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How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
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19284. Foucault’S the Discourse of Language Versus Beckett’S Waiting for Godot. This paper examines similarities and differences in Foucault’s views on language as expressed in his 1971 essay, The Discourse of Language, and the use of language in Samuel Beckett’s play, Waiting for Godot. It is argued that Beckett and Foucault share the perspective that language often concerns issues of power and control. APA Style. 8 pages, 23 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,210 words. TAGS: Foucault, Beckett, language, power, control, use of language, philosophy, semiotics.   $56
18798. “What Should a Billionaire Give?” (Peter Singer) This paper provides a summary and critique of an article by the ethical philosopher Peter Singer entitled “What Should a Billionaire Give – and What Should You?” In the article, Singer argues that America’s wealthiest individuals could bring about an end to global poverty by donating a fair share of their wealth. The paper criticizes certain aspects of Singer’s argument, even though it is agreed that the elimination of poverty is a worthy goal. TAGS: critical essay, poverty solutions, ethics, wealth redistribution, Pete Singer, article review. MLA Style. 2 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 598 words.   $14
18502. Ethics in Public Administration. This paper discusses theoretical perspectives on ethical decision making and the kinds of personal and political pressures that might cause public administrators to make unethical decisions. The paper also refers to models and skills needed for public administrators to become more ethical. KEYWORDS: ethics public administration ethical decision making. APA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,380 words.   $42
18333. Government Use of Torture in the War on Terrorism. This paper describes three perspectives on how governments should respond to the threat of terrorism and violence. Jonathan Alter believes “psychological interrogation” may sometimes be needed to save lives, while Henry Porter provides a contrasting opinion on the issue. These post-9/11 views are compared with Martin Luther King’s argument that violence should never be used to fight violence. Contrary to King’s view, it is argued that terrorism poses a threat to innocent lives and thus methods associated with “torture” may sometimes be needed in dealing with terrorists (but only as a last resort and only if it is non-physical and approved by a court). KEYWORDS: terrorism 9/11 government torture article review Martin Luther King. MLA Style. 4 pages, 0 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $28
18320. The Concept of Higher Order Thinking. This paper describes the views and contributions of some of the key figures in the development of the “higher order thinking” concept (John Dewey, Benjamin Bloom, David Paul Ausubel, and Marilyn Eanet & Anthony Manzo). The paper concludes with a comprehensive definition of higher order thinking, with an emphasis on how teachers can apply the concept in a secondary-level social studies classroom. KEYWORDS: education teaching. APA Style. 8 pages, 17 footnotes in text, 7 bibliographic sources.   $56
18234. Argument in Favor of Euthanasia. This paper considers the ethical issues surrounding active voluntary euthanasia and examines the strengths and weaknesses in the arguments for and against the practice. Based on a philosophical perspective, it is concluded that the practice should be permitted, as long as steps are taken to prevent abuse. KEYWORDS: philosophy ethics euthanasia. APA Style. 12 pages, 24 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $84
18227. Individual Rights and Community Cohesion in the Ideal State. This paper considers the views of various political philosophers (Plato, Aristotle, Hobbes, Marx, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, J.S. Mill, Bastiat, and Dewey) on the proper balance between individual freedom and the rights of society as a whole. It is concluded that a “social contract” needs to include laws that protect citizens while simultaneously guaranteeing equal justice to all. KEYWORDS: political philosophy individual freedom rights community justice. MLA Style. 14 pages, 24 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $98
18200. Government Corruption. Based on a review and analysis of scholarly literature, and drawing on examples from around the globe, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of public sector corruption. The purpose of the investigation is to provide a better understanding of the problem of public sector corruption - its scope, its causes, its consequences - and to describe strategies and tactics that could be used to curtail corruption. The first section provides an overview of the problem of public sector corruption. Public sector corruption is defined (and distinguished from private or business sector corruption) and the major types of corruption and general scope of corrupt activities outlined. This section also introduces the major international indices/measurements of corruption. The next section examines the major causes and consequences of public sector corruption. Following this, the paper considers strategies and measures to address/mitigate the problem of public sector corruption. KEYWORDS: public administration ethics public sector corruption transparency international bribery embezzlement. APA Style. 13 pages, 57 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources. 3,901 Words.   $91
18198. Antegren: A Beacon of Hope Harvard Case Study 408025. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case study analysis and solution to a 2007 strategic management Harvard Business School case study (408025) by Joshua Margolis, Thomas DeLong and Terry Heymann on a biotechnology firm’s (Biogen Idec) development of the drug Antegren, promising in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis and headed for FDA fast-track approval. The case analysis includes problem statement, analysis, assessment of alternatives, recommendations and implementation plan.

TAGS: case study solution, biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry multiple sclerosis blockbuster drug strategic management crisis management, product recalls antegren disease management treatment case solution prescription drugs ethics.

10 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,713 words.


