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19A. U.S. FOREIGN POLICY

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19503. CUBA, POTENTIAL FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: COUNTRY RISK ASSESSMENT. New, Winter/Spring 2017 This paper, written from the perspective of a U.S.-based investor, provides a risk and opportunities assessment of Cuba as a location for international business and investment. Following an economic, political, and cultural overview of Cuba, the paper profiles the operations, marketing, and human resources management aspects of doing business in Cuba. Economic prospects are viewed as relatively bright over the next five years. While significant political risks to operating in Cuba remain, recent normalization of U.S.-Cuban relations predict a more favorable political risk profile in the coming years. Recommendations are made for direct and indirect foreign investment. APA Style. 15 pages, 52 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources, 4,195 words.

TAGS: Cuba, country risk assessment, international business, FDI, foreign investment, political risk, market entry, economic risk, foreign operations

  $105
 
18889. POLITICAL RHETORIC IN U.S. HISTORY. This research paper analyzes the use of political rhetoric as it pertained to internationalism in two periods of American history: the late nineteenth century (prior to the Spanish-American War) and the aftermath of World War I. Based on the evidence, it is argued that the rhetoric on issues such as isolationism and expansionism was motivated primarily by economic and commercial interests. TAGS: political rhetoric, essay, isolationism, expansionism, American history, war, internationalism, term paper. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 14 pages, 19 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,290 words.   $98
 
18799. THE DANGER OF THE THREAT OF CYBERTERRORISM. This research paper is concerned with the physical and economic vulnerability of the United States and other Western nations to cyber attacks. Cyberterrorists, who are becoming increasingly sophisticated in their techniques, might disrupt vital services as well as engage in acts of espionage and information theft. It is argued that policymakers need to make a concerted and coordinated effort to find ways to minimize the problem. TAGS: cyberterrorism, argumentative essay, terrorism, technology, computers, espionage term paper. APA Style. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,847 words.   $84
 
18546. SUICIDE TERRORISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST. This paper is concerned with suicide terrorism, with an emphasis on the problem as it exists in the Middle East. Suicide terrorism is perpetrated by terrorist organizations, in reaction to the perception of being occupied. Certain individuals agree to act as suicide bombers on the basis of incentives that might be economic, psychological or spiritual in nature. Terrorist organizations continue to use the tactic because they believe it is effective. The paper concludes with a consideration of the alternatives that have been proposed for dealing with the problem. TAGS: terrorism suicide bombers Middle East international cooperation suicide terrorism. MLA Style. 12 pages, 30 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,753 words.
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18536. WARTIME RAPE AND MURDER BY US SOLDIERS IN IRAQ. This paper discusses a 2006 criminal case in which five U.S. Army soldiers, stationed in Iraq, raped a fourteen-year-old girl and then killed her and her family. The paper argues that the case can be explained by combining the views of five theoretical perspectives on crime causation: feminist theory, biosocial theory, opportunity theory, psychological theory and social learning (or differential association) theory. KEYWORDS: criminology theory war Iraq us soldier rape murder Iraqi family. APA Style. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,796 words.   $49
 
18530. NAFTA AND U.S.-CANADA-MEXICO RELATIONS. As discussed in this paper, NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement) was established in 1994 in order to create equal trade relations between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. However, analysts have argued that that the agreement has resulted in a “dual-bilateral” system rather than a true “trilateral partnership,” as originally intended. This seems to be due to the U.S. adopting a perspective of realism (emphasizing self-interest and national security) rather than the perspective of liberalism, as implied in the wording of the NAFTA document. KEYWORDS: international relations economy trade NAFTA United States Canada Mexico. APA Style. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,221 words.   $35
 
18529. THE WAR IN IRAQ. This paper argues that military intervention was not the best option for the U.S. to follow in responding to the Iraqi situation that existed in 2003. The “preemptive” war of the Bush Administration was based on flawed intelligence and the nation created problems in international relations by taking a unilateral approach rather than a collective security approach. Furthermore, the intervention in Iraq has not gone as smoothly as planned. KEYWORDS: war Iraq U.S. policy international relations. APA Style. 5 pages, 17 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,250 words.   $35
 
18333. GOVERNMENT USE OF TORTURE IN THE WAR ON TERRORISM. This paper describes three perspectives on how governments should respond to the threat of terrorism and violence. Jonathan Alter believes “psychological interrogation” may sometimes be needed to save lives, while Henry Porter provides a contrasting opinion on the issue. These post-9/11 views are compared with Martin Luther King’s argument that violence should never be used to fight violence. Contrary to King’s view, it is argued that terrorism poses a threat to innocent lives and thus methods associated with “torture” may sometimes be needed in dealing with terrorists (but only as a last resort and only if it is non-physical and approved by a court). KEYWORDS: terrorism 9/11 government torture article review Martin Luther King. MLA Style. 4 pages, 0 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $28
 
18225. AGRICULTURE AND THE THREAT OF TERRORISM. This paper is concerned with the problem of “agro-terrorism” (the use of terrorism to disrupt the nation’s food supply). This threat is complicated by the openness and interconnectedness of the “food chain”(the various steps in moving food from farm to table). It is argued that the government needs to do more to protect the security of the food supply and the nation’s people. Some recommendations are provided to help accomplish this goal. KEYWORDS: agriculture terrorism government policy. APA Style. 18 pages, 43 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
18203. SUICIDE TERRORISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of suicide terrorism. Following a discussion of the definition of suicide terrorism, the paper traces the history of suicide terrorism from ancient times through the development of modern suicide terrorism in the latter 20th century. Focusing primarily on modern suicide terrorism, the paper then discusses the main features and characteristics of suicide terrorism and suicide terrorists (individuals and organizations). Another section examines some of the major theories or explanations of suicide terrorism, considering the influence of individual, social, and organizational motives and factors. The concluding section briefly considers steps that might be taken to slow or stop the continued expansion of suicide terrorism. TAGS: suicide terrorism suicide bombers terrorist motivations theories terrorism middle east islamic terrorist organizations. APA Style. 20 pages, 165 footnotes, 50 bibliographic sources. 6,650 words.
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  $133
 
