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14L. EUROPEAN FICTION

How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
 
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18722. WITHIN A BUDDING GROVE (PROUST). This paper focuses on the section entitled “Place-Names: The Place” in Within a Budding Grove, the second book of In Search of Lost Time, by Marcel Proust. The narrator describes his experiences as an adolescent on a summer holiday and his changing perceptions of a group of girls he is attracted to. In this way, the text shows how perceptions and feelings change over the course of time. TAGS: French literature Proust adolescence teen love. MLA Style. 8 pages, 22 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,844 words.   $56
 
18708. ANDRÉ GIDE’S THE IMMORALIST AND STRAIT IS THE GATE. This paper discusses Gide’s use of alternate narrative voices in the novels The Immoralist (1902) and Strait is the Gate (1909), such as the inclusion of letters or journal entries written by characters aside from the main narrator. Although these elements prevent the stories from being completely resolved, they nonetheless provide a sense of closure by contributing to psychological meaning. TAGS: Gide French literature homosexuality narrative voice. MLA Style. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,454 words.   $42
 
18231. ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT (COMPARING NOVEL TO MOVIE). This paper compares the 1929 novel (by Erich Maria Remarque) with the 1930 movie based on the novel (directed by Lewis Milestone). Although the movie version differs from the novel in certain ways, both versions are successful in expressing an antiwar theme and in using “impressionistic” techniques to create a moving experience. The book does this through the use of vivid descriptions and imagery and the movie does it through the use of sounds and images. KEYWORDS: literature film war. MLA Style. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
18045. THE LADY WITH THE PET DOG BY ANTON CHEKHOV AND WHO'S IRISH BY GISH JEN. This paper examines the use of the techniques of point of view in two short stories: Anton Chekhov's The Lady With the Pet Dog" (1899) and Gish Jen's Who's Irish (1999). The first story is in third person, but it focuses on the perspective of the main character until the end, when it shifts to a perspective that includes the woman he has fallen in love with. The second story is in first person, with a narrator who is an elderly Chinese immigrant woman with an Americanized daughter and Irish in-laws. It is concluded that both stories show how point of view can be used to create memorable fictional characters. KEYWORDS: point of view chekhov gish jen. MLA Style. 12 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,784 words.   $84
 
15552. THE LOVER (MARGUERITE DURAS). This paper discusses how the use of various writing styles and shifts in person and tense relate to the novelist's intention to "cross boundaries" and to be "everywhere at once, yet nowhere in particular." Also discusses how the style of the novel imitates the process of memory, how it relates to the main character's effort to assimilate and recover from her past, and how it relates to the author's views on the craft of writing. 7 pages, 27 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
14801. CAMUS’ THE STRANGER: EXISTENTIAL THEMES IN THE NOVEL. This paper explores the existential themes of alienation, freedom, isolation, choice and moral logic in Camus’ 1946 novel, looking first at the meaning and scope of his existentialism and the core of this philosophy, then considering how Camus introduces and develops those themes. Camus’ novel is shown to present the major philosophical themes or concerns of existentialism in a fictional form, while rejecting all the more hopeful explanations and excuses of existential philosophers, past and present. Argues that he central character Meursault symbolizes and expresses the fundamental existential dilemma: the meaningless of life, the futility of love and feeling in the face of death, and the inability to reach out to or change other human beings, either for the better or for the worse. KEYWORDS: camus existentialism novel review critique alienation. 11 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references. 2,519 words.   $77
 
13925. HAMLET AND SORROWS OF YOUNG WERTHER ON ART AND NATURE. Considers the examination of the relationship between art and nature as found in Shakespeare's Hamlet and Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther, arguing that each work depicts art as a mirror to nature. 9 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13915. SPIRITUALITY & SUFFERING IN NOTES FROM THE UNDERGROUND AND FAUST. Compares and contrasts the anxiety and suffering of Dostoevsky's underground man with that of Goethe's protagonist in Faust. Finds many similarities between the two characters, although notes that they reach different conclusions about their respective societies and the worthiness of humans. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
13879. DOSTOEVSKY AND B. F. SKINNER COMPARED. The issues of free will and determinism are compared in the writings of Dostoevsky's "Notes From Underground" and behaviorist B. F. Skinner's "Beyond Freedom and Dignity." The author criticizes Skinner's view that human reality can be defined only in terms of external behavior. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.   $35
 
