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  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
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13336. THE U.S. CONSTITUTION. Discusses the conditions that led to the creation of a new Constitution in 1787, as well as the ways the Constitution provides "checks and balances" in order to limit the powers of government. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
13314. THE EFFECT OF DETERRENCE ON THE CRIME RATE. This paper reacts to the claim that the threat of punishment has caused the recent reduction in the crime rate. It is argued that deterrence is not effective in reducing crime and that the idea is based on a false assumption about human rationality. Other possible explanations for reduced crime, such as demographic changes, are also discussed. 11 pages, 38 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
13258. AMERICA'S TWO-PARTY SYSTEM. Argues that the system is still important today, despite criticisms that have been leveled against it. Discusses views of voters and political scientists, difficulties faced by "third parties," and roles of the two major parties. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
13202. ECONOMIC POLICIES OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY. Traces evolution from late 1980s through the 1990s, showing increased trend toward conservatism on economic and budgetary matters. Also notes continued controversies with Republicans over such matters, as well as the opposition of liberal-minded Democrats. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
13183. SAME-SEX MARRIAGES AND DOMESTIC PARTNER BENEFITS. Analyzes the pro and con views on this issue and argues that not allowing same-sex marriages is a form of discrimination. Also argues that providing domestic partner benefits is good for business, and notes that many companies and city governments have started providing such benefits. 28 pages, 73 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
13181. WHAT THE US CAN LEARN FROM OTHER HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS. This essay considers what the U.S. can learn from the experiences of other countries in the establishment and maintenance of an affordable system of healthcare which equitably distributes high-quality services to the entire population. Prior to elaborating some of the specific things that U.S. healthcare policymakers might learn from other systems, the analysis considers both the limitations and the opportunities for learning from other countries. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
13172. THE CONTROVERSY OVER BILINGUAL EDUCATION. This paper analyzes the bilingual education controversy, tracing the history of bilingual education in the United States, examining the arguments for and against bilingual education, and surveying the research literature on the outcome (effectiveness) of bilingual education. Concludes that the current model of bilingual education is ineffective. KEYWORDS: bilingual education ESL students term paper. APA Style. 20 pages, 34 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $133
13026. THE FAILURE TO ERADICATE POVERTY IN THE UNITED STATES. An analysis of why the United States has failed to eradicate poverty. Considers whether the persistence of poverty can be attributed to the government's inconsistent and/or ineffective efforts to eliminate it, or whether the problem is simply intractable, or whether the failure stems from some other reason. Focuses on possible solutions in the implementation of paternalistic welfare policies as advocated by Mead (1992, 1997) and other conservative analysts. 14 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $98
12722. UTAH: THE LONG STRUGGLE FOR STATEHOOD. Thorough, detailed study of the political history of the Mormons, and their attempts to legalize polygamy, and the federal effort to stamp it out. Includes the migration to Utah and the attempt to found a "state of Deseret," attitudes in Mexican and Civil wars as well as a complete summary of "Mormon War" of 1857-58, a history of polygamy in the sect, attempts to increase non-Morman immigration, political evolution after the Civil War and the increasing severity of federal assaults on Mormon polygamy, circumstances of the "Woodruff Manifesto" abandoning Mormon polygamy, evidence of Mormon use of public relations and bribery to enhance their image and prospects, integration of Mormons into the two-party system as final step before statehood; conclusion stresses Mormon attempt to prove themselves as "super-Americans." 16 pages, 33 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $112
12679. WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT. Brief historical background on the movement in the U.S. and England, followed by an examination of the movement from the perspective of three social movement theories (the classical model, the new social movement theory, and the resource mobilization theory). Argues that resource mobilization is the best theory for understanding the rise of the movement and its ability to gain mass support. 12 pages, 33 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
12673. A STATE POLICY TO PREVENT HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUTS. This paper presents a proposal for the implementation of a state-level policy for preventing high school dropouts and increasing high school completion rates. The analysis begins with a comprehensive overview of the problem of dropouts - its scope, its major components, its causes, and its impact. Following this is a statement of the priority objectives of the proposed policy. The analysis then draws on the educational literature and the experience of various states in their implementation of dropout prevention programs to present and evaluate three alternative strategies which might plausibly meet the objectives. A recommendation and rationale for the implementation of one alternative (an alternative schools program) is presented. The concluding sections discuss policy implementation and evaluation. 26 pages, 41 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $133