MorphSys AG: The Evolution of a Biotechnology Business Model Harvard Case Solution

18197. Ikea’S Global Sourcing Challenge: Indian Rugs and Child Labor (A) Harvard Case Study 9-906-414. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case study analysis and a case solution of a Harvard Business School ethics and international management case study (9-906-414) by Christopher A. Bartlett, Vincent Dessain and Anders Sjoman on Swedish home furnishings giant IKEA and a TV report that Ikea’s Indian carpet suppliers were using child labor. The case analysis includes problem statement, analysis, assessment of alternatives, recommendations and implementation plan. KEYWORDS: case studies ikea globalization ethics child labor india retailers indian rugs crisis management outsourcing social responsibility human resource management values publicity globalization strategy strategic management multinational enterprise developing countries case solution. 11 pages, 6 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 3,010 words.   $77
18195. Norway Sells Wal-Mart Harvard Case Study 308019. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case study analysis and case solution to a 2007 Harvard Business School finance and ethics case study (308019) by Robert C. Pozen and Aldo Sesia on the 2006 decision by Norway’s Pension Fund to divest its holdings in Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. based on ethical considerations. The case analysis includes problem statement, analysis, assessment of alternatives, and recommendations. KEYWORDS: case studies ethics accountability activist investors investment management pension funds norway public relations labor management relations wal-mart corporate reputation globalization case solution. 10 pages, 6 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $70
18171. Innovation Corrupted: The Rise and Fall of Enron (A) Harvard Case Study 9-905-048. This paper presents a Berkeley Research case study analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School business ethics case study (9-905-048) by Malcolm S. Salter on the now-defunct energy company, Enron. The case presents a history of Enron, its business model, its organization, and its downfall in one of the country’s biggest business corruption and accounting fraud scandals. The case analysis includes problem overview, discussion of major issues and sub-issues, organizational and corporate cultural analysis, a discussion of alternatives and a set of recommendations for avoiding corruption of this sort in the future. KEYWORDS: case studies enron corruption business ethics accounting fraud organizational culture business model organizational design leadership case solution. APA Style. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 8 footnotes.   $70
18170. Accounting Fraud at Worldcom Harvard Case Study 9-104-071. This paper presents a Berkeley Research case study analysis and a case solution to a popular Harvard Business School business ethics case study (9-104-071) by Robert S. Kaplan and David Kiron on the largest accounting fraud in history at telecommunications giant WorldCom. The case analysis includes problem identification, discussion of major issues and sub-issues, organizational and corporate cultural analysis, a discussion of the alternative courses of action that WorldCom personnel might have taken, and a set of recommendations for avoiding similar problems in the future. APA Style. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,758 words.

TAGS: case study solution, worldcom accounting fraud, business ethics, arthur andersen scandal corporate culture betty vinson organization bernie ebbers scott sullivan internal auditor deontological ethics Kant utilitarian ethics case solution, bystander effect, situational ethics.


Note on Human Behavior: Character and Situation, Harvard Business School Note

Enron's Downfall

Destructive Obedience to Authority and Scientific Responsibility

18029. “How We Die” by Sherwin B. Nuland. This paper reviews How We Die, a book by a medical surgeon that is concerned with the various ways that people die. With the use of some graphic and disturbing details, Nuland seeks to "demythologize" the topic and to describe the physical aspects of death (rather than its spiritual or emotional aspects). The work is enhanced by Nuland's discussion of his personal experiences with death within his own family. The book is recommended because it contributes to a better understanding of a phenomenon that all people must deal with sooner or later. KEYWORDS: book review nonfiction death dying thanatology medicine. MLA Style. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,504 words.   $42
18024. Physician Assisted Suicide. This paper discusses the debate over physician-assisted suicide and concludes with a personal argument (from a physician/medical viewpoint) against the practice. The arguments in favor of the practice are found to be unsubstantial and based on slogans. In actuality, the practice is contrary to the tradition of medical ethics and suicidal death is never "dignified," "humane," or a "right." It is argued that physicians should use palliative care for terminal patients rather than assisting them in committing suicide. KEYWORDS: medical ethics physician ethical duty assisted suicide. APA Style. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,711 words.   $49
18020. Italian Futurist Women. This term paper examines the role of women in the artistic and literary movement known as Futurism (approximately 1909-1918). Arising in Italy during the period of World War I, the movement called for radical change in art and society. It praised machines, violence, and warfare, while denigrating feminine values as weak, soft, and hopelessly tied to tradition. The paper discusses the views of male Futurists such as Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (the movement's founder) and various male poets. These views are compared with the writings of two prominent women in the movement: Valentine de Saint-Point and Sibilla Aleramo. These writings show that women were an important intellectual force in the movement, challenging the male-dominated views on gender roles. KEYWORDS: italy literary movement futurism gender essay. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes and Separate Bibliography. 11 pages, 10 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,490 words.   $77
18010. Pro Death Penalty Argument. This paper looks at the controversial issue of capital punishment and argues in favor of the practice. Based on expert opinions and study evidence, it is argued that the death penalty is an appropriate punishment for the crime of murder (retribution), it prevents an offender from murdering again (incapacitation), and it helps to prevent others from committing murders (deterrence). The paper also rebuts some of the arguments in opposition to the death penalty. KEYWORDS: death penalty capital punishment controversy argumentative essay. MLA Style. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,450 words.   $42
17712. Ethical Considerations in Care-Giving for the Older Adult & Elderly. This paper provides an overview and analysis of ethical considerations in care-giving for the older adult and elderly person. The analysis addresses the older adult’s right to autonomy and self-determination and considers ethical and legal concerns surrounding the older person’s capacity to make decisions regarding their own care along with ethical and legal concerns for surrogate decision-makers. The importance of the federal patient Self-Determination Act, informed consent, guardianship, legal capacity, best interest standard, and Durable Power of Attorney for Healthcare Decisions in care-giving for the older adult are also considered. KEYWORDS: aging healthcare ethics autonomy legal capacity informed consent patient self-determination act best interest standard care giving surrogate decision making. APA Style. 10 pages, footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 2,430 words.   $70