18177. MALAYSIA-UNITED STATES FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. This term paper traces the history of the attempt to create a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Malaysia and the United States in 2006 and 2007. Following a brief discussion of the advantages of free trade agreements in general and the US policy position on bilateral versus multilateral trade agreements, the paper focuses on Malaysia-US trade issues and the proposed FTA. The five rounds of trade talks beginning in March 2006 and ending in May of 2007 are discussed. The two sides sought to open the Malaysian market to U.S. financial services and auto-makers while opening the American market to imports of rubber, timber, garments, plastics, chemical and agricultural products, optical and scientific instruments, and electrical and electronic goods, by dropping duties, currently 5 to 32 percent. Malaysia also sought technical support to give it an advantage over other Asian countries, making it attractive for biotechnology and for high-end technical research and development. The paper considers the reasons for the breakdown in talks, noting the importance of Malaysian concerns about access to generic medications and opposition from the Malaysian agricultural sector as well as US concerns about intellectual property, patent protection, labor laws, environmental standards, and access to government contracts. KEYWORDS: bilateral trade agreements Malaysia United States trade negotiations FTA, Turabian Style with endnotes. 15 pages, 67 footnotes, 66 bibliographic sources. 4,768 words.   $105
 
18067. U.S. MILITARY STRATEGIES. This paper examines the four grand strategies that various U.S. military planners have recommended in recent decades. The strategies in question are: neo-isolationism, selective engagement, cooperative security, and primacy. The advantages and shortcomings of each strategy are described. In addition, the paper discusses how U.S. military strategy has evolved in recent decades, up through the period following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The paper concludes with the argument that cooperative security provides the best approach for meeting America's current national security needs. KEYWORDS: military strategy neo-isolationism selective engagement cooperative security primacy. MLA Style. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,270 words.   $84
 
17717. THE NAACP AND THE COLD WAR. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People’s (NAACP) positions on Cold War issues and its responses to the challenges and controversies emerging from Cold War politics and policies. The analysis includes a discussion of the NAACP’s links to and position on Communism, its stance on the major Cold War initiatives, and its position on decolonization and the emerging African nations within the context of the US-Soviet struggle for international dominance. It is argued that the Cold War and charges of Communist influence within the organization put the NAACP on the defensive and ultimately limited its effectiveness as an organ for civil rights. It will be seen that in its struggle to define itself as unequivocally pro-American and anti-communist, the NAACP retreated from efforts to advance human rights abroad and economic and social rights at home, instead focusing on more narrowly proscribed civil rights for African-Americans in the US. KEYWORDS: cold war civil rights naacp communism colonialism red-baiting mccarthyism. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes & Bibliography. 18 pages, 41 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 4,535 words.   $126
 
17715. GLOBAL WARMING: IS NUCLEAR POWER PART OF THE SOLUTION? This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of global warming and considers whether or not nuclear power can be part of the solution to the problem. The paper begins with an overview of the problem of global warming. The analysis includes a definition of global warming, a discussion of its major aspects, a review of scientific evidence demonstrating the existence of the problem, and an overview of the likely consequences of global warming. The analysis then considers strategies and steps might be taken to begin to address the problem. The second part of the paper considers whether or not nuclear power could be part of the solution to the problem of global warming. The analysis considers the both the advantages of increased reliance on nuclear energy and the risks associated with nuclear power. KEYWORDS: global warming greenhouse gases carbon emissions nuclear power. APA Style. 17 pages, 54 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 4200 words.   $119
 
17704. THE COST AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF HURRICANES KATRINA & RITA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the likely cost and economic impact of the hurricanes that hit the Gulf Coast in August and September of 2005. The investigation considers both the costs and economic impact within regions directly affected by the storms as well as the potential national and international impact of the disaster. The paper begins with a discussion of the controversy over the early estimates on Katrina’s costs and a brief overview of the difficulties in estimating costs and/or economic impact in the period immediately following a disaster. KEYWORDS: disaster hurricane storm economic impact cost energy prices. APA Style. 13 pages, 56 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources. 3,069 words.   $91
 
17636. THE MEDIA AND THE VIETNAM WAR. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the role of the media in shaping public opinion during the Vietnam War. Drawing on newspaper and television reports from the throughout the lengthy war, the analysis looks at how media helped to turn the tide of public opinion against the war. Concludes that the media played a critical role, convincing Americans that the war was a costly mistake, that their government had misled (or even lied to) them, and – most importantly – that America was not likely to win the war, notwithstanding its high costs and casualties. KEYWORDS: Vietnam war american public opinion media effects newspapers television. MLA Style. 8 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,970 words.   $56
 
17472. U.S.-RUSSIAN RELATIONS IN THE POST COLD WAR ERA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the United States’ relations with Russia in the post-Cold War era. U.S.-Russian relations are traced from the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union and the final years of the George H.W. Bush administration through the present-day and the administration of George W. Bush. The analysis considers both the motivations for cooperation and the potential for confrontation in the relationship, as well as the impact of Russia’s overall economic and social deterioration on relations between the two countries. KEYWORDS: foreign policy Russia post cold war us Russian relations bush putin gorbachev yeltsin Clinton. APA Style. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,642 words.   $84
 
17447. WHAT HAPPENED AT ABU GHRAIB? A SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE. This brief essay argues that U.S. soldiers’ abuse of Iraqi prisoners held at Abu Ghraib is not surprising from the perspective of social psychology. The soldier guards at Abu Ghraib were not very different from the “guards” in Zimbardo’s 1971 prison experiment. Morale problems, threat of attacks from insurgents, lack of training as prison guards, cultural and language differences, and the soldiers’ position of absolute power over prisoners explains their behavior. KEYWORDS: Iraq prisoner abuse Zimbardo Stanford prison experiment power dynamics. 2 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 537 words.   $14
 
17436. THE WAR ON DRUGS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of America’s “war on drugs”. Looking at both the domestic and foreign aspects, the paper profiles the history, goals, strategies, results and consequences of the decades-long drug war. The essential conflicts (e.g., criminalization versus medicalization, enforcement versus treatment, prohibition versus legalization, etc.) in the debate over what to do about the nation’s drug problem and the major controversies (e.g., hidden foreign policy objectives, environmental issues, racial aspects, impact on prison crowding, costs, overall effectiveness, etc.) in the war on drugs are considered and discussed. Recent trends in the drug war, including the federal government’s opposition to medical marijuana and the Bush Administration’s efforts to merge the war on drugs and the war on terror into a broad-based, far-reaching war on narco-terrorism are also explored. KEYWORDS: drug war mandatory minimums prison overcrowding foreign policy narco-terrorism drug abuse policy. 14 pages, 78 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 3,386 words.   $98
 
