers the traditional and evolving role of the school counselor. The next part of the paper focuses on appropriate roles and interventions for counselors attempting to address the problem of school violence in the secondary schools. KEYWORDS: school violence school counselors counseling interventions high school students term papers. APA Style. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources. 4,346 words.   $98
 
15598. DYSLEXIA. A paper on the learning disability that affects children's ability to read. It is argued that the best approach to this problem involved early detection, the use of teaching strategies tailored to individual needs, and the use of a "multi-sensory" approach to learning. 7 pages, 26 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
15505. MISDIAGNOSIS AND MISLABELING OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN CHILDREN. Discusses the evidence that African-American children are more likely to be labeled "mentally retarded" or "emotionally disabled" and thus placed in special education classes; yet they still do not receive the help or support they need. The negative impacts of this problem are discussed, as well as views on the reasons for its occurrence and some proposed solutions. 17 pages, 55 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
15461. FOSTER CARE AND COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN. This term paper explores the impact of out-of-home placement (foster care) on the emotional and cognitive development of school-aged children, with a close focus on the impact of foster care on children's academic achievement and school behavior. The essay concludes that children in the foster care system are at much higher risk of cognitive and emotional development delays then children in the general community. The paper finds that placement disruptions and other factors in the foster care environment contribute to these problems. KEYWORDS: foster care psychological educational impact developmental delay foster families. APA Style. 18 pages, 62 footnotes, 30 bibliographic references.   $126
 
15433. ADHD ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSIS. This paper focuses on the assessment practices used with children identified as at risk for or suspected of having ADHD. The investigation provides a discussion and evaluation of three major assessment practices. The ADHD assessment practices evaluated are: 1) the clinical interview (specifically the structured DISC); 2) behavioral rating scales (including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the various Conners Rating Scales, and others); and 3) the most popular computer-based continuous performance test (CPT) and the Conner's CPT. Prior to the discussion, evaluation and comparison of these three major assessment practices, a brief review of the essential diagnostic tasks and challenges for establishing ADHD in children is presented. 13 pages, 30 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.   $91
 