17709. Ethical Concerns in a Case of Dementia. This paper presents a fictionalized account involving an older adult who appears to be suffering from early Alzheimer’s Disease and is caring for a spouse recently incapacitated by a series of strokes. There is a dispute over a DNR (Do Not Resuscitate) order and a niece is threatening to put her apparently demented uncle on a guardianship. The analysis discusses the ethical issues inherent in the situation and then makes recommendations on an ethical course of action. KEYWORDS: elder care ethics dementia alzheimer’s disease dnr orders autonomy guardianship. APA Style. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2190 words.   $63
17618. Literature Review: The Use of Philosophical Concepts in Explanations of Police Corruption. This paper provides a review of the scholarly literature on causal factors in police corruption. The objective of the review is to examine the extent to which certain specific concepts (falling into the basic categories of consequentialism/utilitarianism and deontology/duty and principle) are used to argue for interventions against police corruption and to determine which arguments are the most effective in terms of describing the moral dilemma at the heart of the problem. Concludes that most theoretical discussions of police corruption focus on causal explanations rather than on moral issues, per se, and that most of the causal explanations have emphasized the role of sociological and/or psychological factors versus philosophical concepts. KEYWORDS: police corruption causes theory philosophy utilitarianism deontology. APA Style. 14 pages, 28 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,443 words.   $98
17590. Human Organ Sales. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of human organ shortages (for the purpose of transplants) and the extensive black market that has developed as a result of this shortage and the illegality of human organ trading. This paper argues that the best solution to the problem is to create a system for the legalized, regulated marketing of human organs. KEYWORDS: human organ sales black market kidneys. MLA Style. 8 pages, 32 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,948 words.   $56
17570. Jewish Process Theology and the Cosmology Theories of Thomas Berry. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Jewish process theology and considers its view of the cosmology theories of Catholic priest Thomas Berry. After describing Jewish process theology and then considering Berry’s cosmological worldviews and his believe in the importance of protecting the natural environment, the paper discusses the ways in which Jewish process theology agrees with the claims and arguments made by Berry. Concludes that process theology is compatible with Berry’s worldview. KEYWORDS: Jewish process theology interconnectedness cosmology catholic priest thomas berry. MLA Style. 12 pages, 47 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,840 words.   $84
17503. The Aesthetic Theories of Heidegger and Ingarden. This paper provides an overview and analysis of German philosopher Martin Heidegger’s and Polish philosopher Roman Ingarden’s respective theories of aesthetics. This analysis includes an overview of Husserl’s philosophy of phenomenology and a discussion of the extent to which Husserl’s ideas serve (or do not serve) as a foundation for both Heidegger’s and Ingarden’s approach to aesthetics. Argues that the idea of consciousness and the various modes of being play a significant role in Heidegger and Ingarden’s theories of aesthetics, although each man takes their common foundation and moves in a unique direction. Heidegger establishes a hermeneutical approach to aesthetics while Ingarden’s theoryis grounded in realism. KEYWORDS: aesthetics art philosophy phenomenology husserl heidegger ingarten . MLA Style. 16 pages, 45 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,861 words.   $112
17393. First, Do No Harm: Analysis of Physician Objectives. This paper provides an analysis of Lisa Belkin’s (1993) First, Do No Harm in light of the four learning objectives for medical student education developed by the Association of American Medical Colleges’ (1998) Medical School Objectives Project. The analysis considers the ethical issues raised in Belkin’s (1993) study of the inner workings of the Ethics Committee at Houston’s Hermann Hospital in light of all four objectives: 1) physicians must be altruistic; 2) physicians must be knowledgeable; 3) physicians must be skillful; and 4) physicians must be dutiful. KEYWORDS: medical student education physician ethics book review. 8 pages, 14 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,884 words.   $56
17244. The Classical and Positivist Schools Criminology. This paper compares the deterrence theory of Beccaria (the Classical School of criminology) with the biological traits theory of Lombroso (the Positivist School). The paper includes a discussion of the policy recommendations an adherent of each school would make for fighting crime and argues that Lombroso’s approach is discriminatory and ineffective. Keywords: crime theory early history traits. 6 pages; 8 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,428 words.   $42
17220. The u.s. As a "Nation Based on Faith". This paper argues that the United States should become more clearly identified as a Christian country (while still accepting diverse religious beliefs). The discussion includes the role of Christian ethics in the development of the nation and its laws, and the need for moral values to overcome social problems and to strengthen the country as a whole. Keywords: morality Christianity national identity Americans Christian ethics US. 11 pages; 22 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 2,699 words.   $77
17202. Law Versus Justice. The relationship between the idea of law as a legal concept and justice as an equitable ideal is often a contentious one when put into everyday practice. Following a brief overview of the differing and sometimes contradictory meanings of law and justice, this paper analyzes and critiques the ideals of law and justice, drawing on examples from antitrust, agency, intellectual rights and discrimination. A concluding section articulates and defends the position that laws should be derived from assumptions of justice, while arguing simultaneously that justice is inherently an evolving concept. Keywords: justice law philosophy agency discrimination intellectual property antitrust. 16 pages; 34 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 4,258 words.   $112
17201. Ethics in Organizations. This paper provides a summary, synthesis and commentary on the topic of ethics in organizations. Based on a review of research in recent professional journals, the first part of the paper provides a summary of different authors’ views on organizational ethics. The second part of the paper provides a synthesis and commentary on the topic of ethics in organizations. Keywords: corporate ethics ethical organizational behavior. 12 pages; 21 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 3,063 words.   $84
