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18332. Historical Development of East European Jewry (1648-1918). This paper discusses the progress and setbacks of East European Jews from the 17th Century (the time of the “Deluge” pogroms), through the 18th Century (the time of the Enlightenment and emphasis on equal rights), the early 19th Century (the time of Emancipation and renewed persecutions), the late 19th Century (a time of increased anti-Semitic attitudes), to the end of World War I (which resulted in the Jews being dispersed and vulnerable to further anti-Semitic persecutions). KEYWORDS: history Judaism East Europe. APA Style. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
18324. The Dreyfus Affair. This paper discusses the case of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish French army officer who was charged with treason in 1894. Although there was a lack of evidence against him, Dreyfus was found guilty in military court. The case revealed the extent of anti-Semitism in France at the time, and the media controversy over the case divided the nation. The Dreyfus Affair was significant in other ways as well; for example, it helped inspire the founding of the Zionist movement. KEYWORDS: France history criminal justice anti-Semitism. APA Style. 11 pages, 32 footnotes in text, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
17736. Aztec Military Organization & Structure. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Aztec military structure and organization. Among the topics considered are how the Aztec Army was fielded, the rank structure of the Aztec military, military training, the function of the military in larger society, whether or not the Aztecs had what could have been considered a “professional army”, and how the Aztec military compared to the Spanish military it encountered in the early 16th century. Consistent with the position put forth by Aztec historian Ross Hassig (1988), it is argued that the debate over the “professional” status of the Aztec army is really just a matter of semantics. Although the Aztec military did not conform to European standards of professional armies for that era, the Aztecs nevertheless had a complex military organization and a “professional” army within the context of the Aztec economy and culture. KEYWORDS: aztecs mesoamerican history military structure army rank military organization cortes mexican conquest. 21 pages, 41 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 6,270 words   $133
17500. Chartier & Furet on the French Revolution. This paper considers the unique and modern perspectives on the French Revolution offered by Chartier and Furet. Roger Chartier’s The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution argues against the Enlightenment as the Revolution’s source, while Francois Furet dismisses the notion of a Marxist foundation in Interpreting the French Revolution. Concludes that both Chartier and Furet establish entirely new ways of thinking about the history of the French Revolution, and allow readers to appreciate the complexity of this momentous historical event. MLA Style. KEYWORDS: French revolution enlightenment Marxism ideological shift French culture reading habits. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,821 words. **************************************************** ABOUT BERKELEY RESEARCH CASE STUDIES We offer many high-quality, professionally written Harvard Business case study solutions...   $84
17383. Why Were Witches Usually Women? Explaining Gender Bias in the English Witch Craze. EXPLAINING GENDER BIAS IN THE ENGLISH WITCH CRAZE. Focusing on the witch hunts in 16th and 17th century Elizabethan and Jacobean England, this paper considers explanations for why women comprised the overwhelming majority of those accused and/or convicted of witchcraft. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the central features of the witch craze in England (as distinct from that in continental Europe) and a discussion of the predominantly female “profile” of the English witch. Following this, the analysis explores some of the economic, social, biological, psychological and cultural factors possibly responsible for the gender bias in the English witch craze and reviews the major explanatory theories found in the current and historical witchcraft literature. KEYWORDS: witchcraft women witches gender witch persecutions older women. APA Style. 15 pages, 59 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 4,950 words.   $98
17330. Financing the Cathedral of Notre Dame. This paper discusses the views of historians regarding the manner in which the building of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame was financed. The analysis shows that the financial sources included contributions from the King, church funds, collection tours, and donations from rich and poor alike. No evidence is found that construction costs were ever cut through the use of volunteer laborers. Discusses the controversy over the question of whether or not the sale of indulgences played a major role in the construction of the cathedral. KEYWORDS: cathedral construction financing Notre Dame. 8 pages, 29 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,970 words.   $56
17293. Empiricism. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the historical development of empiricism (the belief that all human knowledge comes through sensory experience), a way of thinking that had a strong influence on the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The paper describes the historical factors in the origin and spread of empiricism, as well as the views of its major proponents (e.g., Locke, Hume) and opponents (Descartes, Kant, the rationalists). Also discusses the lasting influence of empiricism on Western Civilization. KEYWORDS: empiricism John Locke David Hume Enlightenment. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,177 words.   $70