12651. ECONOMIC & SOCIAL EFFECTS OF NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. Solid, balanced overview of this contentious area finds that both the pessimistic and optimistic predictions have come true. Includes 3p. summary of NAFTA treaty terms and 1p. of positive and negative predictions made before passage in 1993. Covers the causes and effects of the peso crisis of Dec. 1994 and its relation to NAFTA, the emergence of an industrial demographic boom on the Mexican border, statistics on growth, employment, trade, etc., Asian firms strong entry into maquiladora manufacturing, social conditions on the nuevo frontera, labor conditions inside the maquiladoras, effects in Canada, question of job losses and wage restraint in America. Balanced conclusion names winners and losers from free trade. 12 pages, 25 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $84
12643. THE PRECEDENTS OF CHIEF JUSTICE MARSHALL. Good basic summary of Marshall's most important cases and what they meant for American history. First half of paper gives complete political and judicial summary of how Marbury vs. Madison came about, stressing Marshall's role in the political conflict and his cleverness in avoiding a political confrontation with Tom Jefferson's Republican Party and establishing a climate of political stability. Also covers powers of the Federal Govt. (Cohens vs. Virginia & McCulloch vs. Maryland), the commerce clause (Gibbons vs. Ogden), legality of slavery and land titles based on conquest of Indians, the transference of common law to America, and strict interpretation of Constitution in Burr treason trial. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
12593. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN WAYS OF KNOWING. Argues that, although men and women have different ways of knowing, this does not mean that women are inferior, as implied by many scientists who did brain studies in the 19th century. The paper also argues that environment, as well as biology, plays a role in creating gender differences. On this basis, it is claimed that young women need to be encouraged to have greater self-confidence as part of the overall socialization process. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
12538. THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION OF JAPAN. Strong short summary of what may have been the most successful act of "social engineering: in world history. How Gen. MacArthur and the Occupation authorities rewrote the Japanese social contract, purging nationalists and communists, rewriting the constitution, institution land reform, not instituting big business reform, supervising labor and education. 6p., 15 notes in text, 3b.   $42
12535. FUMBLING TOWARDS FOREIGN POLICY: CLINTON'S FIRST TERM. This paper presents an overview and analysis of Clinton's foreign policy during his first term with a view towards predicting the second-term foreign policy orientation of the administration. while attempting to touch upon all aspects of Clinton's foreign policy, the analysis focuses on what analysts have judged to be his most critical foreign policy failures (e.g., Russia, the Mideast, trade issues). To provide a basis for assessing the intentions and effectiveness of Clinton's foreign policies, the paper begins with an analysis of Clinton's foreign policy ideology, philosophy, and major objectives. A concluding analysis considers the likely foreign policy orientation of the Clinton Administration during the second term. 15 pages, 61 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $105
12504. THE ETHICS OF HEALTH CARE DISTRIBUTION. Presents an analysis and assessment of the moral issues surrounding the distribution of health care in the United States from the perspective of the early 21st century. The analysis is structured as hypothetical testimony from an expert in health policy ethics presented at public hearings which aim to reach a broad consensus on the issue of universal health care. The paper argues that access to health care is a right, not a privilege, and as such, ethics imperatives require the development of a viable national health care system which provides equal access to health care for all Americans. 14 pages, 43 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.   $98
12503. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE 'RIGHT' TO HEALTH CARE. Takes a case analysis approach to considering the ethical and legal implications of the 'right' to health care in contemporary America. The implications (for individuals, health care providers, the society) are considered within the framework of a hypothetical new national health insurance system and the situation facing two hypothetical patients who are being denied treatment based either on their presumed 'responsibility' for their illness and/or their inability to pay for care. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $49
12451. IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. Discusses why immigrants came to America at the turn of the 20th century and why they settled mainly in the cities. Considers their contributions and notes that some of the earlier settlers accepted them while others rejected them. Also looks at the situation today, and the current problems of illegal immigration. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
12450. THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN AMERICA: THE VIEW FROM TOCQUEVILLE'S DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA. This essay explores Tocqueville's vision and thoughts on the status of women in America. In addition to considering whether or not America was in fact 'democratic' as far as these women were concerned, the analysis examines to what extent Tocqueville's view on the status of women rests upon his sociological theory of democracy and/or upon his dogmatic assumptions about human nature. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