17189. Managing Product Safety: The Ford Pinto Harvard Case Study 383129. Drawing primarily on information presented in Harvard Business (1984) case 383129, “Managing Product Safety: The Ford Pinto,” by Kenneth E. Goodpaster and Dekkers L. Davidson, along with supplementary data from business, legal, and news media sources, this paper presents a Berkeley Research legal and ethical analysis of the Ford Pinto product safety case. The focus of the analysis is on Ford’s management of the product safety issues presented in the Pinto case. The first part of the paper presents a legal analysis of the case. This part identifies the relevant facts, critical issues, and appropriate legal rules in the case. Conclusions related to the appropriate legal disposition of the case are delineated. Drawing on the facts presented in the first part of the paper, the second part of the paper explores and analyzes the key ethical issues in this case. Ethical alternatives are identified and the recommendations concerning appropriate ethical action made. Keywords: product safety ethics Ford Pinto automotive product recall case study case solution. 18 pages; 19 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 4,959 words.   $126
17183. Aids and the Dying Process: Patient Perspective. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the process of dying from HIV/AIDS or AIDS-related complications. The analytical approach is personal and philosophical, rather than clinical. After considering the general scope and nature of HIV/AIDS as a cause of death, the analysis looks closely at what it is like to die from this disease in the U.S. today. The experience of dying from AIDS is described. How dying of AIDS differs from and is similar to dying from cancer or other terminal illnesses is examined. Included in this analysis is consideration of the social stigma attached to AIDS and the influence of this stigma on the person dying from the disease in terms of his or her relations with healthcare providers, family members, friends, and the larger society. Also considered are the elements that comprise a ‘good death’ in AIDS. Keywords: AIDS HIV death dying cancer terminal illness patients thanatology. 15 pages; 35 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 4,346 words.   $105
17181. Existential Versus Freudian View of Human Nature. This paper provides a contrast and comparison of the existential and Freudian view of human nature. Specifically, the essay explores similarities and differences in the existential and Freudian perspectives on freedom and determinism, the basis of anxiety, and the nature of human conflict. A concluding section considers which outlook is more comfortable and examines the implications of the existential viewpoint for the quality of the therapist’s engagement. Keywords: existentialism Freud human society psychology. 12 pages; 32 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 3,380 words.   $84
17153. Article Summary: "Selling Organs for Transplants Is Unethical." This paper summarizes an article about selling human organs. The author, a columnist at a leading British weekly, discusses ethical issues in the procurement and allocation of human organs for transplant. He argues that buying and selling human organs for transplant is always unethical, rejecting the notion that a carefully supervised, highly regulated ‘organ market’ could keep the trade in human organs within ethical bounds. 5 pages; 2 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source. 1,288 words.   $35
17049. William L. Langer (1896-1977) and His Contribution to the Field of History. This paper discusses Langer’s life, the phases of his career as a historian, and how he expanded the scope of historical inquiry. Also discusses Langer’s influential use of high standards in research and writing, and his controversial views on the use of psychotherapeutic techniques in historical analysis. Keywords: Langer historians historical analysis techniques. 16 pages; 31 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $112
17008. The Ethical Dilemma of Deception in Undercover Police Work. Taking a philosophical perspective, this paper discusses the problems of lying, deceit and betrayal of trust inherent in undercover police work. Drawing on the utilitarian, relativist, and justice points of view, it is argued that such work does more good than harm in the long run. Keywords: police ethics undercover. 8 pages; 20 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources.   $56
15963. "Hammer-Proof: A Positive Guide to Values-Based Leadership" by Jeffrey a. Zink (Book Review). Zink’s book is concerned with the importance of ethics in leadership and provides a practical guide for leaders who want to attain an ethical stance. In addition to describing Zink’s basic ideas, this review praises his use of a straightforward writing style and explanatory examples, and notes that the works of other writers are supportive of his views. Keywords: business ethics values leaders. 15 pages; 34 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 4,168 words.   $105
15937. Arguments Against the Use of Genetic Cloning. This paper discusses the moral dilemma of cloning, especially in regard to the idea of cloning human beings. The arguments against cloning are presented, and rebuttals are made to the arguments in favor of cloning. 12 pages; 41 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 3,357 words.   $84
15890. The Use of Precision Weapons and the Just War Doctrine. This paper describes the just war doctrine and the types of precision weapons that have been developed, noting that the Persian Gulf War (1990-91) was a turning point in the use of such weapons. Argues that since precision weapons are more accurate and thus minimize civilian casualties, they provide a better approach to the just war doctrine than the alternatives suggested thus far. 11 pages; 22 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
15879. A Case Study in Military Ethics. This paper examines a scenario in which soliders on a humanitarian mission are considering disobeying orders to help wounded civilians, despite the serious risk of contracting HIV. The paper discusses the moral issues involved, and argues that the Commander should respond to this situation from the perspective of the 7th Army Values. In particular, the overriding importance of duty and obeying orders need to be emphasized. 6 pages; 6 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
15868. Cloning: Problems and Prospects. This paper provides an overview of cloning. The paper describes the process by which the sheep Dolly and other mammals have been cloned, and points out that there have been serious problems with cloned animals thus far. Argues that the research on cloning is only in the very early stages, and much more work needs to be done before a truly successful cloning can be achieved. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
15843. "The Art of the Commonplace" by Wendell Berry (Book Review). This paper presents a review and critique of this compilation of "agrarian essays" in which the author advocates a simple, agrarian way of life that rejects the exploitation of large-scale agribusiness concerns. This critical review includes a questioning of the extent to which it is necessary to reject technology and the urban way of life, as argued by the author. 7 pages; 10 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $49
15833. The Sacred Relationship Between Judaism and Nature. This paper addresses the misconception that Judaism is somehow responsible for the environmental problems that exist today. Demonstrates that despite the fact that rabbis once tried to distance the faith from the nature-based values of paganism, there is a tradition of reverence for nature and its cyclical processes to be found in Judaism. The paper further argues that there is a need today for the faith to 'reclaim the feminine' and restore emphasis on the sacredness of nature. 11 pages; 26 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources.   $77
15828. Introspection and Awareness of a Bodily Self. This paper argues against the viewpoint of the philosopher Quassim Cassam, maintaining that one's bodily self is not properly defined as an object. 6 pages; 18 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