17284. “the Columbian Exchange” by Alfred Crosby. This paper provides a review and analysis of Crosby’s (1972) book about the exchange of plants, animals and diseases that occurred between the “Old World” (Europeans) and the “New World” (Native Americans) following Columbus’ discovery of America in 1492. Crosby’s book shows that the Europeans benefitted in many ways from the exchange; by contrast, the American Indians suffered greatly and experienced drastic declines in their populations. Crosby demonstrates the ways that the Columbian Exchange gave rise to various situations which persist in the world today (i.e., overpopulation, environmental damage, and species reduction). Above all Columbian Exchange placed the West in a dominant position in international affairs. KEYWORDS: Native Americans European domination trade effects. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,088 words.   $56
17226. The Congo Free State (1885-1908). This paper describes how the combined forces of greed, command economy, and racism led to the cruelties that resulted in a drastic reduction of the indigenous population in the Congo. Topics include the actions of King Leopold II of Belgium, the colonial ivory and rubber industries, and the extreme punishments used to coerce labor. Keywords: Congo Belgium racism planned economy slave labor. 10 pages; 35 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources. 2,545 words.   $70
17225. The Causes of World War I. This paper examines some of the factors leading to the outbreak of World War I. The paper discusses the role of imperialism and nationalism, military and political alliances, the assassination of the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, the failure of Germany’s Schlieffen Plan, and the U.S. entry into the war. Keywords: World War I WWI causes. 6 pages; 24 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 1,502 words.   $42
17126. Peacekeeping, 1648-1989. This paper provides an overview and analysis of peacekeeping from 1648 to 1989. Drawing on specific examples, the analysis considers peacekeeping within its historical, social, political, and economic contexts, with particular attention to nation-state, sovereignty, nation, colony, church-state relations, civil-military relations, alliances and trade conflict. Following an overview of the political context of war, peace and peacekeeping during the period (1648-1989) under consideration, the analysis considers peacekeeping efforts within the circumstances of specific conflicts. KEYWORDS: war armed conflict resolution peacekeeping historical sovereignty nation states. APA Style. 20 pages; 47 footnotes; 19 bibliographic sources. 4,776 words.   $133
17125. Peacekeeping in the Ancient, Medieval, and Early Modern Eras. This paper examines the forms, application, and contingencies of peacekeeping in the ancient, medieval, and early modern worlds. The analysis considers the nature of war and peace in the ancient and medieval/early modern eras and identifies the major actors involved in peacekeeping. Drawing on specific examples, the investigation considers peacekeeping in these historical contexts, with specific attention to the influence of empire, city-state structure, church-state relations, political factionalism and trade conflict. 15 pages; 41 footnotes; 19 bibliographic sources. 4,555 words.   $105
17106. Diet and Health in English Industrial Revolution. Looking specifically at dietary consumption patterns and dietary-related changes in health in the period preceding and during the industrial revolution, this paper investigates the impact of the industrial revolution in England on people’s diet and overall health. Examines differences in nutritional status and dietary consumption patterns among the various social/economic classes and between urban and rural populations; considers negative as well as positive transformations in diet and health during the period; looks at physical evidence of the diet-related health changes, such as rates of rickets and scurvy and changes in height; and examines non-economic (e.g., consumer preference, food adulteration) as well as economic reasons for the changes. KEYWORDS: industrial revolution diet nutrition dietary factors human health history. APA Style. 20 pages; 34 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 5,003 words.   $133
17014. The Ottoman Tanzimat. The Ottoman Empire underwent a period of reform between 1839-1878 (called the Tanzimat, or the reorganization), during which various social, political, and economic improvements were made. This paper discusses the Tanzimat reforms, as well as the reasons for their eventual decline. Keywords: Ottoman reform. 5 pages; 25 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,355 words.   $35
17013. The Reform Efforts of Muhammad Ali, Pasha of Egypt. In early nineteenth century, Egypt was a semi-autonomous state within the Ottoman Empire. At that time, Egypt’s leader, Muhammad Ali, instituted a series of modernizing reforms. This paper examines those reforms and considers how Muhammad Ali’s reform efforts were subsequently undermined during the reign of his son, Ismail Pasha. Keywords: Muhammad Ali Egypt modernization reforms. 6 pages; 21 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,558 words.   $42
15981. Judaism in the Modern Period. This paper argues that after 1800, Judaism experienced “an upheaval equivalent to the destruction of the Second Temple.” This upheaval is described, along with the different responses of Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative Jews. 5 pages; 17 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,199 words.   $35
15891. Renaissance Humanism and the Resurrection of Classical Texts. This paper discusses how the imitation of classical texts resulted in a sense of anachronism which in turn led to the development of a relativistic perspective on history (the historical perspective of the modern era). Also discusses how this view evolved in the works of Petrarch, Valla, Machiavelli, Erasmus, Montaigne, and others. 12 pages; 29 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
15889. The Effects of Colonialism in the Caribbean. This paper critically examines the impact of colonialism in the Caribbean, arguing that although colonialism brought some benefits, it mostly had a damaging impact. Notably, colonialism in the region caused the destruction of indigenous populations, limited future economic development, created a social underclass, resulted in fragmentation among the islands, and contributed to the region’s underdevelopment in the present day. 6 pages; 24 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