13764. APHASIA IN CHILDREN. A profile of childhood aphasia (lack of language development as the result of neurological factors). Defines the condition and discusses diagnostic protocols and quandaries; reviews the etiology of childhood aphasia; describes the major symptoms and characteristics; and provides a detailed discussion of the educational methods used with aphasic children. 15 pages, 33 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13681. THE SPECIAL EDUCATION CONSULTING TEACHER. An overview and analysis of the historical and evolving role of the special education consulting teacher, examining in particular the impact of the Regular Classroom Initiative and related regulations/laws mandating children be placed in the "least restrictive environment." Argues that despite recent legislation, the consulting teacher, as a dually trained professional, should not be restricted to a narrowly-defined capacity in the regular classroom. 13 pages, 27 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
12668. COUNSELING TECHNIQUES: AN OVERVIEW. The paper analyzes the skills and procedures required of the professional counselor, looking at them in the context of work in the Occupational Safety and Health field. The paper argues that a familiarity with problems of child, family and individual counseling is indispensable in areas of physical health (including alcohol and substance abuse problems), safety, mental health and well-being (where workplace habits are frequently impacted by problems of illness, death or dysfunction in the family). 12 pages, 18 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
12667. HUMAN COMMUNICATION IN COUNSELING. The paper reviews the most successful techniques now being used by therapists and counselors to facilitate the human communication which lies at the center of the counseling process. The paper focuses on the theories of Thomas Gordon ( Parent Effectiveness Training); Virginia Satir and Don D. Jackson (Conjoint Therapy); Eric Berne and Jay Haley (Transactional Analysis); Carl Rogers (Client-Centered Therapy); Gregory Bateson (the Double-Bind in Family Therapy); and Paul Watzlawick (Therapeutic Communication). The paper argues that a key element of each of these recent theories is the crucial role of the transactional structure or grammar of communication in therapy. KEYWORDS: counseling communication therapeutic relationships bateson virginia satir don jackson paul watzlawick jay haley eric berne thomas gordon. 14 pages, 31 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
12666. CROSS-CULTURAL VALUES AND COUNSELING. The paper examines the sensitive cultural, linguistic and parental problems that can develop in cross-cultural marriage, family and child counseling. Through analysis of the four major minority groups in the U.S. (Blacks, Asians, Hispanics and Native Americans), the paper argues that traditional counseling methods have been heavily biased toward a white middle-class perspective and that minority clients rarely fit either the ideal model of that perspective, or the stereotypical model that the dominant culture often has of minorities. 14 pages, 19 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
12445. ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER (ADD) IN ADULTS BY LYNN WEISS. Summary and review of a practical guide to diagnosis and treatment of ADD in adults. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
12444. MENTAL RETARDATION: STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS AND INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES. The first part of the paper considers the current definition of mental retardation and profiles some of the basic factors and characteristics in mental retardation, with special attention to memory, attention, motivation, cognition, and behavior. The second part examines specific instructional approaches and procedures for the education of the mentally retarded student, with a focus on teaching social skills, mathematics, and reading. 17 pages, 41 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
12179. LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN MANDATORY CHILD ABUSE REPORTING REQUIREMENTS FOR PSYCHOLOGISTS. The paper examines the legal and ethical issues and dilemmas in mandatory child abuse reporting requirements from the perspective of the mental health professional. Provides an overview of the legal and ethical issues and analyzes reasons why therapists often fail to comply with reporting laws. Offers recommendations on how psychologists and psychiatrists might resolve some of the ethical and legal dilemmas presented by these laws. 11 pages, 25 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11300. MULTICULTURALISM AND EDUCATION. This paper investigates the development and application of multicultural education and argues that the multicultural approach to education helps produce balanced and tolerant individuals who are able to make significant academic gains because of such programs. Includes a historical overview of multiculturalism and education, discussion of approaches and objectives in multicultural education, with a special focus on the need for culturally diverse educators and teachers. 20 pages, 69 footnotes, 37 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11289. PRESENT AND FUTURE TRENDS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION. Discusses and analyzes the present trends and directions of the field of special education. Considers the types of instructional materials now in use, current programming innovation, changes in the delivery of services, and the effect of new technologies on special education in the future. 14 pages, 34 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
