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19B. U.S. DOMESTIC POLITICS; PART 1

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19359. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY IN THE CHEROKEE NATION: AN ARGUMENT FOR CHEROKEE ADHERENCE TO OSHA REGULATIONS. The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma is a sovereign governmental entity located in the northeastern part of Oklahoma. The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma is the sole proprietor of Cherokee Nation Businesses, LLC a conglomerate of Cherokee corporations, which is a billion dollar enterprise. Most businesses located within the United States are subject to regulation by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which implements guidelines for at-work safety procedures and environmental standards. However, since the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma is a sovereign state, Cherokee Nation Businesses, LLC is not subject to OSHA regulations, because it is considered to be located outside of the United States. This paper considers what Cherokee Nation would have to do to implement OSHA regulations, including what degree of sovereignty it would be required to concede to the US government and what changes it would have to make to avoid penalties from non-compliance. The paper then analyzes the benefits and costs of coming under the jurisdiction of OSHA, including providing a better and safer job environment to the Cherokee Nation’s workers, increased productivity, but also scrutiny from the US government, which would have both economic and cultural implications. The goal of becoming OSHA compliant would be to require the Cherokee Nation to provide a safe and working environment free from hazardous conditions and illnesses. APA Style. 37 pages, 154 footnotes, 47 bibliographic sources. 9,960 words.
TAGS: Cherokee Nation, Native Americans, American Indians, Sovereign Nations, Federal law, Occupational Safety Health Administration, OSHA, regulatory compliance, work safety.
  $133
 
19316. DECARCERATION: REDUCING THE NATION’S PRISON POPULATION. New, Winter/Spring 2017Arguing that the United States can and must reduce the size of its prison population, this paper explores the research on strategies for achieving that objective. Following background information on the problem of mass incarceration, including a discussion of the growth in the prison population and some of the negative consequences of the large prison population, the increasing support for shrinking prisons is discussed. The paper considers some of the reasons behind the rapid growth in the prison population and considers the relationship between crime reduction and imprisonment. Based on this analysis, recommendations are made on strategies for shrinking America’s prison population including those related to legal/sentencing reform, increased use of alternatives to incarceration, expanded use of drug courts and street-level diversion, prison reform and rehabilitation, expanded post-release services, changing laws and removing barriers to employment for parolees and former prisoners, and the expansion of crime prevention programs targeted at the “at-risk” community. MLA Style. 13 pages, 27 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: prison reform, incarceration rates, decarceration, over-population, crime reduction, sentencing reform, diversion programs, parolees, prisoners

  $91
 
19298. THE TOBACCO CONTROL NEGOTIATIONS OF 1997-1998. This paper provides an analysis of the tobacco control negotiations of 1997-1998 that initially led to an historic global settlement agreement (GSA) in June 1997. The GSA tobacco control negotiations were followed by negotiations with legislators to draft implementing legislation for the agreement. These efforts concluded in June 1998 with a defeated bill, effectively also killing the GSA forged a year earlier. Drawing on Fisher et al.’s (2011) and Camp’s (2007) theories of negotiation, this paper analyzes the multiparty tobacco control negotiations of 1997-1998, with a special focus on the conflict among tobacco control organizations and public health officials about how to (or how not to) negotiate with the tobacco companies and the impact of this conflict on the negotiation outcomes. Information on the tobacco control negotiations is drawn from Wheeler & Levenson’s (2002) and Heymann’s (2004) case studies of the tobacco control negotiations. APA Style. 15 pages, 51 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 4,097 words.

TAGS: tobacco settlement, negotiations, public policy, tobacco control negotiations, addiction, negotiating strategy, health hazard, public health, special interests, Liggett.

  $105
 
18851. NIXON’S ROLE THE WATERGATE SCANDAL. This term paper addresses the Watergate scandal that broke out in 1972 and eventually led to the resignation of President Nixon. Some researchers have argued that the scandal occurred because the Nixon Administration was an “imperial presidency” and others have argued that Nixon’s staff took unlawful actions without his knowledge. These claims are rejected and it is argued that Nixon was ultimately responsible for Watergate because of his ruthless ambition and his view that he had to win the 1972 election in order to save the nation from its domestic “enemies.” TAGS: President Nixon, Watergate scandal, presidential impeachment, culpability, argumentative essay, enemies list, research paper.. MLA Style. 20 pages, 52 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 4,737 words.   $133
 