13349. THE BROTHERS KARAMAZOV. Examines the themes of sin, faith and action in Dostoevsky's novel of three brothers dealing with the murder of their father. The novel is seen as an existential exposition of three fundamental aspects of human nature, each represented by one of the brothers. 9 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
 
13189. RICHARDSON'S CLARISSA AND DEGRAFFIGNY'S LETTERS OF A PERUVIAN WOMAN. Compares two 18th century novels from women's diaries for their views on love, marriage and society, noting the French writer's concerns with colonialism and more explicit treatment of sexuality. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13043. ALBERT CAMUS' THE FALL (LA CHUTE). Analysis of the French existentialist's novel about modern man's fall from spiritual and moral innocence, looking at the story as an philosophical interior monologue in which the self confronts the Other. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
12493. A JUNGIAN ANALYSIS OF TATYANA TOLSTAYA'S SHORT STORY "PETERS". Argues that the title character has a "mother complex," as well as repressed feelings over his failed relations with women. Also discusses how the character of the grandmother symbolizes the "negative engulfing mother." At the end, Peters has an awakening which enables him to accept his own condition. 12 pages, 42 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
12492. THE ALCHEMIST (PAULO COELHO) AND THE LITTLE PRINCE (ANTOINE DE SAINT-EXUPERY). Although Coelho's book is about growing up and Saint-Exupery's book is about remaining childlike, there are also many similarities to be found in the two stories. For example, they both give simple lessons about life, and they both emphasize that the true "treasure" of life is to be found in one's relationships with others. 5 pages, 15 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
12223. THE METAMORPHOSIS (FRANZ KAFKA) AND TO THE LIGHTHOUSE (VIRGINIA WOOLF). Studies the psychological relationships between children and parents in these two literary works. Both works feature insensitive fathers, ineffectual mothers, and repressed children. Also considers such factors as lack of communication, and feelings of hope versus hopelessness. Also examines the influence of the author's personal lives on the different outcomes of their stories (Kafka saw only the bad side of his father but Woolf was aware of her father's good side as well as his bad side). 13 pages, 55 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
11868. FRANZ KAFKA'S LIFE AND WORKS. Compares themes in Kafka's works to actual events in Kafka's life with emphasis upon The Metamorphosis. Explores the familial, social, economic, and artistic contexts to his writings. 8 pages, 11 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
11723. HEROISM IN WAR AND PEACE. Explores Tolstoy's view of heroism as expressed in his epic novel. Analyzes the extent to which four main characters (Natasha, Pierre, Princess Marya and Andrey) epitomize the author's heroic ideal. Argues that Pierre and Andrey choose heroism, while Natasha and Marya fail to take the chances and make the life changes necessary to fit Tolstoy's concept of heroism. 10 pages, 3 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
 
11716. FREE WILL IN NOTES FROM THE UNDERGROUND. Review of Dostoyevsky's short novel focusing on the persistent theme of free will embodied in the action of the protagonist. Reviews existentialism and argues that in Notes, Dostoyevsky creates a template for this philosophy. Keywords: russian literature free will existentialism dostoyevsky notes. 11 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,754 words.   $77
 
11715. DOSTOYEVSKY'S NOTES FROM THE UNDERGROUND. Lucid review of philosophical themes and ideas in Dostoyevsky's novel attacking rationalism and utilitarianism. Discusses literary devices used by the author to advance his critique of the contemporary philosophies. Provides background on philosophical thought in mid-19th century Russia and discusses Dostoyevsky's role in the development of Existentialist philosophy. KEYWORDS: russian literature existentialism determinism ulitarianism 19th century philosophy rationalism. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11487. NATIONAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY IN CENTRAL ASIA AS EXPRESSED THROUGH LITERATURE. A discussion and analysis of nationalism and ethnic identity in Central Asia in terms of its expression in indigenous literature. Traces the movement toward self-identification along ethnic, national, linguistic, and religious lines in the region throughout the period of Soviet dominion, from the Bolshevik Revolution through Stalinism and up to the 1980s. As background considers the influence of 18th century poets and 19th century novelists of the region on the work of their 20th century contemporaries. Cites a broad spectrum of work, with a strong focus on Uzbek writers. 27 pages, 51 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11243. THE MYTH OF SISYPHUS: IS SUICIDE THE ONLY PHILOSOPHICAL QUESTION? Looks at Albert Camus' existential essay on the question of suicide, and whether life is worth living in an absurd world. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
11226. CHINGIZ AITMATOV. Discussion of Kirghiz/Russian novelist and themes of disappearance of traditional Central Asian cultures in USSR. Emphasis on White Steamer, Day Lasts More Than 100 Years, and others. 14 pages, 38 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
11217. JAMILA (OR DZHAMILA) BY CHINGHIZ AITMATOV. Kirghiz/Russian writer dealing with village life in Central Asia. Analysis of the novel's theme of disappearance of Central Asian cultural traditions under USSR, which is told through a painter's reminiscence about a love affair he witnessed. 15 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $105
 