12410. IS THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM TRULY A "SYSTEM?" Argues that it is a system because, although it is large, complex and fragmented, there is also coherence and cooperation between the different branches of specialization. The paper also argues that the separation of powers is a vital aspect of American politics. 8 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
12406. JURY REFORM. This paper presents a profile and analyze of current jury reform efforts. Following a brief review of the central motivations and objectives behind jury reform and a discussion of the differences between civil versus criminal jury reform, the analysis profiles the major focus of current reform efforts as they are being considered and implemented. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources.   $84
12402. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION. A discussion of the pros and cons of affirmative action, as well as the claims of "reverse discrimination" that have arisen as a result of it. Concludes that the programs have failed to meet their goals, and argues for new anti-discrimination laws rather than the continued use of "quota systems." 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
12398. FEDERAL TAXATION OF INDIVIDUALS. A discussion of various components involved in filling out an income tax return. Includes such topics as filing status, exemptions, gross income, computation, credits, payments, filing requirement, and penalties. 28 pages, 113 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $133
12358. RACE AND THE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN AMERICA. This paper provides a survey and overview of the issues and evidence concerning racial bias and disparate impact in the U.S. criminal justice system. Focusing closely on black-white issues and the question of disparate impact on African Americans, the analysis looks at racial effects in policing, the pre-trial process, the jury trial, sentencing, appeals, and post-trial disposition and corrections. 18 pages, 39 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $126
12310. THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT. This paper provides an overview an analysis of the history, development and structure of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. The analysis begins with an overview of ADA's history and development, looking at some of the pre-ADA legislation affording the disabled protection against discrimination and examining some of the major environmental forces spurring ADA legislation. Following this a detailed summary analysis of the ADA's main purposes and central protections as provided through its five Titles. KEYWORDS: ADA term paper disabled employees legislation. APA Style. 11 pages, 28 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $77
12298. NAFTA: A PROGRESS REPORT. Brief overview and assessment of the successes, impact, problems, and issues in the North American Free Trade Agreement two years after it implementation. Argues that the overall impact, while still too early to clearly measure, has been positive, and that apparent indications of the U.S. NAFTA-related trade losses are grossly overstated and related to the Mexican financial crisis. 7 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $49
12276. THREE FILMS ON THE COLD WAR. Looks at themes of nuclear paranoia, propaganda and political ideology in Dr. Strangelove, The Manchurian Candidate, and Atomic Cafe. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
12195. CIVIL SOCIETY & DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA. This paper examines one of the central features Tocqueville identified as making American democracy great - the existence of a strong and active civil society. First provides an overview of Tocqueville's conceptualization of American civil society and its critical link with the consolation of democracy and then looks at some of the factors which Tocqueville believed helped to build and support that strong civil society. The concluding section examines the link between civil society. The concluding section examines the link between civil society and democracy in contemporary America. 16 pages, 29 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $112
12175. POLICE BRUTALITY IN CHICAGO. A brief overview of the problem of police brutality in Chicago as manifested in the period after World War II, with a close focus on the 1968 Democratic Convention and relations between the police and Black activists in the 1970s. Identifies racial tensions, income inequities, and political forces as factors in the perpetuation of the problem. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
12159. OSHA REGULATIONS ON WORKER ILLNESS & INJURY PREVENTION: A CASE ANALYSIS OF THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. This paper presents an overview and analysis of current and proposed OSHA standards and guidelines on employee illness and injury prevention, with specific attention to its application in the hospitality (hotel and restaurant) industry. Following a brief overview of OSHA and its legal authority over worker safety and illness/injury prevention, the analysis examines the basic requirements of an employee illness and injury prevention program within the hospitality industry. In addition to examining the current requirements related to hazardous materials, worker safety issues, bloodborne pathogens, and other issues, the investigation also assesses the implications for the hospitality industry related to proposed standards on indoor air quality, ergonomics, and workplace violence. 11 pages, 34 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $77
12154. BLACK WOMEN IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. Drawing primarily on an article in “Black Studies” by Teresa A. Nance (“Hearing the Missing Voice”), along with two other supplementary sources, this paper explores the role of women, especially African American women, in the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Considers some of the reasons why black women were largely excluded from leadership roles in the movement. Keywords: civil rights race relations women leadership. Written 1996. 8 pages; 24 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources.   $56