18847. SUPPRESSION OF POLITICAL SPEECH: GITLOW V. NEW YORK, 268 U.S. 652 (1925). This paper provides an overview and analysis of the 1925 Supreme Court case (Gitlow v. New York) involving a communist labor organizer convicted of anarchy in the state of New York. The U.S. Supreme Court case considered Gitlow’s First and Fourteenth Amendment rights to free speech, considering in particular political speech. It is argued that Gitlow advanced an important rule about free speech in America, that the government can suppress political speech only if it can show that the speech creates a “clear and present danger.” As this rule evolved in cases after Gitlow’s, it requires two showings: the danger must be so grave that it justifies repression of speech; and danger must be imminent. TAGS: free speech, First Amendment rights, labor movement, unions, state’s rights, Fourteenth Amendment rights, political speech, landmark Supreme Court case. APA Style. 7 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,645 words.   $49
 
18799. THE DANGER OF THE THREAT OF CYBERTERRORISM. This research paper is concerned with the physical and economic vulnerability of the United States and other Western nations to cyber attacks. Cyberterrorists, who are becoming increasingly sophisticated in their techniques, might disrupt vital services as well as engage in acts of espionage and information theft. It is argued that policymakers need to make a concerted and coordinated effort to find ways to minimize the problem. TAGS: cyberterrorism, argumentative essay, terrorism, technology, computers, espionage term paper. APA Style. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,847 words.   $84
 
18753. THE KKK AS TERRORIST ORGANIZATION. This paper defines the KKK (Ku Klux Klan) as a terrorist organization and examines the U.S. policies that can be used to counter the threat posed by it. The paper discusses the roles of the Civil Rights Act of 1871, the FBI, the U.S. Government Interagency Domestic Terrorism Concept of Operations Plan (CONPLAN), the Department of Homeland Security, and the USA PATRIOT Act. It is argued that more needs to be done to counter the threat of the KKK and organizations like it that are involved in terroristic race-based hate crimes. KEYWORDS: United States civil rights hate crimes government racism terrorism Ku Klux Klan. APA Style. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,560 words.   $42
 
18555. CLINTON’S WELFARE REFORM. This paper is concerned with the reform of the U.S. welfare system, which began in 1996 with passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) and implementation of the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program. It is argued that the reform has not been successful. Even though welfare caseloads have been reduced, many of the former welfare recipients have been unable to get jobs that are sufficient for supporting their families. The paper addresses recommendations that have been made for how policymakers can improve the effort in the future. KEYWORDS: Clinton administration welfare reform 1996 PRWORA TANF. MLA Style. 11 pages, 24 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,586 words.   $77
 
18544. CESAR CHAVEZ’S CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CHICANO MOVEMENT. This paper profiles Cesar Chavez (1927-1993), a political activist and leader of the United Farm Workers who was known for his use of nonviolent tactics in the effort to improve conditions for farm workers. The paper focuses on how Chavez was an inspiring influence for the Chicano movement that arose during the 1960s. Also known as el movimiento, the Chicano movement sought to increase cultural pride and equal rights for Mexican Americans. KEYWORDS: history labor politics Chicano Latino Mexican american latino Cesar Chavez. MLA Style. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,045 words.   $91
 
18539. DOES THE GOVERNMENT HAVE THE RIGHT TO LIMIT FREE SPEECH? The First Amendment guarantees the right to free speech, but some people believe the government should limit this right in cases where it might result in harm to individuals. This paper reviews the pro and con arguments on the issue and concludes that the government should generally not interfere with the vital democratic right of free expression. Even though words and symbols can cause emotional harm in some cases, more harm would occur in the long run if freedom of speech were to be tampered with. This is true even in cases of hate speech and Internet pornography, since there are alternative solutions available for dealing with these kinds of issues. KEYWORDS: Constitution First Amendment free speech government right to limit speech. APA Style. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,779 words.   $77
 
18527. THE COMPATIBILITY OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY AND NATIONALISM. This paper responds to a 1909 quote by Herbert Croly regarding the need for “healing” the split between American democracy (represented by the ideals of Thomas Jefferson) and patriotic nationalism (represented by the views of Alexander Hamilton). It is argued that the tension between democracy (individualism) and nationalism (collective interests) is a natural factor in American politics and is not in need of “healing,” per se. It is further argued that the U.S. Constitution was designed to seek a balance between the forces of democracy and nationalism. KEYWORDS: politics United States democracy patriotism nationalism Jefferson Hamilton. APA Style. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,879 words.   $56
 
18502. ETHICS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. This paper discusses theoretical perspectives on ethical decision making and the kinds of personal and political pressures that might cause public administrators to make unethical decisions. The paper also refers to models and skills needed for public administrators to become more ethical. KEYWORDS: ethics public administration ethical decision making. APA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,380 words.   $42
 