11087A. SOCIALIST REALISM IN SOVIET LITERATURE. Critique of the impact of official Bolshevik propaganda and doctrine on the literature of the Soviet Union between 1917 and 1934. Superheroism, happy endings, and lack of irony or introspection are seen as major characteristics of the genre. 12 pages, 14 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11078. PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS OF EXISTENTIALISM: SARTRE'S NAUSEA AND NIETZSCHE ON RATIONALITY. Present's Nietzsche's critique of language and rationality. Roquentin is discussed as an illustration of the puzzles Nietzsche poses: the impossibility of rationality to provide self-justification, the hostile meaninglessness of nature, and the relationship between ego and society. KEYWORDS: nietzsche sartre roquentin nausea zarasuthra existentialism rationality meaning of life. 24 pages, 39 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 5,528 words.   $133
 
11072. ALIENATION IN SARTRE'S "NAUSEA". The treatment of the theme of alienation in Sartre's novel about a disillusioned writer is examined. The author's existential philosophy of subjective and personal consciousness is related to the protagonist Roquentin's hopelessness and isolation from human or metaphysical meaning. 20 pages, 18 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $133
 
11056. SOVIET RUSSIA: POLITICS AND LITERATURE, 1917 - 1930. Politics and literature in the early Soviet Union of the period 1917-1930 are described. Looks at the Futurists and Imaginist movements, and focuses on the lives and deaths of the writes Yesenin, Babel, and Mayakovsky. 12 pages, 17 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
10680. UTOPIAN THEMES AND VISIONS IN DOSTOEVSKY AND PUSHKIN. Compares narrative voice in Dostoevsky's Notes from the Underground and The Grand Inquisitor with Pushkin's "The Bronze Horseman." Contrasting attitudes towards idealism are discussed. 12 pages, 10 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
10610. "HERBS FROM ODESSA" BY ELENA MAKAROVA. 11 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.   $77
 
10600. THE EXCHANGE BY YURI TRIFONOV. The contemporary Soviet playwright's 1978 play about an apartment swap with heavy family overtones is described and the major themes of in-law conflict and hypocrisy are analyzed. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
 
10594. DOSTOEVSKY'S "THE GRAND INQUISITOR." A look at the moral and theological problems raised in the famous episode from "The Brothers Karamozov." The problems created by Christ's rejection of the world and his return to it are analyzed. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
10579. JAMILA BY CHINGIZ AITMATOV. An analysis of this Soviet writer's narrative style highlighting Aitmatov's emphasis of the countryside as an evocative backdrop. 10 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
 
10558. THE IMPACT OF IMAGERY IN TATIANA TOLSTAIA'S PETERS. The paper discussed how the imagery of the story reveals the central concerns of the characters in this apolitical story. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
 
10518. PARISIAN LIFE IN THE ORLEANIST PERIOD IN FRANCE. Compares the view of Parisian society found in Balzac's Pere Goriot with that of a Moroccan ambassador, Muhammad as-Saffar, who visited Paris in 1845-46. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
10465. A FREUDIAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RASKOLNIKOV IN DOSTOYEVSKY'S CRIME AND PUNISHMENT. The paper discusses the consistent appeal of Raskolnikov, and applies Freudian theories which discuss the Oedipus complex; the structure of the personality into ego, superego, and id; schizophrenia; the power of the unconscious; and the nature of guilt. 6 pages, 20 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
10453. SYMBOLISM, FATALITY, AND IRONY IN "SMOKOTININ'S LIFE" BY VSEELELOD IVANOV. The Soviet short story writer's tale of a peasant lad who falls under the spell of a widow is analyzed for its use of symbolism, fatality and irony. 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
 