17419. FRAUD IN PUBLIC-FUNDED HEALTH CARE (MEDICARE/MEDICAID) This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of the problem of fraud in publically-funded healthcare programs, focusing on the two largest and most important programs, Medicare and Medicaid. The investigation considers the scope of the fraud and provides an overview of the various types of fraud found in these programs; looks at the major victims of Medicare/Medicaid fraud and identifies the key stakeholders in the fraud problem; describes some of the efforts taken to address the problem; and makes recommendations on how to gather coalitions of stakeholders to better address this problem and preserve access to healthcare for our country’s most vulnerable and needy citizens. KEYWORDS: healthcare fraud Medicare Medicaid. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 2,642 words. 2,642 words.   $77
 
17351. AMERICA’S INVOLVEMENT IN THE VIETNAM WAR. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the early history of the Vietnam War and the factors leading to the U.S. decision to send military forces to Vietnam in an effort to determine the main reasons for the initial American involvement in the war in Vietnam. Traces U.S. foreign policy towards Vietnam (IndoChina) back to the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Finds that the shift in policy (favoring intervention) occurred in the 1950s primarily as a result of Cold War pressures. Provides an overview of Kennedy’s decision to send military assistance to South Vietnam, discusses escalation following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident and Johnson’s policies in the war. Concludes that America’s initial involvement was an outcome of the Cold War and the effort to contain communism. Once Johnson received congressional authorization to escalate the war, it became increasingly difficult for America to remove itself from the war, even when things went badly and antiwar demonstrations grew more violent on the domestic front. Includes an annotated bibliography. KEYWORDS: US Vietnam War policy cold war containment communism Gulf Tonkin. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 3,866 words.   $98
 
17279. AN ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL CARTOONS OF U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN IRAQ. This paper examines the situation in Iraq circa early 2005 from the perspective of political cartoons appearing in The Los Angeles Times and The International Herald-Tribune. Following a brief discussion of what constitutes an effective political cartoon and a quick review of the major Iraq news stories in the first months of 2005, the paper analyzes specific cartoons published in the two newspapers. Each cartoon is described and assessed for “effectiveness” in terms of its ability to deliver a clear and powerful message to its audience. KEYWORDS: Iraq cartoons. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,139 words.   $63
 
17276. THE BUSH DOCTRINE OF PRE-EMPTIVE STRIKE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Bush Doctrine of foreign policy as it arose following the 9/11 attacks and compares the Bush Doctrine with two previous presidential foreign policy doctrines – the Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957 and the Carter Doctrine of 1980. Argues that the Bush Doctrine’s emphasis on unilaterally using preemptive warfare against sovereign nations has set a dangerous precedent and there are clear indications that it is causing damage in terms of America’s international relations. KEYWORDS: foreign policy preemptive strike rogue nations George W Bush 9/11. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,583 words.   $49
 
17225. THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I. This paper examines some of the factors leading to the outbreak of World War I. The paper discusses the role of imperialism and nationalism, military and political alliances, the assassination of the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, the failure of Germany’s Schlieffen Plan, and the U.S. entry into the war. Keywords: World War I WWI causes. 6 pages; 24 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 1,502 words.   $42
 
17194. MARINE CONTAINER SECURITY AND INSPECTION PRE- AND POST-9/11. This report provides an overview and analysis of ocean-going container security and inspection at U.S. ports. Following an overview of the scope of the container security problem, the analysis looks at how the approach to maritime container security and inspection has changed in the aftermath of 9/11. The major technologies – including gamma-ray, e-seals, pulsed fast neutron analysis, thermal neutron analysis, tracking technologies, and sophisticated x-rays – used in maritime container inspection are identified and discussed. The costs and practicality of these technologies as a means of improving seaport security are considered. Keywords: ports shipping security containers maritime technologies inspection e-seals. 15 pages; 71 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 4,377 words.   $105
 
17172. GLOBALIZATION OF NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRIES. Focusing on the defense industries in the United States and the United Kingdom, this paper explores and critically evaluates some of the policy issues and challenges posed by defense globalization. The essay beings with a brief overview of globalization in general and of defense globalization in particular. Following this, the analysis focuses on four major challenges and policy issues in defense globalization: 1) technology and technology transfers; 2) procurement policy; 3) export controls; and 4) offsets. Keywords: defense military procurement globalization policy technology transfer trade. Written 2004. 10 pages; 52 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 2,914 words.   $70
 
17156. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS OF PEACEKEEPING. This paper provides a summary presentation of the main ideas and concepts in an article in Armed Forces & Society which compares the leadership style, approach to peacekeeping, and approach to relations with civilian leaders of former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General John Shalikashvili with that of his predecessor, General Colin Powell. Provides a favorable assessment of Shalikashvili as compared to Powell. Consider the reasons for the military’s reluctance to engage in post-Cold War peacekeeping. 7 pages; 3 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source. 1,938 words.   $49
 
17142. AMERICA'S FOREIGN POLICY OF PREEMPTION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the foreign policy doctrine of preemption as promulgated by the George W. Bush Administration. The impact of the events of September 11, 2001 on the development of the doctrine is a special focus. The major components of preemption are outlined and compared and contrasted to previous foreign policy doctrine. Considering the war on Iraq as the first test of the doctrine, the analysis discusses the impact of the doctrine to date and its likely future impact in both the U.S. and the rest of the world. A concluding section addresses the question of whether the doctrine of preemption is good or bad for America, America’s role in the world, and the international system in general. It is argued that preemption is bad for America. 21 pages; 51 footnotes; 27 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
17119. THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE SUPERPOWERS: BEFORE AND AFTER THE COLD WAR. This paper analyzes United Nations’ behavior under the Superpowers (the U.S. and the U.S.S.R./Russia), comparing and contrasting United Nations-Superpower relations during the Cold War and in the post-Cold War era. The analysis begins with a brief background discussion on the history, structure and function of the United Nations (UN). Focusing primary on the Security Council as the nexus of UN-Superpower relations, the next sections examine UN behavior during the bipolar era of the Cold War and during the post-Cold War era after the collapse of the Soviet Union. A final section draws on the preceding analysis to consider whether or not the UN needs superpowers to implement its Charter. KEYWORDS: superpowers international power relations united nations us international organizations ussr cold war russia america. MLA Style. 21 pages, 81 footnotes, 30 bibliographic sources. 6,632 words.   $133
 
17118. CHINA-U.S. TRADE. This paper traces China-U.S. trade relations and America’s China policy through the Clinton era into the Bush years. The analysis examines the factors behind the U.S.’s decision to re-establish Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) with China and China’s long struggle to join the World Trade Organization (WTO). The analysis also looks at problems and prospects for U.S.-China relations in the aftermath of China’s December 2001 accession to the WTO, including a discussion of disputes over agricultural imports and other trade issues. Finally, the analysis also consider the link between trade and national security issues in the aftermath of 9/11 and the re-establishment of PNTR with China. Keywords: China US trade WTO. 12 pages; 43 footnotes; 29 bibliographic sources. 5,224 words.   $84
 