18366. FANNIE MAE: PUBLIC OR PRIVATE? HARVARD BUSINESS CASE STUDY 709025. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School case study by David A. Moss and Cole Bolton on the Federal National Mortgage Association, better known as Fannie Mae. The case takes a historical perspective, examining President Ronald Reagan’s President’s Commission on Privatization and its 1987 recommendation to restructure Fannie Mae into a fully private firm. The paper includes problem statement, problem analysis, identification and assessment of alternatives, recommendations and implementation plan. KEYWORDS: case studies case solution fannie mae federal government privatization government sponsored enterprises restructuring securities markets mortgages business history business and government banking. APA Style. 12 pages, 9 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.
About Berkeley Research Case Solutions: Berkeley Research has offered authoritative case solutions to Harvard Business School case studies since 1984. We also feature solutions to case studies from other leading graduate business schools including Stanford, Darden, Wharton and Ivey. Our case solutions feature in-depth analysis drawing on appropriate analytical tools including S.W.O.T., P.E.S.T. and Five Forces analyses, and include secondary references from scholarly journals and leading business periodicals. We do not offer student-written essays; all of our case solutions are professionally written by MBA and DBA –degreed writers with proven aptitude and long experience in writing insightful case solutions. Unlike other case solutions made available on the Internet without competent evaluation of their merits, Berkeley Research case solutions are peer reviewed by a panel of case analysts prior to being offered on our website. The strongest and most gratifying endorsement of the quality of our case solutions comes from our customers: over two-thirds of our case study sales are made to repeat customers, graduate students and executives enrolled in some of the most distinguished and selective graduate business programs, and who necessarily set a high bar for analytical rigor and expository clarity. The Berkeley Research case study solution is a premium product intended for a discerning audience.
  $84
 
18341. PATTY HEARST AND THE SYMBIONESE LIBERATION ARMY. This paper discusses the participation of Patricia Hearst, the newspaper heiress, in the 1970s terrorist group known as the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA). Emphasis is placed on the sociological and psychological factors that contributed to the rise of radical youth activities at the time and that help to explain her involvement. In addition to describing the facts of the case, the paper considers differing views on why Hearst apparently joined the SLA after being kidnapped by them (she was willing, she was a victim of the Stockholm Syndrome, she was brainwashed). It is also argued that the SLA did not have a significant social impact because it was too isolated, cult-like, and violent. KEYWORDS: psychology sociology American history terrorism Hearst. APA Style. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
18228. APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA AND SEGREGATION IN THE UNITED STATES. This paper discusses how Jim Crow laws oppressed African Americans in the Southern U.S. despite their emancipation in the 1860s. Similarly, race-related problems have persisted in South Africa despite the end of the apartheid policy with the election of the African National Congress in 1994. Based on these examples, it is argued that various factors contribute to the persistence of problems in countries with a legacy of racial oppression, even after laws have been passed to prevent such problems. KEYWORDS: race relations apartheid South Africa segregation Jim Crow America. MLA Style. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
18222. HEAVEN’S DOOR (GEORGE J. BORJAS). This paper reviews and critiques chapter 10 of Borjas’ book, which is concerned with the economic impact of America’s immigration policy. The author argues that the current policy, based on allocating visas to immigrants with family ties in the nation, displaces native-born workers and burdens the nation’s welfare system. Instead, there should be a policy based on accepting immigrants that have desirable skills. The reviewer agrees with Borjas’ basic argument that America’s immigration policy should provide more protection to native-born citizens. KEYWORDS: book review immigration policy economics. MLA Style. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
18203. SUICIDE TERRORISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of suicide terrorism. Following a discussion of the definition of suicide terrorism, the paper traces the history of suicide terrorism from ancient times through the development of modern suicide terrorism in the latter 20th century. Focusing primarily on modern suicide terrorism, the paper then discusses the main features and characteristics of suicide terrorism and suicide terrorists (individuals and organizations). Another section examines some of the major theories or explanations of suicide terrorism, considering the influence of individual, social, and organizational motives and factors. The concluding section briefly considers steps that might be taken to slow or stop the continued expansion of suicide terrorism. TAGS: suicide terrorism suicide bombers terrorist motivations theories terrorism middle east islamic terrorist organizations. APA Style. 20 pages, 165 footnotes, 50 bibliographic sources. 6,650 words.
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  $133
 