11287. ISSUES IN THE SPECIAL EDUCATION OF STUDENTS WITH EMOTIONAL-BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS. This paper looks at current issues related to the special education of students with emotional/behavioral disorders. In particular, we will examine controversies and issues related to the incidence and definition of emotional disturbance and behavioral disorders as well as controversies involved in identification, classification, and assessment for the placement and instruction of these students. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11286. SOCIAL SKILLS INTERVENTION FOR EMOTIONALLY-BEHAVIORALLY DISTURBED (EBD) STUDENTS. This paper discusses and analyzes the components and parameters of social skills training and intervention as applied to emotionally and behaviorally disturbed children and adolescents. Examples of the type of social skills training possible for this population is also presented and discussed, along with a discussion environmental modifications for improving social skills. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11285. EDUCATION AND PROGRAMMING FOR STUDENTS WITH SERIOUS EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE (SED). This paper explores the major goals and objectives of programming for children and adolescents with SED. Following a brief review of the theoretical underpinnings for the education of SED students, we will discuss and analyze the scope of existing programs and consider recommendations in the literature for the development of more effective SED programming within a non-residential setting (i.e., within a school setting, either the mainstreamed classroom or a special education class). 11 pages, 37 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11235. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. Presents on overview of the definition, symptoms, epidemiology, prognosis, etiology and treatment for ADHD. Considers the various treatment modalities and their respective effectiveness. Recommends use of stimulants in conjunction with cognitive-behavioral training. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11232. CHILDREN'S LITERATURE AND ITS USEFULNESS FOR REDUCING CHILDREN'S MEDICAL ANXIETY. This paper describes how various types of childrenís books can be used to help children overcome their fear of medical treatment in a doctorís office or in a hospital. Several books in this genre are described and discussed. Keywords: fear anxiety children doctors medicine stories. Written 1994. 7 pages; 15 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
11231. THE INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA) AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE "FULL INCLUSION" POLICY. Following a background discussion of the evolution and philosophy of the inclusion movement, this paper considers the implications of the inclusion idea for the effective teaching of children, class grouping, teacher training, and the general classroom environment. 10 pages, 30 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
10694. TEEN VIOLENCE: THE PROBLEMS AND ITS CAUSES. Investigation and analysis of the problem of teenage violence. Following an overview of the scope and magnitude of the problem, considers the sociocultural, familial and psychological factors in the etiology of teen violence. Concludes that multiple causal factors are involved in this growing social problem. 13 pages, 39 footnotes, 43 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
10693. COPING WITH TEEN VIOLENCE IN THE SCHOOLS. Following a brief overview of the scope and magnitude of the problem, the report investigates strategies and tactics for coping with the problem of adolescent violence in the schools. The paper concludes with an "action plan" for the high school educator to use in addressing violence in the school. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 43 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10675. TREATING KUWAITI STUDENTS AFTER THE GULF WAR. A comprehensive treatment. Beginning with a survey of literature on children and war, the paper details short and long-term symptoms. A theoretical basis for treatment (based on a diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) is offered, followed by practical considerations of various styles of therapy (Adlerian, Multimodal, etc.). Includes chart. 20 pages, 39 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
10405. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE NATIONAL HEAD START ASSOCIATION PROJECT. Discusses the problems of poverty which Project Head Start was designed to address, core values of the program, evaluation procedures, geographic variance, future possibilities for the program. 11 pages, 27 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10261. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION IN ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION. Considers current issues in the assessment and evaluation of handicapped students for the purpose of placement and development within an adapted physical education program. Discusses current practices and describes widely used assessment tools. Reviews important revisions to standard testing procedures and considers their implications. 12 pages, 32 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
10151. THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATION OF STUDENTS WITH MILD MENTAL RETARDATION, LEARNING DISABILITIES, AND BEHAVIOR DISORDERS. An historical overview of the apporach to educating the mentally disabled student, focusing on the mildly disabled student who could be classified into one or more of the currently existing categories of mildly mentally retarded, learning disabled, or behaviorally disabled. Identifies the major issues in treatment, definition and assessment, and considers the role of sociocultural standards. 16 pages, 51 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
10065. PLACEMENT OF ABUSED OR NEGLECTED ADOLESCENTS IN GROUP HOMES. Describes use of group home placement for troubled adolescents; therapeutic millieu discussed, along with reasons for placement. 12 pages, 23 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
09241. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF THE CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK V. TOM F., 2005 U.S. DIST. LEXIS 49 (S.D.N.Y., JAN. 4, 2005). This paper summarizes and analyzes, using a legal brief format, an education-related Supreme Court case involving a School Districtís contention that a disabled student who had attended private school was NOT entitled to tuition reimbursement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. TAGS: IDEA, disabled students, private school, tuition reimbursement, legal challenge US Supreme Court. Legal Style. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,115 words.   $35
 