15825. Identity and Meaning as Relational Identities. This paper examines the idea that identity and meaning are never fixed, but rather only "relational"." The analysis includes references to the views of Julia Kirsteva, Michel Foucault, and Jean Baudrillard, as well as discussions of 'freaks', 'celebrity freaks', and cultural meanings for aboriginal peoples and people living in the Third World. 14 pages; 41 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.   $98
15820. Desires and the State of Desirelessness. Describes ''disirelessness" as a paradox and addresses the issue of how people can act contrary to their knowledge of what is best for them. In this context, discusses the views of Aristotle, Ronald De Sousa, and other writers on self-control, weakness of will, and the role of serendipity in causing and resolving desires. 8 pages; 16 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,636 words.   $56
15802. Stem Cell Controversy. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the ethical problems presented by human stem cell research. Following a brief background summary on the medical/scientific components of the controversy and an equally brief overview of the current U.S. legal framework on stem cell research, the analysis focuses on the ethics of stem cell research. The ethical arguments for and against stem cell research are considered and the principal ethical dilemmas in the controversy are identified and discussed. The concluding sections present a proposed resolution to the dilemmas and a personal perspective on the problem. It will be argued that stem cell research using particular categories of human embryos and fetal material is ethically acceptable when carried out within a carefully designed ethical/legal framework and that further, there is a moral imperative to conduct such research so that society receives benefits from the related medical breakthroughs. KEYWORDS: stem cells embryos fetus research ethics law parkinsons paralysis experimental treatment. APA Style. 12 pages, 16 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3,592 words.   $84
15784. Theories of Poetry. This essay explores the nature and meaning of poetry and of human aesthetic expression in general. Following an overview of existing theories of poetry (looking at the ideas of Wordsworth and Coleridge), the foundation for the analysis is an examination of Justus Buchler's theoretical perspective and critical writings of Martha Nussbaum and then an application of these ideas to Matthew Lipman's Suki. 21 pages, 31 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $133
15766. Discourse Analysis: The Cultural Context. This paper focuses on a particular aspect of the cultural context of discourse: discourses of the Self (e.g., self-identity) and discourses of Other (which label or describe the out-group, discourses representing resistance against or oppression of the other, etc.) among cultural minorities and dominant groups. Through a review of the current literature on the cultural context of discourse analysis, this investigation explores how ethnic/cultural/linguistic minorities define self-identity through discourse; how minorities employ discourse as a strategy of cultural resistance; how dominant groups use discourse to define their own identities and to re-define those of minorities; and how discourses are used as tools of oppression and reinforcers of stereotypes. Five appendices provide detailed examples of linguistic/culturally-specific assessments.KEYWORDS: language culture discourse analysis linquistics communications stereotypes. 15 pages, 41 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources. 5,345 words.   $105
15765. Case Study Analysis: An Aids Patients' Demand for Futile, Life-Extending Treatment. This case involves a conflict between the principles of respect for autonomy and justice and the principle of social beneficence. An HMO nurse, charged with caring for a number of AIDS patients, disagrees with one patients' wish to receive life-sustaining and extending treatment. The analysis states the ethical problem, identifies the principal decision-makers, outlines alternative courses of action and their ethical consequences, ranks the alternatives, and considers ways to avoid similar problems in the future. KEYWORDS: medical ethics case studies dying patients autonomy . 7 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. 2,051 words.   $49
15741. Views on the Philosophy of Science. Compares and contrasts the views of seven thinkers (Bacon, Popper, Feyerabend, Quine, Nagel, Stent and Kuhn) regarding how science progresses and the best method to use for scientific inquiry. This is followed by a more specific comparison of the views of Kuhn with those of Feyerabend and Nagel. 11 pages, 41 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
15732. The Defense of Pacifism in Hind Swaraj (Gandi) and Three Guineas (Woolf). The arguments of both Gandhi and Woolf are "socially limited" (Gandhi is concerned with rejecting modernism and using passive resistance to attain India's liberation; Woolf is concerned with the role of women in promoting peace, which she sees as being limited by patriarchal oppression). Despite these limits, the views on pacifism of both authors have value; nevertheless, it is argued that Woolf's approach is less practical because she seeks to achieve a more generalized and idealized goal. 8 pages, 15 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $56
15723. The Role and Adequacy of Punishment. This paper argues that punishment is a complex issue and the views on its adequacy are relative. This is shown by comparing the views of such writers as Michel Foucault, Hannah Arendt (on the Adolf Eichmann trial) and Marcia Clark (on the O.J. Simpson trial). In addition, the views in various works of literature are referred to such as To Kill a Mockingbird, The Scarlet Letter and Measure for Measure. 11 pages, 21 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
15676. Medical Ethics: The Use of Human Subjects. This paper provides a brief synthesis and summary of the central concepts found in a chapter on the ethics of medical research and human experimentation. Discusses three major professional codes of ethics dealing with the subject, examines the moral issues involved in non-therapeutic experiments with case examples, considers whether or not consent must always be obtained, describes the random clinical trial process, and looks at issues surrounding research on children. KEYWORDS: human experimentation medical ethics informed consent case studies. APA Style. 7 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. 1,711 words.   $49
15660. Review of Fatal Freedom by Thomas Szasz. A favorable review and analysis of controversial psychiatrist Thomas Szasz's book on the ethics and politics of suicide. Summarizes Szasz's central thesis and major arguments favoring the treatment of suicide as a personal decision and individual choice to be made free from State or medical interference and opposing the sanctioning of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. Finds the book to be thought provoking, meticulously researched, and well written. Szasz's arguments are compelling and convincing, although his disdain of the medical profession and the psychiatric discipline in particular can be distracting. KEYWORDS: book review physician assisted suicide euthanasia thomas szasz fatal freedom self determination. 11 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,764 words.   $77