17007. POST 9/11 CHANGES IN THE UN POLICY ON TERRORISM. This paper discusses the new challenges for the United Nations that have arisen following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. Examines the UN resolutions on terrorism before and after the attacks and considers the expectations of the UN’s future role in the fight against terrorism. Although it is noted that terrorist organizations exist in various parts of the world, this paper emphasizes the problem as it relates to Islamic fundamentalism. Keywords: UN Security Council terrorism. 18 pages; 39 footnotes; 15 bibliographic sources. 4,319 words.   $126
 
15901. AMERICAN IGNORANCE OF VIETNAMESE CULTURE IN THE VIETNAM WAR. This paper discusses the cultural misconceptions of Americans (both soldiers and political leaders) during the course of the Vietnam War, and how these misconceptions contributed both to America’s involvement in the war and to the nation’s ultimate failure. 12 pages; 44 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15900. U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AND THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT. This paper argues that U.S. foreign policy toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been inconsistent and thus ineffective in the effort to attain peace. In this regard, the U.S. needs to take a stand and make more determined and consistent efforts to find a compromise solution. KEYWORDS: us foreign policy israel palestine term paper. 9 pages; 28 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15890. THE USE OF PRECISION WEAPONS AND THE JUST WAR DOCTRINE. This paper describes the just war doctrine and the types of precision weapons that have been developed, noting that the Persian Gulf War (1990-91) was a turning point in the use of such weapons. Argues that since precision weapons are more accurate and thus minimize civilian casualties, they provide a better approach to the just war doctrine than the alternatives suggested thus far. 11 pages; 22 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15886. THOMAS JEFFERSON AND THE EMBARGO OF 1807. Using primary sources, this paper discusses the embargo that President Jefferson imposed in response to British and French interference with the right to conduct free oceanic trade. Argues that Jefferson erred in judgment because the embargo had more of a negative impact on US merchants than on the European nations. 16 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
15885. JIMMY CARTER AND U.S. RELATIONS WITH NICARAGUA. Using primary sources, this paper discusses President Carter’s support of the corrupt and repressive Somoza regime, his efforts to create a moderate government in Nicaragua and his decision to support the leftist Sandinistas when they took over. It is noted that the issues were not fully resolved by the time Carter’s presidency ended. 16 pages; 27 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
15867. WHY THE U.S. BECAME INVOLVED IN THE VIETNAM WAR. This paper argues that the U.S. entered the Vietnam War because of unrealistic concerns over Communist expansion, and remained in the war in order to maintain credibility in the eyes of the world. In the end, the nation failed to meet its objective of stopping a communist takeover in South Vietnam. KEYWORDS: vietnam war term paper. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15866. THE EVOLUTION OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE 1970'S. This paper describes how at the start of the decade, the U.S. was mainly concerned with the Vietnam War and relations with China and the Soviet Union. By the end of the 1970's, however, foreign policy issues had become more diverse and included concerns regarding such places as Latin America and the Middle East. Argues that while there were some notable successes during the decade, there were more failures overall and thus the nation ended the 1970's at a low point in global influence. 8 pages, 23 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15851. THREE BOOKS ON THE VIETNAM WAR (BOOK REVIEW). This paper provides a comparative review and critique of three books about America's involvement in the Vietnam War: 1) "America's Longest War" by George C. Herring; 2) "In Retrospect" by Robert S. McNamara; and 3) "Vietnam, the Necessary War" by Michael Lind. Concludes that while all three books have value, Herring's book is the most thorough and objective. 11 pages; 17 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15845. AMERICA'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE VIETNAM WAR. This paper examines how the policies and actions of successive presidential administrations had a 'snowball effect' and contributed to the escalation of the war in Vietnam. Traces America's involvement in Vietnam beginning with the Cold War concerns of the Truman administration and looks at how Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon all expanded on Truman's basic Vietnam policy. 14 pages; 53 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
15836. U.S. POLICIES TOWARD CUBA FROM THE 1890'S THROUGH THE 1960'S. This paper discusses relations between the U.S. and Cuba, emphasizing how America's goals and the methods to achieve them changed over the course of time. 8 pages; 22 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15835. U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II. This paper discusses the reasons for America's entry into the two World Wars, the nation's objectives in these wars, and the impact that involvement had on U.S. foreign policy and its role as a global power. 8 pages; 20 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15807. REASONS FOR THE US ATTACK ON IRAQ IN MARCH 2003. Compares the view of George Soros (the war was due mainly to political and economic reasons) with the view of Thomas Barnett (the war was due mainly to military and security reasons). Concludes that the full truth is probably found in a combination of these two views. 5 pages; 0 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources. 1,377 words.   $35
 
15787. THE COLD WAR: HISTORY AND EVOLUTION. This essay traces the history of the Cold War between the United States (and its allies) and the Soviet Union (and its allies), noting its World War II antecedents and focusing on its initial development in the post-war years and its early history through the 1950's. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
15730. PROPOSAL FOR A HISTORY OF THE CAMP DAVID ACCORDS. This paper describes a proposed book on the 1978 agreement and its failure to lead to negotiations for Palestinian self-rule. The perspective of the study is that of a historian who is Arab-American, but acknowledges the importance of examining both sides of the conflict to get a full objective account. Also discusses the proposed methods of the historical study, including the selection of sources and facts, the use of an eclectic approach to theory and the combined use of narrative and analytic writing techniques. 13 pages, 31 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15712. BIOTERRORISM: BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM: ANTHRAX, SMALLPOX & MORE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the threat and reality of biological terrorism and/or biological warfare in 21st Century, post-September 11th America. The first part of the paper conducts an overview of the potential sources of a biological attack, looking at both state actors and non-state actors, and examining the barriers that these potential attackers would have to overcome in order to carry off a large-scale attack using biological agents. The second part provides an overview of what experts have identified as the five "critical biological agents" that might be used as biological weapons: plague, botulism, tularemia, anthrax and smallpox. TAGS: bioterrorism biological terrorist threats anthrax botulism poison disease terrorism suicide terrorism terrorist organizations. APA Style. 15 pages, 63 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 5,631 words.
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  $105
 
15694. DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM: THE MILITARY HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN GULF WAR OF 1990-91. This paper provides a retrospective overview and analysis of Desert Shield-Desert Storm. The analysis focuses on logistical aspects of the operation (scope of the challenge, problems associated with the operation, etc.), the role of the coalition in the successful outcome, the unique aspects of the war, the attention given to the principles of war, and the measures of effectiveness and war termination goals. A concluding section assesses Desert Shield/Storm's legacy and its implications for the "American way of war." KEYWORDS: persian gulf war iraqi war 1991 military strategy desert storm george bush. 15 pages, 35 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 5,155 words.   $105
 