12136. U.S. ANTITRUST LAW AND POLICY. Examines the history, development, current status and future direction of U.S. antitrust law and policy. Following a review of the history and development of U.S. antitrust law, the analysis looks at the critical elements of current antitrust law and its practical application, considering the core elements of antitrust as encompassed in the Sherman, Clayton, and other Acts as well as mechanisms and procedures for antitrust enforcement and remedies. A concluding section examines recent trends and controversies, with a special focus on the ascendancy of the economic approach and the new emphasis on extraterritorial application of U.S. antitrust law. 19 pages, 79 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $133
12123. THE COLOR OF WELFARE BY JILL QUADAGNO. Generally unfavorable review of a sociology professor's 1994 book on U.S. welfare policy development and the problems in the welfare structure which argues that racism is the defining feature and central problem. Criticizes the overly-expansive scope and poor organization of the book, and faults the author for failing to consider how gender and sexism, along with racism, has shaped American welfare policy. Finds merit in several individual sections of the book. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
12122. "WOMEN AND PUBLIC POLICY" BY MARGARET CONWAY, DAVID W. AHERN & GERTRUDE A. STEUERNAGEL. A highly favorable review of a 1994 book providing an interesting comprehensive introduction to the intersecting forces of cultural change, changes in women's lives, and public policy in the U.S. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
12118. WILSON, ROOSEVELT AND THE WORLD WARS. Compares and contrasts the presidencies of Woodrow Wilson and FDR in the context of each president's road to war, wartime administration, and post-war goals. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $56
12071. WATER POLLUTION. Overview of the subject, including hazards to health, dangers to the world's ecosystem, types of water pollution, and the ways in which surface water, groundwater and oceans are affected. Also discusses proposed solutions to the problem, including treatment, prevention and the intervention of the government. 12 pages, 52 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $84
12069. THE POLITICS OF GLOBAL WARMING. Examines the interaction of science and politics as illustrated through the current global warming controversy. Using global climate change as an example, and focusing on the political debate within the U.S., the paper analyzes the interactions between global environmental issues and American politics. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $77
12065. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AS A GENDER ISSUE. Argues that this effort to overcome discrimination in employment and education has failed. Also examines how actions by the Republican Right and the courts have weakened affirmative action programs for women. In this light, proposed alternative solutions to the problems of inequality are considered. 7 pages, 24 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $49
12057. ASBESTOS: MEDICAL, LEGAL & REGULATORY ASPECTS. Following a brief historical background on the composition and applications of asbestos, this paper considers the major medical, legal and regulatory issues surrounding asbestos use and asbestos-related disease. Includes discussion of major asbestos-related diseases, consideration of significant asbestos product liability cases (including Manville Corp.) And discussion of OSHA and other federal regulations on asbestos exposure and asbestos abatement. 17 pages, 48 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $119
12035. THE KU KLUX KLAN IN THE 1920S. Overview and analysis of the nationwide Ku Klux Klan (KKK) movement in the 1920s, focusing on the movement as an expression of racist-nativism sentiments. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $70
12023. DEVOLVING WELFARE: A BAD IDEA. Provides an overview of the current movement to devolve control of welfare from the federal to the state level as part of the welfare reform movement. Makes the case that such devolution is contrary to both the public interest and the economic well-being of states. 6 pages, 33 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources.   $42
11947. MICROECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE "FLAT TAX." 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. See Section 7D -- Economic Theory.   $35
11947. MICROECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE "FLAT TAX." Discusses the positive and negative effects of a flat tax on industries and firms. Covers the effects of a flat tax on housing and medical care. 5p. 2b.   $35
11932. THE U.S. SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM. Examines key issues surrounding the Social Security system. Describes relevant demographic and economic factors. Examines a range of solutions to the system's insolvency. Considers political questions. 19 pages, 20 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
11907. SPACE SPENDING: AN ARGUMENT AGAINST MANNED SPACE FLIGHT. Presents an argument against continued funding for manned space programs along with support for diverting funds to promising unmanned programs. Establishes the high costs/limited benefits of manned programs versus the cost-effectiveness and potential benefits of unmanned programs. KEYWORDS: cost benefit analysis space exploration manned flights unmanned robots persuasive essay. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 1350 words.   $35