15644. Are We Alone? By Paul Davies. A summary analysis and critique of the Australian cosmologist's 1995 book which explores the "philosophical assumptions that underlie the belief in, and search for, life beyond the Earth, and the impact that the discovery of alien life forms would imply for our science, religion and beliefs about mankind." Provides a generally favorable assessment of the book, which is interesting in its exploration of the long history of mankind's search for extraterrestrial life as well as in its thoughtful consideration of the implications of the discovery of compelling evidence of alien life for both philosophy and modern science. Criticizes the author's tendency to wax rhapsodic about quantum physics and notes that some portions of the book may prove too difficult for readers without extensive background in the physical sciences. KEYWORDS: book review astronomy physics extraterrestial life. 13 pages, 22 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 3,238 words.   $91
15612. Nursing Ethics Case Study: Force-Feeding a Depressed, Terminally Ill Patient. This case concerns a depressed 47-year-old man who has recently been diagnosed with leukemia and is currently undergoing ECT treatments in a psychiatric ward. The severely depressed man is refusing to eat or drink. Nursing staff has responded with a plan to force-feed the patient through an NG tube. The ethical problems involve a conflict between patient autonomy, the medical staff's obligation to take action which benefits the patient, and their duty to avoiding harming the patient. The analysis states the ethical problem, identifies the principle decision-makers, outlines alternative courses of action and their ethical consequences, ranks the alternatives, and considers ways to avoid similar problems in the future. KEYWORDS: nursing ethics dying patients starvation feeding case studies. 8 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. 2,242 words.   $56
15611. Predictive Genetic Testing Is Inherently Unethical Within the Existing u.s. Healthcare System. This paper analyzes the ethically complex and controversial issue of predictive genetic testing. It will be argued that given the current conditions in the U.S. healthcare system, the use of predictive genetic testing is inherently unethical and should be prohibited because it may harm patients and result in injustices. It is argued that the benefits of genetic testing are grossly overstated (e.g., there are often no treatments available for genetic diseases) and that the risks, especially those related to breach of patient confidentiality, loss of insurance, and discrimination in employment, are grossly understated. It is maintained that barring the implementation of a system of universal healthcare, predictive genetic testing will remain an ethically unviable proposition. 18 pages, 26 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $126
15604. Cultural Relativism. The anthropological view of cultural relativism has been interpreted as meaning that the moral decision of people of different cultures or viewpoints should not be judged. This paper argues that there are problems with this claim, and that ambiguity in moral issues has a negative impact on society as a whole. Instead, there is a need for a universal approach to morality, based on the common moral basis that unite all people. 8 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
15599. Foucault's Theory of Power and Sexuality. A discussion of Foucault's view that knowledge and discourses have an impact on power relations, which are exercised on "local" levels. The paper examines how power becomes "self-regulated"; in addition, the paper discusses how Foucault related power to sexuality, and how feminists have had mixed reactions to his claims on this topic. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
15587. Alasdair Macintyre on Aristotelian Ethics. In After Virtue, MacIntyre argues that today's ethical thinking is characterized by subjectivism, "emotivism," and a lack of universal principles. According to MacIntyre, a better approach is found in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. For example, people should seek rational virtues, avoid extreme moral views, and develop the ability to empathize with the feelings experienced by others. 10 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $70
15578. Life After Death. Although it can't be proven scientifically, the evidence indicates that the existence of life after death is at least plausible. The arguments for believing in life after death are discussed; in addition, near-death experiences and studies relating to the topic are considered. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
15569. Man's Search for Meaning (Viktor Frankl). Frankl's concept of "logotherapy" stemmed from his experiences as a concentration camp victim in World War II. In addition, his unique approach to psychotherapy was influenced by the philosophy of existentialism. This review concludes that Frankl's book, which emphasizes the need to find "meaning" in one's personal life, is both well written and practical. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
15538. Comparison of the Socratic Method With Deductive Reasoning. These two systems of logical argument arose in ancient Greece. The Socratic method seeks to "draw out" the truth through questions and answers; deductive reasoning is based on the use of premises and conclusions. Both methods are useful, and were designed to meet different needs. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
15489. The Psychological Risks of Not Forgiving. This paper looks at the question raised by Simon Wiesenthal in The Sunflower, whether a Jew in a concentration camp should have forgiven a dying Nazi when asked to. It is argued that it is better to forgive than to harbor resentment; however, it is also better to not forgive than to do so insincerely. Even then, people need to be able to forgive themselves in order to avoid psychological risks. 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $70
15486. Naturalism in the Philosophy of John Dewey. This paper discusses how Dewey's pragmatic, empirical worldview was influenced by the theories of Darwin, and by the idea that human beings are an integral part of the constantly-changing natural world. 9 pages, 30 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $63
15219. Ethical Issues Facing Businesses and Industries in the Early 21st Century. It is argued that the two most significant ethical issues will be computer privacy and workplace diversity, both of which are related to general changes taking place in business and society. It is also argued that an ethical stance is good for business, and suggestions are made regarding how organizations can address these two issues. 9 pages, 19 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $63
15191. Lyotard's Post-Modern "Aesthetics of the Sublime." Based on views derived from Burke and Kant, Lyotard claimed that the purpose of art is to present that which can be felt or intuited, but is otherwise beyond the normal comprehension of human beings. The perspective, along with the rejection of "grand narratives," helps to explain the stylistic trends of post-modern art. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $63
15174. The Psychological Risks of Not Forgiving. This paper looks at the question raised by Simon Wiesenthan in The Sunflower, whether a Jew in a concentration camp should have forgiven a dying Nazi when asked to. It is argued that it is better to forgive than to harbor resentment; however, it is also better to not forgive than to do so insincerely. Even then, people need to be able to forgive themselves in order to avoid psychological risks. 9 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $63
15173. The Nature of Faith. Compares the views of religious philosophers such as Schleiermacher, Otto, and Tillich, who clam that faith is a "feeling," with the views of thinkers such as Augustine and Aquinas, who claim that it is more of a rational process. The conclusion argues that faith consists of both feeling and reason, although the feeling aspect is primary. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $98