15673. WESTERN MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF ARABS AND MUSLIMS DURING THE GULF WAR CRISIS OF 1990/91. This paper examines the media-filtered American interpretations of the Arab world through an analysis of Western (mainly U.S.) media portrayals and interpretations of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab women (especially Saudi, but also Kuwaiti, and other women of the Gulf) during the Gulf War and surrounding period of Gulf Crisis (a period defined as extending from August 1990 through the spring of 1991 and the withdrawal of U.S. forces following the end of the Gulf War). The investigation begins with a brief overview of the historical problems and distortions involved in media coverage of wars or other military conflicts, and the specific position of the media in the Gulf War. Also considered is the U.S. media's tradition of foreign news coverage. Following this, the analysis examines U.S. newspaper coverage and post-war published analyses of media (broadcast and print) coverage of the Gulf War and crisis in an effort to present a profile of U.S. media portrayals of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab/Muslim women in particular, with a special focus on media images and interpretations of Saudi men and women. KEYWORDS: newspaper coverage arab gulf war western media portrayal arabs muslims. 25 pages, 55 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources. 7,291 words.   $133
 
15642. FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND DOMESTIC CIVIL RIGHTS: CIVIL RIGHTS LEADERS OF THE 1960'S AND THE VIETNAM WAR. This paper explores how foreign affairs and U.S. foreign policy affected the civil rights movement during the Cold War period of the 1960's. Following a background summary of the civil rights movement in the 1950's and 1960's, and a discussion of the bi-directional link between foreign affairs and the seemingly purely domestic affair of civil rights, the analysis looks more closely at the impact of the Vietnam War on the civil rights movement in the 1960's, focusing on the responses of two of the major African-American leaders of the era - Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr., -- but also considering the general impact of foreign affairs of the civil rights movement and its major leaders and organizations during the 1960's. It will be argued that the escalation of the Vietnam War in the mid-1960's was a fateful turning point in the history of the civil rights movements. KEYWORDS: naacp civil rights foreign policy martin luther king racial discrimination foreign affairs. 22 pages, 43 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 6,160 words.   $133
 
15580. MILITARY HISTORY: OPERATION DESERT STORM AND THE USE OF INFORMATION WARFARE. This paper discusses how Desert Storm was a turning point in the use of Information Warfare (IW). The operation was the first major testing of information-based weapons, strategies and tactics. In addition, the quick Coalition victory was attributed in part to the successful use of IW, in contrast to the failure of Iraq's information-based systems. 8 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15513. AMERICA'S LONGEST WAR (GEORGE C. HERRING). A review of Herring's book on the causes and consequences of the Vietnam War. Discusses how Herring emphasizes the political aspects of the nation's involvement in the war (the "containment policy" for example), as well as how the war divided the nation between anti-war protesters ("doves") and war supporters ("hawks"). 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
15499. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: FOCUS ON THE MIDDLE EAST. This paper provides an overview and analysis of international terrorism, with a focus on Middle Eastern terrorist groups (including Al-Qaida, Hamas, Hizbollah and the Egyptian Jihad) and the U.S. and international response to the terrorist threat from these groups. The analysis begins with a brief history and overview of international terrorism. The next section describes a few of the most significant Middle East terrorist organizations now posing a threat to the international community (particularly the U.S. and its interests abroad). The final section examines the international and domestic policy and legal responses to international terrorism, looking at the most significant U.N. conventions and treaties as well as specific U.S. policies, executive orders, and legislation. 20 pages, 71 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15498. THE TALIBAN AND AFGHANISTAN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Taliban and their use of Islamic fundamentalism to influence and control the people of Afghanistan. Following a brief background overview of Afghanistan and its strategic importance, the first section details the Taliban's rise to power in Afghanistan. The second section focuses on the Taliban's strategy and actions after coming to power, with particular attention to the regime's subjugation of women's rights and basic human liberties. The Taliban's relations with foreign powers - including the U.S. - are discussed within the context of this topic; broader foreign policy concerns related to September 11th and its aftermath are not considered within this analysis. KEYWORDS: afghanistan taliban human rights status women us intervention 911. APA Style. 15 pages, 47 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
15496. BIN LADEN AND THE AL QAEDA TERRORIST NETWORK. A profile of the terrorist group believed to be responsible for the September 11th attacks. The analysis includes a review of the history of Al Qaeda and its leader, including an exploration of the group's origins, general motivations, organization/strength and previous actions against the U.S. and U.S. interests abroad. The analysis considers the evidence linking Al Qaeda to the September 11th attacks and examines the organization's purposes in making the attack. Finally, the analysis examines how the U.S. has responded to-date by the threat posed by Al Qaeda. The concluding section makes suggestions about strategies that might be useful in fighting this organization. KEYWORDS: osama bin laden terrorists al qaeda al qaida terrorism terrorist cells networks. 14 pages, 42 footnotes, 31 bibliographic references. 4,114 words.   $98
 
15480. GLOBAL WARMING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: OUTLOOK AND POLICY RESPONSE. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the global warming problem as it is understood at the beginning of the 21st century. The paper begins with a definition and history of global warming. The next section surveys the literature on global warming trends over the past century, reviews the latest predictions on global warming over the next century, and summarizes the predicted consequences of such warming. The final section of the essay examines the domestic and international policy responses to the global warming problem. 20 pages, 71 footnotes, 36 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15463. MEXICAN IMMIGRATION & ACCULTURATION. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of Mexican immigration and acculturation/assimilation in the United States. The essay begins with a background overview on the history and current character of Mexican immigration to the U.S. Following a discussion of models of assimilation/acculturation, the paper then focuses on the acculturation/ assimilation of Mexican immigrants and their descendants, looking at factors such as language acquisition, economic integration, and adoption of American social-cultural values and traditions. KEYWORDS: mexican immigration immigrants mexican-americans assimilation language acquisition mexicans term paper. MLA Style. 16 pages, 57 footnotes, 33 bibliographic references.   $112
 
15435. COMMUNIST RESPONSES TO AMERICAN AIR POWER IN KOREA, 1950-1953. This paper examines the critical role of American air power in the Korean War, specifically exploring the question of how the North Koreans and their allies responded, both politically and militarily, in their attempts to counter the general American air superiority in the 1950-53 period. Traces Communist efforts to directly overcome US air power in the early phases of the war; outlines Communist ground tactics; and considers how the Communists made the failure of the US strategy of air interdiction more complete than it need have been. 9 pages, 29 footnotes.   $63
 