15860. The Life and Philosophy of Georg w.f. Hegel. This paper discusses Hegel's Idealism, his theory of "World Spirit," dialectic method, and influence on later thinkers. Notes that while Hegel's influence declined in the early 20th century, there has been a recent revival of the study of his philosophical ideas. 12 pages; 38 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 3,388 words.   $84
15849. Napoleon Bonaparte and the Ideals of the French Revolution. This paper argues that Napoleon was more like a pre-Revolutionary monarch than he was a promoter of Revolutionary values such as liberty and equality. Notes for example that Napoleon Bonaparte suppressed freedom of speech and declared himself emperor by divine rights. 6 pages; 16 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
15826. Petrarch and the Distinctive Nature of Renaissance Humanism. This paper discusses the influence of classical rhetoric and Christian beliefs on Petrarch's thought, as well as his emphasis on the importance of individualism and self-exploration. Petrarch rejected the scholastic idea of 'absolute truth' and claimed that there are limits to knowledge; thus, according to Petrarch, "it is better to will the good than to know the truth." 15 pages; 50 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources.   $105
15729. The Greek National Liberation Movement and the Italian Unification Movement. Covers the history of these two 19th Century movements and discusses their similarities and differences. For example, they were different because the Greeks relied on European powers in their struggle against Ottoman rule, whereas the Italians relied on dynamic leaders in unifying their various city-states. Yet, the two movements were also similar because of their place in time and the role played by secret societies, among other things. 9 pages, 27 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
15728. Political Rule in an Age of Inequality. The paper describes the differing ways that Machiavelli, Martin Luther and Rousseau all argued that, although people are fundamentally equal, there is still a need for political rule. Concludes with a personal opinion emphasizing the need for balance between government and individual and for the importance of the consent of the people in legitimizing governmental power. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
15716. The Role of the Parliaments in the French Revolution. By challenging the monarchy, the members of the parliaments (aka: parlement) helped bring about the conditions that caused the French Revolution. For example, the members resisted paying taxes and opposed tax reforms; in addition, they encouraged popular revolution by being apparently in favor of individual rights (although they were actually only interested in improving conditions for themselves). 11 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $77
15701. The French Revolution: The Role of Women. This paper provides a brief analysis of the role of women in the French Revolution. The analysis considers the role of women in the Revolution both in terms of their actual roles (e.g., as marchers, participants in political clubs, leaders, etc.) and their symbolic roles. The contributions of both ordinary women (e.g., the market-women who marched on Versailles) and relatively famous women (e.g., Madame Roland and Marie Antoinette) are noted. A concluding section briefly compares the role of women in the French Revolution with their substantially greater role in the Russian Revolution. Concludes that the role of women in the French Revolution was mainly important from a symbolic perspective. 9 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
15568. Homosexuality and Lesbianism in Pre-Modern European History. There is a debate among scholars over why homosexual behaviors were condemned by both Church and society after the 14th Century. Male homosexual behavior in particular, was severely prosecuted from the 14th Century through the 19th Century. Lesbians were generally more tolerated during that time; however, it is argued that this was due mainly to women's lives in general being ignored in the male dominated European society. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $84
15526. The Impact of the French Revolution on Women's Rights. Argues that, although many women participated in the Revolution and made demands for reform, in the end their social position was basically the same as it was in the beginning. The male-dominant views of the time are contrasted with the arguments for women's equality, and it is shown that women were ultimately suppressed by the male leaders of the Revolution. 10 pages, 20 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $70
15245. The Royal Navy and British Commercial and Colonial Expansion. This paper explores the complex relationship between naval strength on the one hand, and commercial and colonial expansion on the other, looking specifically at the rise and development of the Royal Navy and its relationship with British commercial and colonial expansion. The analysis focuses on the period from the late 15th century through the 19th century and the era of Pax Britannica. The focus thus is on the emergence and rise of British sea power and its relationship to Britain's expanding commercial and colonial roles and the extent to which this naval power served as the foundation for 19th century Pax Britannica. KEYWORDS: Great Britain naval power british royal navy history colonial powers. APA Style. 14 pages, 33 footnotes in text, 11 bibliographic sources.   $98
15226. Women and Salons in 18th Century Europe. In the eighteenth century, many women held meetings in their homes for artists and intellectuals. The practice began in Paris and then spread throughout the cultural centers of Europe. However, although the salon hostesses played an important cultural and social role, they continued to lack full equality with men at the time. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $77
15186. The Galileo Affair. Discusses the conflict between the 17th century scientist and the Church, including the controversy over the Copernican theory, the charges of heresy, and the Inquisition trial. Also argues that the conflicts were due more to political reasons than to Galileo's beliefs. 19 pages, 50 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $126