11846. THE CALIFORNIA JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM. An overview and analysis of the problems and prospects for contemporary juvenile justice within the framework of a case analysis of the California state system, initially contrasting it with the juvenile justice system in Great Britain. Profiles the history, current structure and organization (covering jurisdiction, custody procedures, intake detention, required hearings, disposition) detention population, and detention center environment of the California juvenile justice system. Thoroughly analyzes current legal issues (remanding to adult court, search and seizure, right to counsel, etc.) and the impact of Supreme Court decisions concerning juvenile rights. Argues that the California system is in desperate need of extensive reform. 29 pages, 142 footnotes, 47 bibliographic sources.   $133
11834. EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AND THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT. This paper provides an overview of the EEOC's (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) impact on the business environment, outlining the scope of the EEOC's jurisdiction over American business, discussing how changes to employment discrimination law over the years has dramatically expanded the EEOC's enforcement responsibilities, and examining some of the key problem areas in the EEOC-business relationship. 12 pages, 25 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $84
11719. TELEVISION ADVERTISING IN TWO PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGNS. Examines the content and impact of TV advertising in the 1988 Bush-Dukakis campaign and the 1992 Bush-Clinton-Perot campaign. Considers issues versus image-based advertising, the possible links between advertising and voting outcomes, and how the entire process of TV advertising links the media with the political process. 21 pages, 22 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
11713. GEORGE BUSH: HIS POLITICAL CAREER. Traces Bush's political career from his position as a U.S. Congressman in the early 1960s, to his failed bid for a Senate seat, his jobs at the UN and the CIA, and his two Presidential campaigns. Analyzes Bush's uncanny ability to escape political disaster and considers reasons for his defeat in 1992. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $56
11704. DOMESTIC TERRORISM IN THE U.S. Overview of the rising tide of domestic terrorism: Defines terrorism, considers its history, and outlines its current scope. Identifies the major sources or threats of terrorism in the U.S. and assesses the terrorist risks from these groups in the near future. Considers appropriate responses to the terrorist threat and the danger posed by curtailing civil liberties in the effort to combat terrorism. 17 pages, 42 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $119
11661. THE GUN CONTROL CONTROVERSY: ARGUMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Presents an overview of the gun control controversy, summarizing its history, and the arguments on both sides of the issue. Concludes with an argument in favor of strict gun control. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $49
11648. VOTER TURNOUT. Discusses three reasons for variations in voter turnout, two demographic and one psychological/rational, and considers whether each reason is more important for explaining change in turnout over time or across a cross-section within a single election. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $35
11646. TELEVISION NEWS AND AMERICAN POLITICS. Argues that television news is a critical force directing the American policymaking process. Explains why TV news dominates other media, looks at the "double-edged sword" of political newsmaking, and considers the implications for public policymaking. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $49
11625. THIRD PARTIES. Examination of the argument that third parties have been excluded by a wide variety of constitutional, legal, regulatory and cultural biases from participating fully in American political life, and thus giving voice to the real feelings of Americans. 11 pages, 25 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $77
11596. AN ASSESSMENT OF CLINTON'S LATIN AMERICAN DRUG PROGRAM. Serious look at the first two years of Clinton's proposals, through the revelation of new Colombian President Samper's links to cartels. Concludes that Clinton has not given this area of policy high priority attention. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $56
11589. ALDRICH AMES: PORTRAIT OF AN AMERICAN TRAITOR. Profile of the career and personality of the famous CIA mole convicted to life in prison for selling secrets to the Soviets. Considers Ames' motivations in treason. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $42
11587. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AT THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE. Survey and analysis of the postal system as a relative failure in American business, with general ideas for change based on the 're-framing' concept of organizational culture developed by Deal and Bolman: turning postal managers into leaders who can solve problems, especially identifying and either retraining or releasing problem workers. KEYWORDS: organizational change usps culture organization. 8 pages, 21 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $56
11583. VOTER REGISTRATION REFORM INCREASES VOTER TURNOUT, NOT FRAUD. Rejects the argument that reforms designed to make electoral registration easier (e.g., motor voter) would increase the possibility of voter fraud and corruption. Explains the benefits of the 1993 Voter Registration Act, which includes a mandate for motor-voter and agency voter registration. 8 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $56
11574. AID TO FAMILIES WITH DEPENDENT CHILDREN (AFDC). Through an analysis of the AFDC program and current efforts at reform, argues that while the system is indeed in dire need of reform, the current approach toward welfare reform is wrong because it is based on the fallacious assumption that welfare and the behavior of recipients causes poverty. Offers an alternative view of the underlying causes of AFDC 'failure' and proposes different approaches to reform. 12 pages, 38 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.   $84