15215. ROLE OF THE U.S. IN THE THIRD (1967) AND FOURTH (1973) ARAB-ISRAELI WARS. Cold War concerns caused the U.S. to counteract the Soviet Union's support of the Arabs by siding with Israel. This paper discusses the initial reluctance of the U.S. to take a stand, the subsequent arms shipments to Israel, and the various efforts by U.S. diplomats to negotiate a peaceful settlement, which culminated in the "shuttle diplomacy" of Secretary of State Kissinger. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15205. ROLE OF THE U.S. IN THE PERSIAN GULF WAR (1990-1991). Discusses U.S. political and economic interests in the region, U.S. reaction to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the rhetoric used to win over the public and Congress, and the role of the U.S. in the passage of UN resolutions in leading Coalition forces. Also discusses the postwar controversy over earlier U.S. arms transfers to Iraq. 11 pages, 37 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $77
 
15056. A NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE WOULD REDUCE U.S. SECURITY. This paper argues in support of the hypothesis that a National Missile Defense (NMD) system will ultimately serve to decrease the level of security in the United States. It is argued that the construction of a NMD provides no protection against terrorist or other non-ICBM attacks; that building a missile defense will inflame both allies and adversaries, spurring a Chinese- and Russian-led nuclear build-up; and that NMD is currently technological unfeasible and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore proposed that not only will NMD fail to provide the security its supporters promise, it will itself serve as a destabilizing force in the arena of international security, with particularly adverse effects on U.S. security. KEYWORDS: national missile defense shield mutually assured destruction reagan star wars strategic defense initiative star wars clinton defense policy bush missile shield. APA Style. 12 pages, 30 footnotes, 21 bibliographic reference. 3,728 words.   $84
 
15047. AMERICAN POW'S IN THE KOREAN WAR. Covers the "death marches," the terrible camp conditions (including lack of adequate food, shelter, cleanliness and medical care), brainwashing, how the prisoners coped, and their symptoms of post-traumatic stress. 12 pages, 45 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15012. WATERSHEDS IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN LATIN AMERICA AND THE U.S. Includes the Monroe Doctrine, the Spanish-American War, the Panama Canal, differing policies of Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Cold War and Cuba, reduction in U.S. hegemony after the 1960s, and efforts to develop free trade. 15 pages, 38 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $105
 
14809. DIPLOMACY BY HENRY KISSINGER: HENRY KISSINGER’S ANLAYSIS OF WOODROW WILSON’S DIPLOMACY. . This paper considers Kissinger’s analysis of Wilson’s diplomacy in the context of the broader theory of realpolitik, in which the realities of power politics and strategic balance take precedence over moral issues of idealism, guilt or justice. Argues that Kissinger’s realism reflects a worldview that requires a global balance of power in a “principle of conservative unity,” rejecting agreements which any parties consider unjust in their essence. This worldview accepts Wilson’s morality, perhaps, but not his methods. KEYWORDS: book review nonfiction diplomacy presidents Woodrow Wilson Kissinger realpolitik. 10 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,319 words.   $70
 
14001. STRATEGIC LESSONS FROM THE VIETNAM WAR. Drawing on the work of several prominent military historians, this paper presents a thoughtful analysis of the lessons which can be deduced from America's unsuccessful involvement in Vietnam. Outlines the basic tenets of America's failed strategy of attrition and considers why it failed. Argues that American political and military leaders learned a number of lessons from the Vietnam War – the most important of which concern America's acceptance of its own military limits. 9 pages, 40 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $63
 