15177. Reforms in Russia Following the Crimean War. The defeat in the war caused the Russian government to see the need to modernize society. In addition to freeing the serfs, the government implemented reforms in the military, local government, the judiciary, education, and other areas. The reforms had positive effects; yet many problems remained. 12 pages, 39 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $84
15097. The Great Irish Famine Versus the Jewish Holocaust. This essay considers the extent to which it is appropriate for Irish ethnicists to interpret Ireland’s Great Famine (1845-1849) similarly to how the Holocaust of World War Two (1939-1945) is interpreted for the Jews. The essay concludes that while Irish Americans should continue to remember the Great Famine and to hold on to it as a symbol of unity; however, it is not quite accurate to compare the events of the Famine with the even more brutal and vicious events of the Holocaust. KEYWORDS: irish famine irish-americans ethnic unity jewish holocaust. MLA Style. 3 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $21
15076. Portugal in the Slave & Spice Trades. Why did Portugal, pioneering founder and unequivocal European leader of the spice and slave trades through the sixteenth century, drop to the margins of these trades in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? That is the central question under investigation in this comparative study of the European-Asian spice trade and Atlantic slave trade of the 15th-18th Centuries. The analysis looks at the major reasons for the decline and eventual diminution of the Portuguese role in these two major trades, considering political, organizational, cultural, economic, competitive and other factors. KEYWORDS: portugal history economic decline spice trade slave trade. APA Style. 14 pages, 40 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references. 5,421 words.   $98
15073. The Significance of the African Slave Trade to Economic Development in the European Maritime Nations, 1440-1860. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the economic impact of the transatlantic slave trade on the major European slave-trading nations. Argues that despite huge losses and inefficiencies, the major European slave traders of the 17th and 18th Centuries (Dutch, British, French) benefited economically from the trade in terms of increased exports, improvements in the shipping industry, the slave labor efficiencies of the plantation economies in the colonies, and the stimulation of development and innovation within certain industries. The effect is most dramatic for Great Britain. KEYWORDS: colonial powers slave trade history economic development commerce slaves britain france netherlands portugal. APA Style. 15 pages, 45 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references. 5,216 words.   $105
15023. Painting in the Chinese Song Dynasty and the Italian Renaissance. Argues that long-lasting changes in style occurred in both cultures; however, there were also crucial differences, which were due to the philosophical orientations of the East and the West. 13 pages, 29 footnotes, 10 bibliographic reference.   $91
15013. Witchcraft in Europe. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the development and practice of witchcraft in Europe. Following a definition of witchcraft and witches, the paper discusses the development of witchcraft and the links between healers, traditional religions, and witchcraft. Focusing on Europe, the paper then discusses witchcraft from Classical to modern times. KEYWORDS: wicca witches witchcraft europe. Scientific Notation Style. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $63
14703. Women in British Prisons in the 19th and 20th Centuries. This paper provides a critical overview and analysis of women’s imprisonment in Great Britain during the 19th and 20th centuries. The first section provides a brief background on the history of women’s imprisonment in Great Britain and looks at women’s imprisonment during the first half of the 19th century. The second section, covering the period 1850-1895, looks at women’s imprisonment in Britain during the consolidation and centralization of the system and the shift to a highly punitive model. The third section, covering the period 1895-1960, reviews the gradual establishment of the 20th century model of rehabilitation. The fourth section covers the period from 1960 up to the present-day and considers important recent trends and shifts in women’s imprisonment, including the emphasis on the medical/psychiatric model, the increase in the number of female prisoners, and the changing demographics of women prisoners in Great Britain. KEYWORDS: women’s imprisonment women prisons Britain history female prisoners uk. APA Style. 32 pages, 154 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 9,700 words.   $133
14010. The Industrial Revolution. This paper notes the success stories of the Industrial Revolution, but emphasizes the idea that it led to greater economic inequalities and thus caused many people to suffer the hardships of poverty. The paper also looks at the role played by urbanization in contributing to this problem. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
13988. European Industrial Revolution & Ottoman Empire. An analysis of the impact of the European Industrial Revolution on the Ottoman Empire, focusing on the 19th century and the economic impacts of industrialization. Considers changes in trade patterns, capital investment, mechanization, and transfer of technology. Illuminates the importance of the internal market in the Ottoman economy during this period. KEYWORDS: industrial revolution ottoman empire term paper. APA Style. 15 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references. 3,739 words.   $105
13918. Thomas More's Utopia and the End of the Middle Ages. This paper analyzes how the political and social structures of More's ideal society reflect the tensions at the end of the Middle Ages when Europe was changing politically from a feudal, agricultural society made up of smaller states, to large modern nation states with power concentrated in the central government. KEYWORD: medieval philosophy thomas more britian utopia. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