10452. ISAAC BABEL'S "LINE AND COLOR" AS BOLSHEVIK APOLOGY. The Soviet writer's tale of an imaginary meeting with Kerensky in 1916 Finland is viewed as an apology for the Bolsheviks. Babel is seen as exaggerating Kerensky's flaws in order to justify Trotsky and the communist revolution. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
 
10166. EGOISM AND THE LUST FOR POWER IN GOETHE AND DOSTOEVSKY. A comparison of the treatment of the ego and the forms of desire in Faust and Notes from Underground. Goethe's conception of egoistic love is seen as human,Doestoevsky's egoless love as spiritual in nature. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
10165. SPIRITUAL ANXIETY IN FAUST AND NOTES FROM UNDERGROUND. Compares the treatment of anxiety and suffering in the works by Goethe and Dostoevsky. Goethe's Faust is seen as a symbol of supernatural ambitions, Dostoevsky's Underground Man as a modern figure of despair. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
09779. NOTES FROM THE UNDERGROUND AND THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH. A comparison at Dostoevsky's and Tolstoy's stories in terms of Barrett's Irrational Man and Swift. KEYWORDS: russian literature existentialism dostoyevsky dostoevsky tolstoy barrett jonathan swift. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
09766. RELIGION IN “DON QUIXOTE DE LA MANCHA”. The view taken of religion in Don Miguel Cervantes' comic novel is considered; the conflict of faith and reason, the satire of medievalism, and the protests against censorship and the inquisition are noted. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
09498. THE STRUGGLE OF THE INDIVIDUAL AGAINST THE SYSTEM: CRIME AND PUNISHMENT, THE TRIAL AND NATIVE SON. Explores the struggle of the individual protagonist against the unjust social systems of the world they inhabit, and the ways in which their struggles succeed and fail, in these three novels. 15 pages, 24 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
09355. LIFE AND DEATH IN THE PLAGUE. The criteria for who lives and who dies in Camus' novel are analyzed. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
09337. SOLZHENITSYN'S "CANCER WARD". This contemporary Russian novel is reviewed in the context of the Russian psyche and its relation to the themes and motifs suggested in 19th Century Russian literature (Dostoevsky and Tolstoy). 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
09336. "THE WORLD OF YESTERDAY" BY STEFAN ZWEIG. Critical analysis of Zweig's autobiography which chronicles his early life as a student and literary figure in turn-of-the-century Vienna. Considers Zweig's vision of the time as an "age of security" and his perceptions of dualism and aesthetics. Concludes with a perspective on the comtemporary implications of Zweig's recollections. 12 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $84
 
09177. MADAME BOVARY BY FLAUBERT: CHARACTER OF EMMA BOVARY. This paper examines the theme of female subjugation through an analysis of the character Emma Bovary in Flaubert's novel. KEYWORDS: literature character analysis female subjugation flaubert. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
09176. FLAUBERT'S MADAME BOVARY AND THE DEPICTION OF THE BOURGEOISIE. Discussion and interpretation of Flaubert's portrayal of the middle-class. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
08952. "TILTING AT WINDMILLS" IN CERVANTES' "DON QUIXOTE". The incident in Chapter Seven of Cervantes' "Don Quixote", classic is discussed in terms of its imaginative meaning. 5 pages, 5 footnotes in text, l bibliographic source.   $35
 
08951. THE FLOUNDER BY GUNTER GRASS. Examines the historical role of women as portrayed in the German novelist's work. Arguing that the tale is about women's insatiable greed for power, the essay traces the trickery of the flounder. 12 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
08950. CANDIDE AND THE WORK ETHIC IN THE 18TH CENTURY. Drawing on the work of Robert Adams, the essay explores ambiguous attitude towards work in the l8th century. Compares and contrasts the view of Benjamin Franklin with the view of Voltaire as evidenced in Candide. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
08949. DON QUIXOTE AND SANCHO PANZA. Explores the contention that the character of Sancho Panza was actually an afterthought of the author. Concludes that regardless of the veracity of this contention, the two characters are inextricably woven together in the story. 8 pages, 11 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
08947. TRANSITIONS OF FATE IN FIVE MASTERPIECES. The concept of man's fate and place in the universe is compared in The Iliad, The Aeneid, The Song of Roland, The Inferno, and Faust. The separation of honor and glory in the Renaissance's individualism is remarked on, and modern man's ironic sense of freedom is stressed. 10 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
08706. FREUD AND TOLSTOY. A comparison of the attitudes toward religion in two major intellectual influences, using Freud's "The Future of an Illusion" and Tolstoy's "Death of Ivan Ilych". 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
08700. THREE SHORT NOVELS BY CHEKHOV. A comparison of "Ward No. 6," "A Woman's Kingdom," and "Three Years" in terms of their use of social realism, internal psychology, and time frame in developing their stories. 8 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
 