15155. Sartre on Existentialism as a Humanism. Sartre's atheistic perspective caused him to believe that humans must create their own essence; according to Sartre, this is an optimistic rather than pessimistic outlook. Other writers have objected to this view or have sought to modify it; however, the paper concludes with the argument of Thomas C. Anderson that Sartre's humanistic existentialism can be used as a system of ethics. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $77
15152. Marx, Freud and Memmi on Alienation. Discusses the views of these three men on the causes of alienation and its resolution. Marx and Freud had contrasting views on the matter; Memmi more or less merges their views by claiming that alienation is caused by colonial exploitation, but also has an internal (psychological) aspect. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $56
15131. William James' Varieties of Religious Experience: Examines the main religious types and personalities defined by the American psychologist in his classic work on comparative religion. Considers James' own pragmatic and pluralistic philosophy as opposed to formal theology or organized religious practice, but not personal transcendence. 10 pages, 17 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $70
15129. Kant and Political Propaganda. Analyzes a case of Internet political spam in the 2000 election as an ethical problem. Kant's categorical imperative is seen as more moral than a utilitarian, hedonistic or consequentialism ethical interpretation. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $70
15126. Bioethics and Biotechnology. Explores the ethical and social problems involved in the exploitation of flora and fauna for medicine, foodstuffs and other products. Argues that biotechnology is motivated to protect rain forests and wildlife, and may help preserve indigenous peoples in passing. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $42
15107. Kant's Categorical Imperative Applied to an Ethical Problem of Internet Privacy. This essay analyzes a specific case involving the issue of Internet privacy, "permission based marketing," and the ethics of personal information marketing, using the some widely recognized tests: Kant's categorical imperative, ends and means, act or rule utilitarianism, applied from the eudaimonitic or hedonistic point of view. KEYWORDS: kant categorical imperative utilitarianism ethics internet privacy. MLA Style. 9 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $63
15101. The Ethics of Biotechnology Developed From Nature. This paper explores the ethical problems of biotechnology and use of natural resources, mainly in less developed nations, by scientists and business of the developed world. Among the issues reviewed are ethical conflicts posed by research, development and marketing of new drugs from exotic sources, creation and marketing of new flora and fauna, and the exploitation of tribal areas for profit. KEYWORDS: biotechnology ethics exploitation natural resources less developed countries. Turabian Parenthetical Style. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,445 words.   $42
15057. The Liberty Right to Use Pornographic Materials. Argues in favor of this right, as long as the materials are kept away from children and not imposed on those who find them offensive. The argument is supported by references to the right to privacy and the dangers of censorship, as well as the views of Aristotle, Hume and J.S. Mill. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $56
15042. The Morality of Medical Marijuana. Examines the issue from two moral perspectives: respect for persons and justice. Argues in favor of respect for persons in this case, because the justice view is too rigid, lacks compassion for those who suffer, and is built on faulty reasoning. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $49
15039. Description of a Utopian Society. Concerns a fictitious society run by an elite group, and the methods used to keep the citizens satisfied, most of which are based on the principle of "moderation." The paper is creative, but also draws on utopian theories to support the society's validity. 14 pages, 13 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $98
15015. Artists and Intellectuals in the Weimar Republic (1919-1933). A discussion of the "New Sobriety" movement and its criticism of warfare and the German government, with special emphasis on Thomas Mann, Otto Dix and George Grosz. Also discusses the growing persecution of the Nazis and their view that the work of such artists was "degenerate" and contrary to the aims of German nationalism. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.   $49
14820. What Is Existentialism? Anti-Systematic Philosophy According to Heidegger, Sartre and De Beauvoir. This paper provides a definition and explication of the philosophy of existentialism according to three prominent existential philosophers (Heidegger, Sartre and de Beauvoir). The differences and similarities in these three philosophers’ point of view are discussed and the central contributions of each thinker to the philosophy of existentialism is identified. Argus that while each of these approaches is based on the original tenet of existentialism as a philosophy where existence comes before essence, the way these different thinkers go about explaining this dictum can be very different. KEYWORDS: existentialism existentialists Sartre Heidegger de beauvoir existence essence. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,495 words.   $42
14819. What Is Human Nature? A Non-Traditional Viewpoint. This paper describes the theories of human nature found among the Western thinkers who disagree with the traditional view of the individualistic, self-contained reality of the ego (e.g., Hegel, Marx and the materialists, and the Existentialists, including Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Buber, Sartre and Camus). Makes the case not that these thinkers discovered the truth or defined the reality of human nature, but that they opened the door to a different way of thinking about human nature, being and nothingness, and the distinction between the individual human ego and the other – the rest of the world. KEYWORDS: existentialism marx materialism human nature philosophy. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,671 words.   $49
14813. The Depiction of Julius Caesar in Roman Historiography: The Biographies by Plutarch and Suetonius Compared. This paper compares and contrasts Plutarch’s and Suetonius’ treatment of the life of Julius Caesar based on the two biographic accounts in Plutarch’s Bio Paralleli (Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans) and Suetonius’ The Twelve Caesars. Concludes that modern historians would consider Suetonius to be the superior political analyst and judge of character, even if Plutarch is more truthful, literal and reliable in the small events that make up the biographical narrative. KEYWORDS: roman history biography Plutarch suetonius. 11 pages, 1 footnote, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,616 words.   $77
14801. Camus’ the Stranger: Existential Themes in the Novel. This paper explores the existential themes of alienation, freedom, isolation, choice and moral logic in Camus’ 1946 novel, looking first at the meaning and scope of his existentialism and the core of this philosophy, then considering how Camus introduces and develops those themes. Camus’ novel is shown to present the major philosophical themes or concerns of existentialism in a fictional form, while rejecting all the more hopeful explanations and excuses of existential philosophers, past and present. Argues that he central character Meursault symbolizes and expresses the fundamental existential dilemma: the meaningless of life, the futility of love and feeling in the face of death, and the inability to reach out to or change other human beings, either for the better or for the worse. KEYWORDS: camus existentialism novel review critique alienation. 11 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references. 2,519 words.   $77