13908. Locke, Spinoza and Descartes: Productive Exile in 17th Century Holland. Examines the philosophies of the three prominent thinkers, each of whom produced their most famous works while in exile in Holland. Focuses on the major works of each philosopher: Descartes' Meditations and Discourse on Method, Spinoza's Ethics and On the Improvement of the Human Understanding and Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Essay on Tolerance - along with some selected private letters. Argues that all three philosophers achieved a necessary freedom of expression during their Dutch experience. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $63
13847. Francis Bacon's Impeachment on Bribery Charges (1621). Discusses Bacon’s long struggle for advancement in a political career, and his subsequent fall from the office of Lord Chancellor. Although he indeed accepted gifts from clients, the paper argues that Bacon was a “scapegoat” in a power struggle between the King and Parliament. 7 pages, 30 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
13723. France Through the Terror: Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792-1814. Analyzes France's domestic and international strategic position through the 23-year period of almost continual combat. Argues that it was only the complete exhaustion of France's economic, political and military resources, combined with the obstinacy of Napoleon that led to France's final defeat at Waterloo. 10 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
13644. John Vanbrugh. Life and career of the seventeenth-century Englishman, including a discussion of the relationship between his work as a playwright and his work as an architect. Also discusses how he made his buildings appear “dramatic” by using the baroque style. 5 pages, 21 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $35
13624. Ireland's Great Famine (1845-1849). Discusses the causes of the famine, as well as the ineffectual responses of the British government. Also argues that the famine was a turning point in the Irish history, reducing the nation's population and increasing the resentment of Irish rebels toward British rule. 6 pages, 23 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
13463. Versailles. Looks that the main contributors and main themes behind the palaces, gardens and grounds at Versailles. The whole is considered as a state monument to the glory of Louis XIV; influence of LeVau, LeNotre, Lebrun, Mansart and other key figures are noted. The use of royal building as an expression of statemanship is noted; Versailles is seen as the origin of the multi-area "theme park" of ideas. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
13427. Otto Von Bismarck (1815-1898). Biographical sketch of the life and work of the 19th century German statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Prussia and Chancellor of the second German Reich which he is credited for founding. Discusses Bismarck’s early life and background and traces his career from his days as a dissatisfied civil servant through his forced resignation in 1890. 15 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $105
13405. Rome and the Neoclassical Revival. The lure of Rome for artists, scholars and travelers in the eighteenth and nineteenth century is examined in this paper. The rise of Rome as the central repository of Renaissance and the Baroque masterworks, as well as its position as the site of ruins and statuary from the classical, is described. Various aspects of Neoclassical style and taste as they relate to the art and culture of eighteenth and nineteenth are noted. Keywords: Italy artistic revival Neoclassicism. 14 pages; 14 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.   $98
13379. Queen Elizabeth and the Defeat of the Spanish Armada. Considers the role of Elizabeth I in the events that led to the decisive naval battle between England and Spain. Also discusses how her reluctance to mobilize for battle was a sign of practicality on her part. 13 pages, 40 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $91
13377. The Early Life of Elizabeth I. Discusses her childhood and education, as well as the threats she faced during the reigns of Edward VI and Mary I. Also discusses how her early life provided her with the qualities she needed to become one of England's greatest monarchs. 11 pages, 39 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
13367. The Spirit of Rationalism and the Great Transition. A brief essay which addresses the question, "What was the Great Transition that instigated what we now call modern society?" Argues that the central, catalytic theme within the Industrial Revolution expounded by Schumpeter, Boulding, Desai, O'Connell and others. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $42
13361. Lord Nelson. Life and career of British naval hero, including his early years, affair with Lady Hamilton, victories due to the use of new warfare tactics, and his importance as a figure in British history. 11 pages, 34 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
13294. Republican Government in Venice and Florence. Examines the popular basis and republican electoral systems of Venice and Florence in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Indirect election, government by committee, and balancing of power among families are seen as the source of republican freedom in these two cities; dynasticism and nationalism are however shown to be the growing trend of the period. 10 pages, 18 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
13240. The German Middle Class and the "Sonderweg Controversy." Argues that divisions within the middle class resulted in its failure to overcome the influence of the nobility. Also argues that, despite its political failures, the middle class made important contributions to culture and society. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
13174. The French Conquest of Vietnam. Discusses the causes and course of the French conquest of Vietnam, including events in the period 1830-1900. Considers some of the factors which led to the French interest in the region and to France's eventual determination to impose authority over the country. Analyzes France's success in pacifying Vietnam during the period, along with the Vietnamese inability to find a successful means of resistance. 11 pages, 9 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