08697. DICKENS, DOSTOEVSKY AND FREUD. A comparison of three l9th Century writers with the l8th Century thinkers of the Enlightenment, discussing the conflict between reason and feeling. Specifically examines Dickens' "Hard Times", Dostoevsky's "Notes From the Underground", and Freud's "Civilization and Its Discontents". 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
08645. JOURNEY TO THE CENTER OF THE EARTH. An analysis of the plot, characterization and themes of Verne's science fiction story of an expedition to the underworld. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
08382. VOLTAIRE'S "CANDIDE". Discussion of Voltaire's treatment of the issue of free will and the related opposing world views of hope versus despair. Voltaire's opinion of the papacy as revealed in the novella are also approached. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
08282. MIGUEL DE CERVANTES' "DON QUIXOTE". Brief evaluation and analysis of this comic epic. Discusses the major theme of the work as well as the main conflict between Don Quixote and Sancho Panza -- the unreal and absurd quality of the duties and activities of a medieval knight. 4 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $28
 
08190. ROUSSEAU'S CONFESSIONS AS ROMANTIC LITERATURE. Rousseau's autobiography is considered as a work of romantic realism and as a work of spiritual rather than material nature. 4 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $28
 
08132. INDIVIDUALITY AND SOCIAL IDENTITY IN THREE NOVELS BY DIDEROT, MORAVIA, AND SILLITOE. A detailed study of the conflict between the individual and society as presented in Diderot's The Nun, Moravia's The Conformist, and Sillitoe's Saturday Night, Sunday Morning. The different point of view of the novels' protagonists is considered. 13 pages, 29 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
08120. VOLTAIRE'S "CANDIDE". A look at the philosophical implications of Voltaire's comic novel of the 18th century Enlightenment, outlining the story. 6 pages, 5 footnotes in text, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
08115. VOLTAIRE'S CANDIDE. A critique of Voltaire's short novel on a young man's cruel education in the ways of the world, focusing on its satirical aspects. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
08037. THE POLITICAL SPHERE IN KAFKA. A study of the political element in some of Kafka's major works which concentrates on the conflict between the works' protagonists and bureaucractic institutions. 20 pages, 7 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
07696. THE EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION. Scholarly overview of EPTA, the free trade association joining seven smaller European nations since 1960. History, changes in membership, characteristics of members, institutional structure and resolution of disputes, how EFTA promotes free trade between members, agreements and relations with the EEC and Spain and Yugoslavia, effects of EFTA on member states. EFTA as a model of a realistic international economic organization successful in limited aims. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1 table.   $70
 
07581. MAYOR DIANNE FEINSTEIN. Good brief political biography of San Francisco's present mayor, including her early history, accession to the mayor's office, political positions and problems overcome, success at forging a centrist coalition in an extremely fragmented city, 1983 election triumphs, role as potential national figure. 9 pages, 7 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
07553. LEO TOLSTOY'S "THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYCH". Clear summary and analysis of Tolstoy's novel, concentrating on his ability to make an uninteresting character interesting, and the theme of confrontation with death and the redemption that comes in the end. 6 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. Notes in text.   $42
 
07542. LEO TOLSTOY'S "THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH". Summary and critique of this novel, focusing on why Tolstoy describes Ilyich's life as "simple, ordinary, and therefore most terrible:" he is forced to face the emptiness of his own life. 6 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. Notes in text.   $42
 