11573. THE RETURN OF WOLVES TO YELLOWSTONE. Considers the Yellowstone wolf controversy from a conflict management perspective. The main parties (ranchers, environmentalists, federal government) and their positions on the issue are analyzed, along with the substance of the problem itself, the procedures used for conflict management, and the prospects for conflict resolution. 12 pages, 27 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $84
11528. DECRIMINALIZATION IS THE BEST WAY TO WIN THE WAR ON DRUGS. Considers the case for the legalization or decriminalization of the commonly-used illicit substances such as marijuana, cocaine and heroin. The analysis considers the rationale behind existing laws and then makes the economic, social, historical, pragmatic and moral case for decriminalization or legalization. 10 pages, 39 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $70
11523. ABORTION LAW IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY. This paper provides a clear, professional summary of legal history of abortion in the U.S. since Roe and in modern Germany, using legal vocabulary and sources. Cites major cases influencing abortion policy and law in both countries and provides a comparison and assessment of the two systems. 25 pages, 57 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $133
11519. PYLER V. DOE -- HISTORY AND ANALYSIS. Highly professional legal review, covering all aspects of the case which established that Texas couldn't deny public education to illegal aliens, in chronological order with arguments on both sides through all stages of the trial and appellate process, also how Pyler has been used in subsequent cases. Concludes that Pyler is a case growing in importance as immigrant-scapegoating increases in the 1990s. 16., 46f., 13b.   $112
11504. THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND THE CHICANO MOVIMENTO. Comparison of the African-American civil rights movement and the Mexican-American Chicano Movimiento from the 1950s through the 1970s. Argues that while the civil rights movement was larger and better organized, both movements were similar in tracing a basic trajectory from a civil rights orientation in reaction to Anglo prejudice, moving into various aspects of cultural nationalism. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
11477. CLEAN POLITICS ACT: APPROACHING CAMPAIGN FINANCING REFORM. Considers the arguments for and against Congressional campaign financing reform (CFR) from the perspective of a hypothetical CFR act called the "Clean Politics Act." Considers the objectives of CFR and the limitations and unintended consequences of some reform efforts. 12 pages, 15 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
11467. "SAVE OUR STATE" AND THE ANTI-IMMIGRATION MOVEMENT IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. Examines the recent passage of California's Proposition 187, and its historical precedents. Looks at the pros and cons of Proposition 187, considers its rationale, and compares it with the 19th century laws restricting Chinese immigration. 11 pages, 28 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $77
11463. PLURALISM VERSUS ELITISM IN AMERICAN DEMOCRACY. Examines the pluralism versus elitism interpretations of the American political process. Gives an overview of the definitions of pluralism and elitism. Examines some of the problems in pluralism democracy and considers the evidence for the existence of "elites" in contemporary American politics. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $63
11457. LIVING A POLITICAL LIFE BY M. KUNIN. This review of the autobiography of Vermont's first female governor stresses the feminine aspect, comparing Kunin's choices with those of actual and hypothetical male politicians. Kunin found a distinct, feminine voice for herself; reviewer is concerned with finding models and precepts for other women. 5 pages, 15 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
11437. THE U.S. CONSTITUTION: ITS ENDURING LESSONS. Considers the basic underlying principles, meaning, strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. The four principles of republicanism, the public good, liberty and federalism as embodied in the document are discussed and analyzed. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
11407. THE CHINESE EXCLUSION LAWS. Drawing upon both recent, retrospective analyses and reports from the era, the paper examines the Chinese Exclusion Acts from 1854 through 1882. Reviews the specific laws and policies aimed at Chinese exclusion and considers the public sentiment and rationale underlying their enactment. 7 pages, 14 footnotes in text, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
11406. CHINESE LABOR IN CALIFORNIA. Historical overview of the conditions and activities of Chinese immigrants in California and other states in the 1800s. Considers where they worked, white reactions, labor and life conditions, and the institutionalization of job segregation. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
11400. THE LEADERSHIP OF ELEANOR ROOSEVELT. Investigates Eleanor Roosevelt as a leader. Following a profile of her early life and influences, the analysis considers some of her specific leadership roles (Women's Trade Union, the Office of Civil Defense, the United Nations) as well as looking at her particular style of leadership and its effectiveness. 16 pages, 23 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $112
11398. ANDREW YOUNG, HIS FOREIGN POLICY PRINCIPLES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO HAITI. Following a brief (5-page) biography of Young, the analysis looks at his distinct formulation of a foreign policy model based on positive but Western free-trade-oriented economic development for African nations, and then takes up the question of what Young would propose for the situation of Haiti following the restoration of Aristide in October 1994, questioning the practicality of applying his models in this situation, but nonetheless giving a favorable appraisal of Young and his ideas. 20 pages, 38 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $133