13082. "The German Question" (1914-1945). Argues that there were several factors involved in the rise of the Nazi dictatorship and the onset of the Second World War. These factors included Germany's colonial ambitions, the ineffectualness of the Weimar Republic, economic crises, fears of communism, Hitler's ability to mobilize the public, the support of the lower middle class, the assistance of the ruling elites and big business, and the failure of the European powers to contain Germany's expansion. 21 pages, 80 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
13057. The Irish Immigration 1845-1921. The paper summarizes the history of Irish immigration during the period of 1845 to 1921. The paper covers topics such as the potato famine, working conditions in the textile mills of New England, the transformation of the Catholic Church in America by Irish immigrants and the success of the Irish immigrants in the spreading of Labor Unions in the 1870's and 1880's. 16 pages, 47 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $112
13052. The Crowd in the French Revolution by George Rude. Brief, favorable review of Rude's study of the role of the lower classes in the French Revolution. Describes the author's methodology, summarizes Rude's conclusions about the underlying economic motivations of the crowd in various insurrections, and presents Rude's appraisal of the overall importance of the crowd in the Revolution. 6p., 1b., 2f.   $42
12683. The Historical Significance of Napoleon Bonaparte. This paper considers the historical significance of Napoleon Bonaparte to not only France and the French Empire under Napoleon, but also to greater Europe and the world as a whole. Argues that Napoleon's greatest historical significance lies in his promulgation of the modern secular state, his role in the invention of modern warfare, and in his unwitting encouragement of a new international system. 15 pages, 24 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $105
12680. Challenges of the Kaiserreich and Nazi Dictatorship. The political and economic factors in Germany in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that led from Prussian imperialism to Hitler's rise to power. 9 pages, 37 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $63
12577. Homosexuality: A Comparison of Western and Eastern Viewpoints. Whereas the Christian view tends to condemn homosexuality, the Eastern (especially Buddhist) view is more tolerant and accepting. The paper also argues that Western persecution is due to social and political reasons rather than religious reasons. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
12465. Differences in Historical Interpretations of Nazism. An analysis of Ian Kershaw's The Nazi Dictatorship and its thoughtful discourse on the debate between the traditionalist, historicist, "intentionalist" view of Nazism and the more contemporary, "revisionist," structural-methodological approach. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
12463. The Anti-Corn Law League. Describes the suggest of the English manufacturers and factory workers in their fight against the Corn Law protectionism for domestic wheat production in the early 19th century. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
12462. The Concert of Europe vs. The Spirit of Revolution, 1815-1822. Well informed, detailed history of this period of imperial diplomacy, actually covering from formation of the anti-Napoleonic alliance, the treaties regulating Napoleon's defeats in 1814 and 1815, what was new in these treaties and the socio-political situation of fearful conservatism in Europe, the renewed outbreaks of revolution after 1819, Metternich's maneuvering and the responses of England, France, Russia and others, the Conferences and Congresses of Troppau, Laibach, and Verona and what they meant, the breakup of the Holy Alliance in 1822, and both positive and negative assessments of this "Concert of Europe" period in international diplomacy. 14p., 45 notes in text, 5b.   $98
12460. Why the 1848 Revolutions Failed to Unify Germany. Discusses the economic and political conditions leading to the revolutions. Also discusses the failings of the Frankfurt National Assemble and the role of the "counter-revolution" in restoring the monarchs to power. 12 pages, 44 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
12291. Comparisons in Decline: The Manchu Empire and the Ottoman Empire. This paper compares the internal and external factors in the decline of two great empires – the Manchu Empire of China and the Ottoman Empire of Anatolia. The paper argues that internal factors were the cause of the Manchu Empire’s decline (specifically, a revolt against an unpopular central government), while external factors were the cause of the Ottoman Empire’s decline (specifically, the unexpected collapse of the Bulgarian army on the Salonika front in the autumn of 1918. Keywords: Anatolia China comparative history. 11 pages; 16 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
12280. Queen Victoria's Jubilee. Summary and analysis of an 1887 editorial from The Times celebrating the accomplishments of England during the first 50 years of her reign. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
12214. The Delights of Vienna. Looks at the many delights of the Austrian capital. Vienna's historical legacy, its music, food, and tourist attractions, are described. 9 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
12213. "Memoirs" by Mikhail Gorbachev. A favorable critique of Gorbachev's autobiography, examining the former Soviet leader's role as a "cold warrior" and his importance in changing the course of the 40-year Cold War. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
12212. Autocratic Tendencies in the Balkans. This paper explores autocratic tendencies among the four Balkan countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia from the years 1918 to 1970. Discusses similarities and differences in the political, social, economic structure of the four countries. Considers why the Balkans turned to communism and why they failed to establish multi-party democracies, with comparison to Turkey and Greece. 15 pages, 43 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $105
12211. Louis Xiv's Foreign Policy to 1697. Examines the major themes and objectives of French War and diplomacy from 1661 to 1697. The king's policy of territorial expansion and political domination is seen as expression of royal absolutism in foreign affairs. 12 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