08916. MONTESSORI AND HEAD START: COMPARISON AND CONTRAST. Compares and contrasts Montessori and Head Start programs on the basis of program and staff leadership, school/community relations, resource acquisition and administration, pupil evaluation, and major characteristics of the programs. 8 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
08364. THE USE OF PUPPETRY IN SPECIAL EDUCATION. Following the premise that an arts education program is a crucial component of any educational program, the study presents a tentative model for the implementation of an arts program into the education of disabled children. Specific applications of puppetry as they pertain to learning disabled, emotionally disabled, and physically handicapped children are discussed. 26 pages, 44 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
07172. MAINSTREAMING THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED STUDENT IN INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. Basic review of the advantages of placing slow learners in regular shop classes to avoid isolation and labeling, with guidelines for teachers and potential obstacles to be overcome if mainstreaming is to be successful. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
05284. TUTORING PROGRAMS AND VOLUNTEER SERVICE. The functions and makeup of tutorial services in America are examined in this study. Backgrounds of tutors, problems and objectives of tutoring, and potential rewards are all given a thorough analysis in this excellent educational document. Includes data on tutors, programs and their positions in the overall educational process in America. 25 p., 16f., 11b.   $133
 
04946. RECREATION AS BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION. The development of physical and social skills through recreational activities is seen as a means of expression for children with impaired mental capacity. A review of the literature on slow learners and a brief history of the rise of behavior modification theory is included in the study. Various group play techniques and positive reinforcement methods are considered in this well-documented survey. 19 pages, 37 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
04913. CAREER EDUCATION: INDUSTRIAL ARTS TRAINING IN THE MODERN WORLD. This paper begins with the early 20th century and the origins of government support for industrial arts training, and proceeds to a discussion of the differences between the industrial arts and conventional training. Changing technology and social values are seen as leading to a need for changes in training methods; this study concludes that the career education concept is better than the industrial arts concept for meeting modern needs. 18 pages, 16 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
04897. CHILDHOOD APHASIA AND READING. The impairment of language function in childhood aphasia is examined in terms of ability to learn to read. The need to employ special reading techniques and especially to motivate the aphasic child is emphasized. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
04890. PHILOSOPHICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL ARTS AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. A brief discussion of the origins of the differences between these two forms of education, covering the types of training adVocated by each school. 4 pages, 4 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $28
 
04887. THE ROLES OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. A presentation of the industrial arts concepts and the types of training that can be integrated into the elementary school curriculum. 4 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $28
 
04548. PROBLEMS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. Very good study of the purposes and directions of vocational education; identified three problem areas of integration of vocational with academic studies, relevancy of skills taught and sex/race stereotyping; recommends that all education be more work-related, that voc. ed. teach how to change jobs and skills easily, and that better role models and more opportunities be provided as solutions to the problems. Well-written. 15 pages, 12 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
04438. CAREER EDUCATION: RELATING CURRICULUM TO MANPOWER NEEDS. 12 pages, 9 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. See U. S. Economy, Section 7A.   $84
 
04392. THE EAST BAY SKILLS CENTER: ITS EFFECTIVENESS. Very good study of the effectiveness of a community college vocational training center for minorities; not statistical or technical, but good discussion of the problem of developing a curriculum to help prevent adjustment problems on the job. 27p., Of., 12b.   $133
 
04212. EDUCATIONAL COUNSELING. Basic discussion of the ideals and inadequacies of school counselors (especially with minority students), based on Saranson (see also paper 4211: A Strategy for Innovation in Counseling Practices in The School based on the ideas of Seymour B. Saranson). 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
04211. A STRATEGY FOR INNOVATION IN COUNSELING PRACTICES IN THE SCHOOL. Good discussion (though much more philosophical than practical) on the problems of introducing innovation into a system, based on the ideas of Seymour B. Saranson in "The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change." 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
04166. PROPOSAL FOR EVALUATION OF A PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION PROGRAM. Good example of a research design which will attempt to find the attitudes of college freshmen on eight areas of possible conflict, and how a counselling program might improve their feelings; survey of relevant literature, questionnaire design and use, how date will be evaluated. 11p., Of., 8b.   $77
 