13923. U.S. MILITARY TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: THE CASE OF IRAQ. Drawing on the case of Iraq and its acquisition of Western (primarily U.S.) military technology, examines problems and conflicts in U.S. military technology transfers, looking at potential and existing weaknesses in U.S. export control laws and military policies. Reviews U.S. policy on technology transfers, considers U.S. direct contributions to Iraqi military strength and the impact of U.S. export control programs on Iraqi weapons technology acquisition; and summarizes evidence on U.S.-Iraq transfers provided by the Gulf War. Concludes that the weaknesses which the Gulf War revealed in the export controls system were probably less critical than the glaring weaknesses in the Iraqi weapons development programs. 18 pages, 28 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
13922. FOREIGN POLICY AND DIPLOMATIC STYLE: PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON VS. PRESIDENT TEDDY ROOSEVELT. A thoughtful and penetrating character analysis and comparison of the diplomatic styles of Wilson and Roosevelt based on a review of recent scholarly reappraisals of these two presidents' characters and of the intent and effect of their foreign policies. Argues that Roosevelt and Wilson were both, by virtue of their moralizing tendencies, more prone to intervention and didacticism in their foreign policies than more flexible, less ideological presidents might have been. Maintains that Roosevelt was not a blind imperialist; that he in fact justified his policies with moral and ethical arguments. Argues that Wilson, while judged a moralizing and messianic figure, was in fact less of an isolationist and a neutral party in his diplomacy than commonly believed. 20 pages, 45 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13889. SOVIET IMMIGRANTS: A U.S. POLICY PERSPECTIVE. Reviews and analyzes U.S. policy towards immigrants from the Soviet Union during the 45-year Cold War and through the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Discusses U.S. political pressures on the Soviet Union to allow emigration of Jews and other religious dissidents as well as U.S. policies giving preference to Soviet immigrants over immigrants from some other countries. Reviews numerous legal cases involving Soviet immigrants. Discusses the changing policies in the wake of the collapse of the USSR and the implications of the loss of refugee status for many of these immigrants. 14 pages, 15 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13822. THE PERSIAN GULF WAR. A critical appraisal of the U.S.'s and its allies "great military victory" in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Argues that the outcome of the war was largely indecisive in that it left Saddam Hussein firmly in control of Iraq and did nothing to address the Palestinian conflict. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
13781. THE SINKING OF THE MAINE (REMEMBER THE MAINE). An analysis of 1898 sinking of the great battleship and the subsequent move to war with Spain. Examines the actual circumstances and consequences of the sinking of the Maine, looking at the ship and the men who died, the actions and investigations of the involved governments, and the way that the Maine incident was used to incite America to war. 14 pages, 28 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13771. THE KOREAN WAR: OUTCOME AND AFTERMATH. Reviews the historical and geopolitical outcome of the Korean War, examining the impact on the U.S., Korea and the Asian region. Argues that while the U.S. failed to achieve a strategic or tactical victory, the willingness to engage in a "hot war" with a communist foe gave validity to the West's military alliances, from NATO in Europe to SEATO in Southeast Asia, and drew an important line in the sand against unbridled Communist aggression. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
13751. THE FAILURE OF U.S. POLICY ON ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION. Investigates the "problem" of illegal immigration from the perspective of U.S. immigration policy history. Provides background information on U.S. immigration policy history and on the political and social conflict between legal and illegal immigration. Chronicles the failure of U.S. policy to stop illegal immigration, particularly as it applies to immigrants from Mexico and Central America. Argues for the implementation of a new policy that would include the creation of a new category of alien resident workers, a coordinated plan of economic development and population control in Mexico, and removal of arbitrary political and economic requirements for legal immigration. 18 pages, 26 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
13735. THE GULF WAR: BACKGROUND OF THE CRISIS. An analysis of the factors and forces leading up to the 1991 Gulf War and a consideration of the extent to which the apparent military resolution of the conflict in fact left many of the region's problems and conflicts unresolved. Among the important factors cited are the region's widespread economic inequities, Iraq's historical claims to Kuwaiti territory, Kuwait's innate vulnerability, Saddam Hussein's leadership and inclination to military opportunism, and the strong U.S.-led coalition against Iraq. 9 pages, 10 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13727. HISTORY OF U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN VIETNAM. Brief analysis of how the U.S. became involved in Vietnam, examining American policy objectives (declared and undeclared) and considering the ways in which the U.S. failed in those objectives. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
13690. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS: DECISION-MAKING. Examines the decision-making models and processes which shaped the formulation of U.S. foreign policy during the Ex Comm meetings. Considers why the U.S. was so surprised by the Soviet missile deployment in Cuba; why the Soviets decided to place the missiles there in the first place; why the U.S. and Kennedy in particular responded as they did; and why the Soviets ultimately "backed down" and removed the missiles. 14 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13677. THE U.S. PRESIDENCY AND THE WAR IN THE GULF. Examines the impact of the Gulf War on the presidency of George Bush. Demonstrates how the decision to intervene militarily in the Gulf, and the "quick results" of the intervention dramatically boosted President Bush's popularity and allowed him to "slide" on the domestic agenda. Speculates on how the Gulf War would impact Bush's chances for re-election in 1992. 9 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13675. THE ECONOMIC AND FOREIGN TRADE POLICIES OF THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION, 1989-1992. This paper explores President Bush's economic and foreign trade policies from the perspective of the multinational corporation. Specific trade and business related issues such as corporate taxes, tariffs versus protectionism, and national industrial policy are examined, and more general issues of interest rates and money supply, education, health and housing, and the rebuilding of economic infrastructure are considered. Argues that Bush's "hands-off" economic policies were not effective. 9 pages, 10 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13613. THE THEORY OF HEGEMONIC STABILITY. Argues that the theory can be used to explain the current situation of the United States and the world. In accordance with the theory, the United States is described as being a hegemony in decline. However, as the theory also holds, international cooperation can still continue despite the decline of U.S. hegemony. 16 pages, 49 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
13553. STRATEGIC LESSONS OF THE U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN VIETNAM. Includes the failure of the attrition strategy, the need for a quick, decisive victory, the importance of alliances, and the need for "self-responsibility" among client nations. Also covers how the U.S. underestimated the enemy, and became involved in Vietnam despite a lack of vital interests there. 11 pages, 41 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13542. PRAGMATIC IMPERIALISM, AND OTHER LESSONS OF THE WAR IN KOSOVO, 1999: Sharp, well-informed, balanced assessment of the Kosovo war in international relations theory and practice. Includes why the current period remains one of uncertainty and ambiguity, and how this is reflected in assessments of the war; American world supremacy, and the limits to this; the effects of the 'information age', and how this contributes to an erosion of previous concepts of state sovereignty; and recommendations by leading scholars for a type of pragmatic American Imperial leadership in world affairs, with more clear criteria for when, where, and how America should intervene in future crisis. 15 pages, 44 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13422. PUBLIC ATTITUDES IN WORLD WAR II AND THE VIETNAM WAR. Discusses how the American antiwar sentiment of World War II was overcome by patriotism. By contrast, the antiwar movement during the Vietnam War grew to unprecedented heights as it became increasingly apparent that the war was not a worthy cause. 11 pages, 42 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13419. US FOREIGN POLICY IN IRAQ. An overview and analysis of US foreign policy in Iraq. Following background on US foreign policy objectives in the region prior to and following the 1990/91 Gulf War, the analysis describes the central objectives, strategies and issues in US-Iraq foreign policy with special reference to the controversy surrounding US support for economic sanctions against Iraq. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13394. U.S. INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY. This paper considers the current and future state of U.S. international strategy, with particular attention to the issues of “security assistance” and the application of U.S. international strategy in the Middle East region. 11 pages, 44 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13306. FROM THE LONGBOW TO THE SMART MISSILE. Examines innovations in weapons technology, comparing the transition from the longbow to the crossbow with the development of precision guidance systems for missiles in the 20th Century. The battle of Agincourt, German rocket attacks of World War II, and smart missile use in the Gulf war are noted. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13305. KHRUSHCHEV AND THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS. This term paper examines one aspect of the aftermath of the Cuban missile crisis. Specifically, the analysis considers the main impact/effect Khrushchev had on international relations as a consequence of the Cuban missile crisis. The principal focus of the essay is on how the Cuban missile crisis and its settlement impacted Soviet foreign policy and Soviet relations in the international arena, particularly relations with the United States and, to a lesser extent, China. KEYWORDS: soviet leaders chrushchev cuban missile crisis us-ussr relations soviet foreign policy term paper. APA Style. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13222. FROM THE LONG BOW TO THE SMART MISSILE. Examines innovations in weapons technology, comparing the transition from the longbow to the crossbow with the development of precision guidance systems for missiles in the 20th ccentury. The battle of Agincourt, German rocket attacks of World War II, and smart missile use in the Gulf war are noted. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13176. COLD WAR CONTAINMENT: KOREA AND VIETNAM. The role of geopolitical strategy and the containment doctrine on U.S. prosecution of the two wars is examined. The wars are seen as "losing battles" in a longer, larger global struggle against communist, with eventual U.S. victory only coming in the 1980s. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13152. OPERATION ROLLING THUNDER. Strategic analysis of the Vietnam War, focusing on the U.S. air bombing campaign from 1965-1968. Looks at prior history of the war, tactics and missions of the campaign, and the lack of clearly defined objectives among U.S. policy makers. Includes Appendix "Nine Points of War." 20 pages, 33 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13144. "AMERICA'S INFORMATION EDGE" (NYE AND OWENS). Discussion of Foreign Affairs article on the importance of knowledge as power and the role of the U.S. in the current information revolution. Covers military uses of information, the concept of "soft power," knowledge as deterrence, and selective sharing of knowledge with allies. Also refers to the views of other authors on the topic. 11 pages, 56 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
12747. INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE VIETNAM WAR, 1945-1975. Well-structured summary of this very large field, emphasizing the post World War II and Cold War situations, from which the American phase of the Vietnamese Wars (1963-73) was simply a continuation of previous American policies, such as 1950 NSC documents and paying for the last years of the French phase of the war. Also highlights the American effort to bring in allies for its phase, and how post-1975 situation actually disproved the "domino theory" of Cold War thinking. 7p. 5b. 15f.   $49
 