12210. The History of the Ottoman Empire. This paper presents a political and historical profile of the Ottoman Empire, considering its scope and composition, focus on jihad, administration, obligations of subjects, economy, and position on religious tolerance. A concluding section considers the reasons behind the demise of the empire. Keywords: Ottomans Turks Anatolia. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $77
12209. The History of Jews in Vienna. This paper discusses how the Jews faced prejudice and persecution by the Catholic majority throughout the city of Vienna’s history. Despite this fact, many notable Jewish artists, writers and scientists have lived in the city, including Theodore Herzl, founder of the modern Zionist movement. Keywords: anti-Semitism Europe Austria Jewish history religious conflict. 11 pages, 36 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $77
12208. Vienna as a "Cradle of Music." Argues that the city became a great music center because of its location in the heart of Europe and because of the patronage of the Hapsburg Dynasty. Many great composers lived in the city, including Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Brahms, Strauss, and Schoenberg. Ironically, many of these artists were rejected by the citizens of Vienna during their own times. 10 pages, 32 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
12180. Rebuilding a National Economy on International Free Trade: Sweden and the Wto. This paper investigates the economics of trade from the perspective of Sweden's export-led growth under the auspices of the newly-constituted World Trade Organization. To gain a better understanding of the economics of free global trade, the an analysis focuses on one sector of Swedish exports- knowledge-based manufactures- and its relationship to the terms of global trade established and evolving through the World Trade Organization. Includes an overview of the economics of free trade, background on the WTO and its formation, and a profile of world trade in the late 20th century, including a discussion of the politics of free trade. Examines Sweden's position in the international trading economy and presents the rationale for the need for Sweden to rely on higher-level, knowledge-based manufacturers to underpin its future economic growth. 22 pages, 61 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources.   $133
12040. Lucrezia Borgia. Biography of Lucrezia Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI, brother of Cesare Borgia and immortalized by Victor Hugo as the "Messalina of the Vatican." Concludes that Lucrezia was undeserving of her reputation as a wicked and intelligent temptress mainly because she lacked the character and wit to achieve greatness in either her vices or her virtues. 11 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $77
11933. The Rise of Science and the Ideals of the Enlightenment. This paper traces the religious, philosophical, and scientific origins of the enlightenment. The roles of Newton, Kant, Montesquieu and Voltaire. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
11929. The British Exploitation of India. Discusses Great Britain's economic, social, and cultural domination of India. Beginning with the economic exploitation of the British East India Company, this paper examines a history of racism and aristocratic condescension that accompanied British rule. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
11927. Morality in the Slave Trade. This paper examines the cultural factors that ultimately overcame economic factors in leading Great Britain to ban the slave trade in the 19th century. Special emphasis is placed upon slave narratives, especially “The Life of Olaudah Equiano." Keywords: slavery abolition UK ethics slaves autobiography. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $56
11688. The Cycle of Revolution and England's Failed Revolution. Examines England's "revolution that wasn't" in the late 18th-early 19th century from the viewpoint of Brinton's lifecycle of revolutions. Draws upon data in Thompson's "Making of the English Working Class" to assess the reasons why the revolution never completed the lifecycle. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $56
11687. Social Change and Its Consequences. Describes and analyzes Cohn's account (Pursuit of the Millennium) of social change and its consequences during the pre-industrial period. The merits of Cohn's arguments are assessed based on the evidence presented by Hobsbawn (Primitive Rebels) and Thompson (Making of the English Working Class). 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
11686. Two Perspectives on Crowds in History (Lebon and RudÉ. Examines the characteristics, motivations, behaviors and outcomes of crowds or popular dissent in pre-industrial Europe. Compares and contrasts the viewpoints of Gustave LeBon (so-called "father of crowd psychology") and those of historian George Rude. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
11640. The Architecture of the Renaissance in Italy. Knowledgeable essay on Renaissance architecture, organized around the concept of the supposed return to classical Roman values which animated the artists and critics of the time. Covers Alberti, Brunelleschi, Michaelangelo and others. 12p., Notes in Text, 10b.   $84
11599. Opening of the Nile and the Partition of Africa. Following an overview of the European partition of Africa in the late 19th/early 20th Centuries, the analysis looks at how the quest for the Nile influenced European public opinion on the need for European control over Africa, sparked European economic interests in Africa, and stimulated imperialist cravings among the major European contenders for African hegemony. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $63
11577. Livingstone's Private Journals, 1851-1853. Review of this compilation of two notebooks written by the famous African missionary and explorer during the 1850s. Discusses the organization, tone and point of view of the notebooks and elucidates the major themes, including the author's commitment to the missionary ideal, his love of African wildlife, and his condemnation of African natives. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