11389. TWO PERSPECTIVES ON WELFARE: THE UNITED STATES AND SCANDINAVIA. This paper compares the welfare state in the United States with the polar opposite system found in the Scandinavian countries of Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Following an overview of the philosophy of welfare in the two systems, the analysis compares them first in general terms and then along more specific aspects -- retirement, unemployment, health, child care, etc. A concluding section summarizes the differences and similarities and makes predictions about reform within the very different systems. 19 pages, 71 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 11389   $133
11378. INEQUALITY IN THE ECONOMY: CAUSES AND EFFECTS. Cites figures on growing income inequality and examines work productivity, education, and the shift to services among the possible causes. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $42
11369. CALIFORNIA'S THREE STRIKES -- THE WRONG APPROACH. Considers California's "Three Strikes" mandatory sentencing law, explaining its history and intent. Using criminal justice theory, argues that the law will not meet its objectives and will have a number of unintended side effects. Suggests alternative approaches. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $70
11365. THE DEATH PENALTY AND THE RACIAL JUSTICE ACT. An analysis and explication of the Racial Justice Act, which proposes to address problems of racial discrimination in the implementation of the death penalty. Considers Supreme Court arguments for and against the Act, reviews pertinent case law, and examines legal studies of the discrimination in justice issues raised by the Act. 20 pages, 41 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
11315. THE RIGHT TO LEGAL COUNSEL IN THE U.S., U.K., ITALY, JAPAN AND SAUDI ARABIA. This paper investigates these five countries' position on the right to legal counsel for defendants and accused persons in criminal proceedings. Includes a discussion and analysis of the development and application of the right to counsel under federal due process in the United States, considering Constitutional provisions, statutory material, and recent case law impacting the breadth and scope of the right to counsel. Using the U.S. system as a foundation for comparison, the existence and\or extent of the right to counsel in the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan and Saudi Arabia are then each considered. The final section presents a summary comparison of the right to counsel within all five legal systems under investigation. 30 pages, 78 footnotes, 51 bibliographic sources.   $133
11297. THE WATERGATE SCANDAL. Looks at the motives and beliefs of the architects of the "dirty tricks" campaign that led to Watergate and the resignation of Richard Nixon. The study argues that Nixon led his underlings and advisors down to disgrace by refusing to shoulder the blame or admit his part. 11 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
11272. THE RECONSTRUCTION: SUCCESS OR FAILURE IN SOCIAL/POLITICAL REFORM? This analysis offers a critique of the Reconstruction as an experiment in political and social reform as viewed by three contemporary historians: McKitrick's (1960) Andrew Johnson and the Reconstruction, Thomas Holt's (1977) Black Over White, and Foner's (1990) Short History. 10 pages, 25 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $70
11269. WELFARE REFORM: THE CURRENT APPROACH IS WRONG. Argues that the "deterrent," "moralistic" approach towards public welfare assistance perpetuates the poverty cycle and foments social unrest and resentment among the poor. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
11268. OPPOSITION TO THE VIETNAM WAR. Considers the opposition to the Vietnam War among Americans other than the student protest movement. The evolution of anti-war positions among the Democratic party leadership, African Americans, organized labor, and media are discussed. Details process whereby Americans who did not identify with the student movement came to reject the war for reasons of their own. 14 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $98
11262. INTERNATIONAL UNION V. JOHNSON CONTROLS: FETAL PROTECTION OR DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN. Examines the 1991 Supreme Court decision forbidding employers use of fetal protection policies that discriminate against women. The statutes, case law and precedent, and ethical issues of the case are discussed in detail. Press treatment of the case in the mass media is reviewed for its ethical coverage of the issue. 15 pages, 21 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $105
11261. POLITICAL PROFILE OF SAM YORTY. Presents history of this Los Angeles' poltician's career. Political platforms, rivals, and accomplishments are discussed. Particular attention to Yorty's campaign techniques, esp. communist scare tactics. 12 pages, 24 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $84
11179. LIFE IMPRISONMENT FOR HABITUAL CRIMINALS: AN EVALUATION OF PROS AND CONS. Discussion of proposed "3 strikes and you're out" concept in which habitual criminals would be permanently incarcerated after a third felony conviction. Describes Clinton Administration position and other pending crime control programs. 11 pages, 27 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
11177. FCC REGULATIONS AND COMMUNICATIONS MEGA-MERGERS. Proposes that the difficulties of getting started on the information superhighway are being made clear by the failure of these mergers and that the companies see this as a means of alerting the FCC to the need for sweeping change in regulations. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $42