07541. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHARACTER IN TOLSTOY'S "IVAN ILYICH". Good summary and analysis of Tolstoy's "The Death of Ivan Ilyich", focusing on how Tolstoy depicts the apparently undistinguished main character so well that he becomes a symbol of everyman. Full analysis of plot, images and themes. 7 pages, 1 bibliographic source. Notes in text.   $49
 
07532. TOLSTOY'S THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH. Thorough analysis of the theme of impending death in Tolstoy's novel, and contrasts with the happiness of childhood that Ilyich cannot return to. 7 pages, 1 footnote, 2 bibliographic sources. Notes in text.   $49
 
07361. "CANDIDE" BY VOLTAIRE (A REVIEW). An excellent analysis of Voltaire's satire. Voltaire's attacks on optimism and determinism are discussed with a philosophical and literary perspective. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. Notes in Text.   $35
 
07206. "METAMORPHOSIS" BY FRANZ KAFKA. Good first-person author summary and review of Kafka's strange fantasy of a man turning into a bug. Explores the theme that extreme selflessness is a form of self-destruction. If Gregor had ever felt anger at his situation, he could have changed it. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
07205. WOULD IVAN ILYCH HAVE CHANGED HIS LIFE IF HE HAD RECOVERED? Well-argued essay on Leo Tolstoy's novel of a man who learns to love his fellow man only on his deathbed. Argues that it would have been unrealistic and unbelievable to have had Ivan recover and become a loving, giving man that none of his relationships or his career could have worked. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
07188. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT. Thorough well organized criticism and summary of Dostoyevsky's novel. Complete description of each part of the book, plot and characters, Raskolnikov's journey through crime, self-aggrandizement, unconscious guilt, compulsive confession and ultimate exposure and redemption are tied together by Dostoyevsky's compelling vision of the uniqueness of worldly and spiritual justice and atonement. 15 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. Notes in text.   $105
 
07127A. PENELOPE AND CLYTEMNESTRA. Comparative study of Penelope from the Odyssey and Clytemnestra from the Orestia plays by Aeschylus. This is the contrast between a faithful and an unfaithful wife. 3 pages, 2 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $21
 
07127. ANTINOOS AND AEGITHUS. Comparative study of two characters: Penelope's suitor in the Odyssey, and Clytemnestra's second husband in the Orestria series of plays by Aeschylus. Both were driven by instincts and never knew why they died violent deaths at the hands of their adversaries. 3 pages, 2 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $21
 
07052. A CRITICAL DISCUSSION OF THE SHORT STORY THE STRANGER BY MICHAEL FOLEY. Stresses the author's use of contrast and the picture he creates of a rural society set in its ways. 7p. 1b. 1f.   $49
 
06725. CANDIDE BY VOLTAIRE. A review of the 18th century French satirists' novella about a young man's education in reality. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
06690. EXPECTATIONS, ILLUSIONS AND FAILURES IN "LOST ILLUSIONS", "MADAME BOVARY" AND "ANNA KARENINA". Three 19th Century novels are examined in terms of the themes of ideals and disillusionment in their work. The treatment by Balzac, Flaubert and Tostoy of the main character's life and ultimate failure is discussed in detail. 18 pages, 3 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. Notes in text.   $126
 
06664. TWO STORIES BY GOGOL AND TURGENEV. A comparative study of Gogol's "Diary of a Madman" and Turgenev's "The Tryst", examining the theme of the corruption of love by city life. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
06550. ALIENATION AND ENGAGEMENT CAMUS' "THE PLAGUE" AND KAFKA'S "THE TRIAL". The different views of existential engagement and alienation found in the novels by Camus and Kafka are contrasted. 4 pages, 2 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $28
 
06145. EXPECTATIONS, ILLUSIONS, AND FAILURE: CLASS AND CAREER IN LOST ILLUSIONS, MADAME BOVARY, AND ANNA KARENINA. Good discussion of class and career in the three famous novels by Balzac, Flaubert, and Tolstoy respectively. Thorough description of potrayal of class and career in the protagonists, and the `morality play' of expectation, illusion, and failure in the theme of adultery. 16 pages, 18 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
06081. LEO TOLSTOY'S "THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYCH." Summary of Tolstoy's story focusing on the meaninglessness of Ilych's life: the story is treated as a precursor of existential philosophy. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
06061. L. TOLSTOY. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYCH. Themes of emptiness and hypocrisy in Tolstoy's short story are the subject of this short paper. 5p.   $35
 