12724. NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA. This paper explores and analyzes nuclear proliferation in the post-Cold War era. The investigation is limited to an overview of the problem (versus a search for solutions), with a close focus on what analysts consider to be among the key issues: disarmament and the reversal of bilateral nuclear competition between the world's two biggest nuclear powers (the United States and Russia), deliberate proliferation by rogue states and undeclared nuclear powers, and proliferation stemming from "nuclear leakage" out of the former Soviet Union. 23 pages, 54 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12662. MARSHALL PLAN & EUROPEAN RECOVERY. Summary of what the Marshall Plan was, focusing on statistics of how it aided European progress. Includes background to and development of the Plan, implementation and institutional structures, use of the Plan to create and strengthen institutions of national economic planning and regulation on Keynesian models, the wide-ranging scope of activities financed and promoted, promotion of person-to-person links within various industries, resistance to special interests and protection requests from the U.S. Congress, use of Marshall Plan funds for CIA and covert political activities, statistics on European GNP and investment growth showing how the Marshall Plan coincided with significant increases. Conclusion stresses Marshall Plan as perhaps the greatest act of altruism in human history. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2 additional pages containing 3 statistics tables.   $70
 
12550. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF THE PERSIAN GULF WAR. How the war and its leaders were conceptualized by U.S. politicians and the media. Discusses how Saddam was depicted as an evil "power mad bully," while Bush was depicted as a benevolent protector. Also discusses other concepts related to the war such as the "Vietnam stigma" and the "new world order." 24 pages, 75 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12538. THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION OF JAPAN. Strong short summary of what may have been the most successful act of "social engineering: in world history. How Gen. MacArthur and the Occupation authorities rewrote the Japanese social contract, purging nationalists and communists, rewriting the constitution, institution land reform, not instituting big business reform, supervising labor and education. 6p., 15 notes in text, 3b.   $42
 
12537. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR: VIEW FROM THE KENNAN AND NOVIKOV 'LONG TELEGRAMS.' Compares and contrasts the two telegrams as documents illuminating the origins of the Cold War. Considers the role played by ideological paradigms in shaping each author's analysis; the accuracy of each document's portrayal of the rival power's capabilities, vulnerabilities, motivations and intentions; the extent to which each author's sense of audience shaped the style and content of his message; and the policy implications and/or recommendations of each document. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
12535. FUMBLING TOWARDS FOREIGN POLICY: CLINTON'S FIRST TERM. This paper presents an overview and analysis of Clinton's foreign policy during his first term with a view towards predicting the second-term foreign policy orientation of the administration. while attempting to touch upon all aspects of Clinton's foreign policy, the analysis focuses on what analysts have judged to be his most critical foreign policy failures (e.g., Russia, the Mideast, trade issues). To provide a basis for assessing the intentions and effectiveness of Clinton's foreign policies, the paper begins with an analysis of Clinton's foreign policy ideology, philosophy, and major objectives. A concluding analysis considers the likely foreign policy orientation of the Clinton Administration during the second term. 15 pages, 61 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
12256. HALFORD MACKINDER'S VIEWS ON GEOPOLITICS. Discusses how Mackinder's theory of the "Heartland" was applied to U.S. policies during the Cold War. According to this theory, a threat to world security would arise if Russia gained dominance in central Europe. Although this theory was used to justify U.S. policies of containment. It is argues that is too general and simplistic to adequately explain the Cold War situation in all its complexity. 7 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
12252. U.S.-SAUDI RELATIONS. An analysis of recent (since the Gulf War) relations between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia, which considers the impact and implications of the Gulf War, Saudi domestic instability, bombings of American military facilities, and Saudi Arabia's lukewarm response to the September 1996 U.S. military action against Iraq. Profiles the objectives and interests of both nations in the relationship. Considers the major external (Gulf War, American hegemonic interests) and internal (domestic discord, succession crisis) factors affecting the recent stresses in U.S.- Saudi relations. 17 pages, 34 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
12251. CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS: LEGACIES AND LESSONS FOR THE POST COLD WAR ERA. Through an examination of its legacies and lessons, this paper considers the continued relevance and policy-making implications of the Cuban Missile Crisis in the post Cold War era. While the analysis taken into account recently released information (on both the American and the Soviet side) and discusses many of the particulars and motivations behind the crisis, the objective is to draw lessons from the crisis for today's world, rather than to assign blame or bestow praise on the historical participants. The paper begins with a brief summary overview of the Cold War setting under which the crisis occurred and an outline of the central events (as best as they can be determined) of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Following this, the paper presents a detailed analysis of the major legacies (with a particular focus on U.S. policymaking and lessons of the crisis. 16 pages, 45 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
12250. WHY THE COLD WAR ENDED. This essay considers the major explanations for why the Cold War ended (e.g., Soviet economic collapse, U.S. military pressure, U.S. diplomatic efforts, Soviet diplomacy, etc.) and then argues that the end of the Cold War is best explained by an economically-motivated shift in Soviet ideology - a shift largely made possible by the leadership and diplomatic skills of a single international actor: Mikhail Gorbachev. 7p., 16f,. 9b.   $49
 
12201. THE TET OFFENSIVE OF THE VIETNAM WAR. Strong sensitive summary of the week that broke America's will to win in Vietnam. Includes the peculiar circumstances of the Vietnam War and the American strategies developed through 1967, how Giap confronted the stalemate with a bold plan, the overconfidence of the White House and Pentagon, the successful diversion of Khe Sahn, the offensive of January 30th and its overwhelming success as tactical surprise & American intelligence failure, summaries of major battles and force dispositions, how Giap lost the military/tactical battle but succeeded in the overall political/psychological objective: convincing the American people that the war in Vietnam could not be won. 11p. text + 2 maps, 10b., 29 notes in text.   $77
 
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