11167. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION: STILL NEEDED FOR THE 1990S. Taking a Law Review format, investigates the legal, social and political implications of affirmative action and reverse discrimination. Reviews Supreme Court cases on affirmative action and disparate impact. Articulates the arguments for both sides of the issue and then takes a position in favor of continued affirmative action programs, and makes the case that such programs are particularly needed for women to break through the "glass ceiling" which stalls their progress through management ranks. Utilizes legal, "blue book" citation format. 27 pages, 72 footnotes, 56 bibliographic sources.   $133
11136. FEMINISM AND THE MAINSTREAM PRINT MEDIA: HOW POLITICAL & OPINION MAGAZINES VIEW WOMEN IN POLITICS. Following an overview of how the print media in general portrays (or ignores) women in politics, the investigation looks at how political magazines (particularly conservative magazines) depict women in politics, including specific examples of the treatment of such well known political figures as Janet Reno, Anita Hill, and Hillary Rodham-Clinton. 10 pages, 29 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $70
11130B. THE COLD WAR: COULD IT HAVE BEEN WON MORE CHEAPLY? Analyzes the economic impact of the arms race on the U.S. and Soviet Union. Discusses force levels and equipment purchased. Considers Reagan-era "spend-up" (few weapons passed R+D). Concludes Soviet Union was already doomed but offers varying reasons why and suggests American buildup was inevitable. 8 pages, 6 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
11128. GAYS IN THE MILITARY. Outlines the arguments and issues for and against removing the ban on homosexuals in the U.S. Armed forces. Security, morale, and privacy issues are discussed, and the cost of discharging gays from the service is noted. Concludes by supporting the removal of the ban. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $35
11102. POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE AFDC PROGRAM. Discusses history of welfare programs, problems in modern system. WIN, NETWork, JOBS and other AFDC modifications are analyzed. Concludes with policy recommendations. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $84
11094. OVERVIEW OF ROE VS. WADE Decision and reasoning in majority opinion are presented. Controversy concerning political power is discussed. Pro-life arguments are evaluated and considered inconclusive. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $56
11057. CONTINUITY IN AMERICAN EXPERIENCE. Elements of political, cultural, and social continuity in America over the last two hundred years are examined. Religious revivals, trade and foreign involvement issues, and the political and electoral process are examined. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
11028. BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT RELATIONS. This paper considers the three major models of business-government relations as they gave evolved during the past century. The adversarial, partnership and pragmatic models of business-government relations are described and compared. To better comprehend the differences between these models. we will identify and discuss two business lobbies which seem to practice one or more of these models. The concluding section of the paper considers the "ideal" relationship between business and government. 9 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
10695. GAYS IN THE MILITARY: A THREAT TO THE MILITARY MILITARY MISSION. Investigates the issue of lifting the ban on gays in the U.S. military. Following a brief background summary on the current status of military policy, presents the arguments against allowing gays to openly enlist in the military. The concluding section presents a summary argument against lifting the ban. 11 pages, 34 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $77
10692. GAYS IN THE MILITARY. This paper investigates the issue of lifting the ban on gays in the U.S. military. Following a brief background summary on the current status of military policy and the potential influence of recent events on future military policy, we will consider the arguments on both sides of the controversy. The concluding section takes the side in favor of lifting the ban on gays in the military, refuting the arguments of the opponents and providing suggestions about how to implement the new policy. 24 pages, 52 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $133
10691. THE ARGUMENT AGAINST ALLOWING GAYS IN THE MILITARY. Argues that the traditional ban on gays in the military should continue to be enforced. Contends that the presence of open gays in the military impairs the accomplishment of the military mission, destroys esprit de corps, violates heterosexual's privacy rights, and may spread AIDS. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $42
10690. THE ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OF LIFTING THE BAN ON GAYS IN THE MILITARY. Argues that the ban on gays in the military should be lifted- based on the fact that gays are already serving, their presence is not disruptive, public opinion generally supports gay rights, and the fact that the ban is discriminatory. The conclusion includes recommendations for implementing the new policy. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $49
10689. GAYS IN THE MILITARY: TIME TO LIFT THE BAN. This paper investigates the issue of lifting the ban on gays in the U.S. military. Following a brief background summary on the current status of military policy and the potential influence of recent events on future military policy, we will present the arguments in favor of allowing gays to openly enlist in the military. The concluding section provides a summary argument in favor of lifting the ban, refuting the arguments of the opponents and providing suggestions about how to implement the new policy. 10 pages, 35 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $70
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