02056. THE CHILDHOOD OF HELEN KELLER. Brief overview of the life of Helen Keller, before the arrival of her teacher Anne Sullivan; also comments on the writer's attempts to recreate the experience of handicapped persons. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
10,232. CHILDREN'S LITERATURE AND ITS USEFULNESS IN PREPARING CHILDREN FOR HOSPITALIZATION OR VISITS TO PHYSICIANS. This paper describes how various types of childrenís books can be used to help children overcome their fear of medical treatment in a doctorís office or in a hospital. Several books in this genre are described and discussed. Keywords: fear anxiety children doctors medicine stories. Written 1994. 7 pages; 15 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
53283. THE POLICIES OF DROP-IN CENTERS. Good overview of how continuation schools try to motivate dropouts by relaxed external discipline, individualized and skill-centered instruction, counselling, and a number of other educational innovations; reports on specific schools and training centers throughout the U. S. 15 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
52610. COUNSELLING IN THE MULTICULTURAL SCHOOL. Basic overview of how counselling has failed minority students, how innovation, creativity, and enlightenment are necessary to improve counselling experience. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
52490. MODEL OF A CAREER PLANNING CENTER. Not a technical model, but good discussion of issues involved in establishing a career counseling center for students' proceeds by relevant quotes from the literature to establish basic rules for career counseling and choice, organization of materials at the center. 16p., 2 appendices, 26f., 20b.   $126
 
52235. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON SCHOOL COUNSELORS IN CURRICULUM PLANNING. Brief summaries of six books which more or less approach the subject of the important role that the high school counselor would like to have in curriculum planning. 3p., Of., 6b.   $21
 
52155. SEMANTICS TEACHING UNIT. Proposal for a short class in semantics for high school students; objectives of the unit, 7 sample lessons. lOp., Of., 8b.   $70
 
52142. INSTITUTIONALIZED AND ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION. Basic discussion, with several personal experiences, of traditional and alternative education, emphasizing what each can learn from the other. Sp., Of., Ob.   $35
 
52008. MULTI-LEVEL PRESSURES OPERATING ON A MEDICAL SCHOOL. Very good study of education in the real world: how pressure groups ranging from doctor-short citizens to the AMA act and react on a medical school, with Mich. State U. med school used as example. 8 pages, 3 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
51994. HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING UNIT ON LONELINESS IN POETRY. Very good, detailed presentation of course outline and lesson plans for teaching about loneliness themes in poetry; very complete, well thought out. l4p., Of., 8b.   $28
 
51990. POLITICAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS EDUCATION. Essay on how parental attitudes to education can determine and exaggerate learning problems of students. 6p., Of., Ob.   $42
 
51894. TEACHER-STUDENT INTERACTION: TEN ABSTRACTS. Abstracts of ten articles from education and psychology journals on various aspects of teacher-student relations, done in four-part purpose-sample-method-findings format for each article. lOp., Of., Ob.   $70
 
51888. THE PHILOSOPHY OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. Good, well-written study of the reasons why vocational education should be stressed, the reasons why it hasn't been (or has been done wrong.) Includes discussion of bias towards academic subjects in high school, junior colleges as best hope for voc. ed., need to be relevant. 12 pages, 11 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
51835. INCULCATING (INDOCTRINATING) KNOWLEDGE INTO CHILDREN. Very basic overview of elementary principles (planning, discipline, flexibility, routine, etc.) the elementary teacher should know. Includes perspectives by Verna Hildebrand and Barbara Taylor. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
51679. GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING. Interesting overview of the role of the school counselor; covers adolescent psychology, five principles of guidance, over-emphasis of most counselors on college-bound students, what the counselor can and cannot dn, the counselor as information center for students. 20 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
51645. EFFECTS OF POST-CIVIL WAR RECONSTRUCTION ON EDUCATION IN NEW ORLEANS. Study of what happened when carpetbaggers tried to push integrated schools in New Orleans after the defeat of the South; both whites and high-status Blacks refused to attend. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
51531. THE USE OF NON-INTELLECTIVE FACTORS IN PREDICTING ACADEMIC SUCCESS. Very good, wide-ranging study of how self-concept of the child, social class, and personality can be used to predict academic success or failure, focusing on how these come together in the "feedback and self-awareness of the learning process." 15 pages, 35 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $105
 


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