14022. Global Warming Since the 1990 Greenpeace Report & Un Ipcc. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current “state of the debate” on global warming. The starting point for the analysis is the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report and the response offered by Greenpeace in its Global Warming report issued that same year. The 1990 reports are reviewed in the context of recent studies and reports which consider the current evidence for global warming, speculate on the likely impact of global warming, and describe the policy responses to the problem of global warming. Keywords: global warming scientific reports international conventions greenpeace united nations climate change term paper. Scientific Notation style. 24 pages, 88 footnotes, 33 bibliographic references. 6,741 words.   $133
14021. Ethical Relativism in the World Today. The ancient Greek philosopher Protagoras believed that ethical views are relevant only to the specific cultures in which they are found. The validity of this view is shown by comparing the moral views of Westerners to those of other cultures on issues such as sexuality, polygamy, and female genital mutilation, among other things. 9 pages, 26 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $63
13870. Art as a Critic of Science. Discusses the effectiveness of art a as means of criticizing science, drawing examples from particular works of English literature including Marlowe's Dr. Faustus, Mary Shelly's Frankenstein, and Hawthorne's short stories. Argues that while artists are not qualified to speak on the merits of the narrow technical implications of science, they are qualified to speak on the social and cultural effects of scientific research. 10 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $70
13849. The Ethics of Human Cloning. Focusing on the recent developments in genetic engineering and cloning, this paper considers the ethics of cloning human beings. Following a brief background discussion of human cloning and genetic engineering, the essay considers the arguments for and against human cloning. The paper concludes that human cloning is ethically unacceptable. KEYWORDS: human cloning ethics term paper genetic engineering argumentative essay. MLA Style. 9 pages, 19 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,609 words.   $63
13834. Censorship and the Post-Modernist Challenge. Examines the new wave of censorship attacks on the arts and post-modernism's particular vulnerability to censorship attacks. Citing specific examples of the censorship of contemporary post-modernist artists including Andres Serrano, Robert Mapplethorpe, Keith Haring and Jeff Koons, and argues that by bringing in elements of realism and historical references the post-modernists have laid themselves open to attack from both the traditional modernists and conservative reactionaries. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $56
13748. Martin Buber's "I and Thou" on Marriage. Examines the German Jewish theologian's views on marriage and the marital relationship as elucidated in Buber's I and Thou. Contrasts the I and Thou relationship with the I and It relationship within the context of contemporary society and non-marital relations. 6 pages, footnotes in text, 1 bibliographic reference.   $42
13732. Gewirth's Response to Hume: The "Is" to "Ought" Argument. An examination of Gewirth's reply to the fundamental problem posed by Hume, who argued that we cannot draw conclusions about what ought to be done in some future action from premises about what already is the case. The analysis first reviews Hume argument and it's reasoning, then proceeds to analyze Gewirth's counter-argument and theory concerning the underlying principles of purposive moral agency. 15 pages, 20 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $105
13721. Michel Foucault on the Nature of Modern Man. This essay examines the late French philosopher's views on the origins and nature of the modern individual. Compares Foucault's view of the modern individual with the views espoused by Karl Marx, Nietzsche and Rousseau. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
13705. Two Approaches to Education: Body of Knowledge vs. Intellectual Mode of Inquiry. Explores the question of whether the traditional body of knowledge (i.e., a received body of knowledge such as a history to be mastered) can constitute a complete education or whether, as C.P. Snow argued, the man of letters who lacks a basic scientific training is fundamentally illiterate. Concludes that the art of learning should be taught as a mode of inquiry. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
13691. Culture Wars: The Struggle to Define America by James Davison Hunter. A review and analysis of Hunter's 1990 study, focusing on the author's proposed steps "toward democratic possibilities" that will theoretically lead America to a new "moral pluralism." 5 pages, 3 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
13649. Aesthetics. A three-part paper that analyzes the artistic theories of R. G. Collingwood, Leo Tolstoy, and Immanual Kant and Clive Bell. The author examines Collingwood's rejection of a technical theory of art, Tolstoy's controversial expressive theory of aesthetics, and Bell and Kant's theory on the formal elements of art. 8 pages, 2 bibliographic references.   $56
13474. God: A Biography (Jack Miles). Discusses author's treatment of God as a literary figure in the Hebrew Old Testament. Emphasizes the Book of Job as a turning point in the story, and argues that author's method brings the character of God to life. 11 pages, 36 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $77
13406. Existential Concept of Otherness and the Unconscious in Art and Philosophy. Looks at the origins and expressions of the existential concept of "otherness" in art and philosophy. The origins of otherness and alienation in Kierkegaard, Marx and Nietzsche are linked to existential ideas of the other in Buber, Camus and Sartre; the influence of otherness in modern art, and its meaning in anthropology, are also examined. 7p. 17f, 13b   $49
13328. Science Versus Religion. Evaluates the validity of the statement that the 'ethos' of science tends to be antagonistic to religious attitudes. Traces the history of the conflict between religion and science and argues that in the contemporary era, the opposition of religion and science has been accepted as an absolute by most. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
13325. The Global Appeal of Communism. Examines factors contributing to communism's appeal in the twentieth century: social idealism, anti-imperialism, post-colonial politics and the atmosphere of the cold war. The collapse of the Soviet state is seen as marking the demise of communism's appeal worldwide. 9 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
13312. Sartre and Rousseau: Autobiographies of Childhood Compared. Compares the childhood reading and life of the imagination in the two thinker's autobiographies; Rousseau's "precocious" sensuality and love of the classics are noted, and Sartre's happy childhood and library of family reading is described. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $63
13309. Incompatiblism of Free Will and Determinism. Reviews the philosophical issue of determinism versus free will, arguing that the two are incompatible. Views of the ancient Greeks, Christian scholastics and modern philosophers from Hume and Kant to Sartre and Ayer are reviewed. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $70
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