11558. Spain's Golden Age: Interpretations of History. This essay, which examines both the temporal location of Spain's Golden Age and some of the reason's for Spain's decline, takes a middle ground within the liberal-conservative debate. Argues that the apex of Spain's Golden Age occurred during the reign of Philip II, and that central reasons for Spain's decline in the 17th century included mercantilist trade policies, ineffective leadership, expensive wars, and population crises brought about by epidemics. 17 pages, 18 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $119
11552. The European Empires, 1450-1700. The broad trends of the establishment of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English and French empires in Asia and the Americas are covered, focusing on the institutional developments of the different empires. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
11482. Henry Ireton. Biography of Henry Ireton, English military hero and righthand man of Oliver Cromwell. Profiles Ireton's personal life and beliefs as revealed through his distinguished military career (focusing on his activities during the first English civil war) and his active role in politics. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $77
11409. The State in France and England During the Early Modern Period. Considers the essential features of the "early modern" state systems of France and England in the 17th Century along with the issues that most directly threatened their strength and stability during this period. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
11408. Narodnaia Voilia (The People's Will): Revolutionary Terrorism in the Reign of Alexander Ii. Overview and analysis of the history, development, objectives, activities, successes and failures of the People's Will, a Russian revolutionary-terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881. 17 pages, 28 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $119
11284. London's Underground Railways. A history of the London sub-surface and tube systems, from their origins through the development of the various lines (Bakerloo, Central, Piccadilly, Victoria). With comments on various points of historical interest that can be seen today. 9 pages, 32 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $63
11236. The Opium Wars. The British-Chinese conflicts of 1840-42 are seen as a confrontation of imperial interests. The causes and outcomes of the wars are described, and the failure of Chinese resistance to a small British force is analyzed. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
11233. Sabres of Paradise by Lesley Blanch. Critical analysis of biography of Iman Shamyl, 19th c. Islamic Caucasian leader of the fight against the expansion of the Russian Empire into Central Asia. 15 pages, 21 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $105
11084. Manifestations of Discontent in Germany on the Eve of the Reformation by Gerald Strauss: Book Review. The background and extent of selected peasant rebellions in the Holy Roman Empire of the 15th and 16th century are analyzed for religious, economic and social elements. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
11063. English Education in the Nineteenth Century. This paper provides an examination of the developments in British education during the 19th Century which culminated in the Education Act of 1870, the law first establishing state funding of secular elementary schools on a national basis, with universal and compulsory education for all children. The focus of the study is on elementary education and on the conflicts and contributions of the various existing systems -- voluntarism, private fee schools, public schools, Anglican and Dissenting schools, and Sunday Schools -- to the ultimate solution reached in the 1870 Act. Argues that the system of universal compulsory popular education in England was the product of a combination of social and political influences and movements, including the reforms of the franchise and the poor laws, Chartism and secularism, rather than a brave new state-imposed, centralist creation marking an expanded government role in private life. Demonstrates that the institution of universal education was part and parcel of the wider movement toward universal manhood suffrage, reform of the workhouses and almshouses operated under the Poor Law, and the institution of labor laws and guarantees of basic civil rights that took place in the so-called Reform Era. KEYWORDS: education history 19th century great Britain universal compulsory education reform suffrage education act 1870. 56 pages, 92 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $133
10645. The Lever of Riches by Joel Mokyr. Review of a study of industrial technology and its development, focusing on the technological organizational and material reasons for the rise of industrial capitalism in the 18th and early 19th Centuries. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 10645   $35
10622. Shelley and the Cause of Social Melioration. A discussion of Shelley's revolutionary beliefs including his personal life as a repudiation of common morals. The paper discusses his last major poem "The Triumph of Life" shows his increasing awareness of the impossibility of realizing his dreams for society. 5 pages, 15 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
10595. The Protestant Reformation: Political or Religious Phenomenon? A brief synopsis of the status of Catholicism begins a discussion of the impact of the Protestant Reformation. The paper notes religious and political characteristics, and concludes that the nature of religion in society makes the Reformation both a political and religious event. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
10583. British Interest in China During the Taiping Rebellion. Analyzes how the Taiping Rebellion influenced British military and diplomatic efforts in China. Presents a complete overview of Great Britain-China trade. Discusses each countries basic philosophy toward foreign relations during this period (1850-1864). 25 pages, 36 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $133
10518. Parisian Life in the Orleanist Period in France. Compares the view of Parisian society found in Balzac's Pere Goriot with that of a Moroccan ambassador, Muhammad as-Saffar, who visited Paris in 1845-46. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $56
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