05976. MADAME BOVARY, BY GUSTAVE FLAUBERT. Themes of power, money and desire are examined in the principal characters of Flaubert's novel of a romantically-deluded provincial French doctor's wife. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
05776. GOD AND MAN IN POPE AND PASCAL. Pope and Pascal's philosophical visions are compared. Pope's denigration of reason is contrasted with Pascal's celebration of the rational. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
05773. CANDIDE. A review of Voltaire's satire on various schools of 18th century political thought; especially optimism and pessimism. 4 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $28
 
05756. "THE STRANGER" BY ALBERT CAMUS. A study of Camus' existential philosophy and its related themes of death, alienation and freedom are explored through various incidents in the book: the funeral, the murder. The essential point is Mersault's passivity in the face of external events. 13 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $91
 
05755. NAUSEA J.P. SATRE. A paper dealing with the philosophical ideas underlying the novel: the fragmentation of every day life and its absence of meaning which lead the protagonist, a man attempting to write history to realize that the enterprise has no justification. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
05747. THE INDIVIDUAL ARTIST AS SOCIAL ANTAGONIST: DOSTOYEVSKI, WILDE, IBSEN AND GIDE. PROPHETS OF YESTERDAY. Gerhard Masur's book is used as a starting point for a cultural history of the 19th century seen through the work of these major writers. Emphasis is placed on the rejection of dominant social values as a theme in the work of all of them. Concepts of nihilism, irrationality and authoritatianism are examined. 14 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
05743. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILLYICH. A study of the methods Tolstoy uses to universalize the character of Ilyich -- a type of everyman, a man of no importance whose life has no meaning to him at all. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
 
05382. THE FIRST AMENDMENT AND PORNOGRAPHY. The question of whether photographic material of a pornographic nature is protected by the first amendement to the constitution is discussed. Safeguards within the amendment such as `public nuisance' and `incitement to violence' are offered as possible curbs to the dissemination of pornography. The paper suggests that the focus of debate should be on the violence associated with pornography and not the sexuality. 5p.   $35
 
05278. MARCEL PROUST'S THE PAST RECAPTURED. A critic analysis of Proust's novel of the turn of the century Parisian family the Guermantes, judging it as a personal yet detached account of Parisian society. The sexual and social symholism of the novel, aad the view of the Belle Epoque as decadent are noted. 10 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
 
05213. VOLTAIRE'S "CANDIDE". The modern relevance of Voltaire's satire of optimism and the philosophy of the "best of all possible worlds" is pointed out. 4 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $28
 
05128. FREEDOM AND SEXUALITY IN KAZANTZAKIS' ZORBA THE GREEK. Zorba's attitude toward woman is explained as an expression of his vitality rather than of his contempt for females; his sensuality is seen as a quasi-religious quest for life. 8 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
 
05105. THE GREEK PASSION BY NIKOS KAZANTZAKIS. A look at the cast of characters snd the dramatic development of the Greek author's modern recreation of the pession play; the conflict between Greeks and Turks in Lycorvissi is stressed. 9 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
 
05063. VOLTAIRE'S CANDIDE. The famous satirical work is discussed as a piece of speculative philosophy and as an indictment of man's moral condition. The recent upsurge in optimism is contrasted with Voltaire's attitude toward virtue and other such abstractions. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
05044. PROUST'S THE PAST RECAPTURED. The complex social and sexual symbolism of Proust's A La Recherche are looked at in this critical analysis of sections of the epic. 10 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
05028. THE SAVIORS OF GOD BY NIKOS KAZANTZAKIS. The cosmic struggle between man and animal, life and death and asetism and action is examined in the Greek writer's epic religious poem. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
04784. "DEATH IN VENICE" BY THOMAS MANN. This essay interprets Mann's novel as a study in dualism, opposing art and life to the second theme of death. Aschenbach's death is viewed as a sacrifice to beauty. 5 pages, 3 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
04781. THE BROTHERS KARAMZAOV BY DOESTOEVSKY. The exigencies of faith and religiosity in the characters of Mihail and the Mysterious Visitor, Agrafena Svyetlov, and Ivan Karamazov are examined. The polarity of the Devil and the Christ figures in the book are looked at for relevance to these characters. 13 pages, 20 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $91
 
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