18202. UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of universal health coverage, considering in particular the prospects for its implementation in the United States. The first part of the paper looks at universal health care coverage as it exists in other developed nations, examining the underlying principles and the methods nations use to deliver universal coverage for lessons they might offer to the U.S. The second part of the paper provides an overview of the problems in America=s existing health care system, examining the need for universal coverage, and the costs and consequences of the absence of such coverage, with comparative reference to health systems in other countries. The conclusion considers the prospects for implementing a national system of universal healthcare in the United States. KEYWORDS: socialized medicine universal health care coverage national health insurance uninsured comparative healthcare systems single payer government funded health care. APA Style. 18 pages, footnotes, 47 bibliographic sources. 6,500 Words.   $126
 
18200. GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION. Based on a review and analysis of scholarly literature, and drawing on examples from around the globe, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of public sector corruption. The purpose of the investigation is to provide a better understanding of the problem of public sector corruption - its scope, its causes, its consequences - and to describe strategies and tactics that could be used to curtail corruption. The first section provides an overview of the problem of public sector corruption. Public sector corruption is defined (and distinguished from private or business sector corruption) and the major types of corruption and general scope of corrupt activities outlined. This section also introduces the major international indices/measurements of corruption. The next section examines the major causes and consequences of public sector corruption. Following this, the paper considers strategies and measures to address/mitigate the problem of public sector corruption. KEYWORDS: public administration ethics public sector corruption transparency international bribery embezzlement. APA Style. 13 pages, 57 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources. 3,901 Words.   $91
 
18175. EXTRAORDINARY RENDITIONS: LEGALITY. This paper presents an overview and legal analysis of the Bush Administration’s post-911 counterterrorism practice of having the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) detain and deliver suspected terrorists to foreign governments for interrogation and possibly torture. After briefly describing extraordinary renditions and discussing the Bush Administration’s justifications and claims of legality versus critics’ contention that the practice is illegal, this paper reviews the various treaties, conventions, covenants, and other international legal documents to assess the legality of the US programs of extraordinary renditions. The essay concludes that the US program of extraordinary renditions represents a clear violation of international law in that such renditions violate the provisions of a number of different international treaties and covenants (including the Geneva Conventions, the International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights (ICCPR), and the Convention Against Torture) to which the United States is party. KEYWORDS: terrorists counterterrorist policy us war on terror bush extraordinary rendition torture guantanamo prisoners international law treaty. Turabian with Endnotes. 19 pages, 70 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 4,505 words excluding footnotes.   $133
 
18130. RESEARCH DESIGN FOR A STUDY ON POLITICAL PARTICIPATION. This paper, which is written in first person, describes a proposed study on the political participation of British university students. It is hypothesized that the students will be influenced by parents, degree subject studied, party allegiance, and gender. The questionnaire is described, as well as the results of a preliminary test in which students were randomly approached on campus. The responses of twelve of the students are also discussed. KEYWORDS: research design questionnaire political participation. 9 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources. 2,010 words.   $63
 
18084. ACCOUNTABILITY IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. This term paper discusses the importance of accountability in public administration (among individuals, leaders, and organizations as a whole). It is argued that mistakes will always occur, and what is most important is taking responsibility and being sincere and honest in efforts to provide for the welfare of the public. KEYWORDS: public administration accountability. APA Style. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,296 words.   $35
 
18082. IMMIGRATION AND FUTURE RACE RELATIONS. This termpaper discusses the massive influx of immigrants to America and the potential future impact that this might have on national identity and ethnic/racial relations. The issue of assimilation (or lack thereof) is addressed, with special attention to the situation of Mexican immigrants in California. The growing trends of intermarriage and the adoption of multiracial identities are also discussed. It is predicted that racial/ethnic differences won't disappear in the upcoming future, but there will probably be a diminishing of the differences in life chances that currently exist. KEYWORDS: immigration race ethnicity national identity future. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes and Separate Bibliography. 14 pages, 22 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
18067. U.S. MILITARY STRATEGIES. This paper examines the four grand strategies that various U.S. military planners have recommended in recent decades. The strategies in question are: neo-isolationism, selective engagement, cooperative security, and primacy. The advantages and shortcomings of each strategy are described. In addition, the paper discusses how U.S. military strategy has evolved in recent decades, up through the period following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The paper concludes with the argument that cooperative security provides the best approach for meeting America's current national security needs. KEYWORDS: military strategy neo-isolationism selective engagement cooperative security primacy. MLA Style. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,270 words.   $84
 
18041. FEMA (FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY). This paper addresses the challenges and difficulties faced by FEMA in its dual role of responding to both natural disasters and attacks against the nation. References are made to the agency's response to Hurricane Andrew (1992) and Hurricane Katrina (2005), and to the changes that occurred with 9/11 and the agency becoming a branch of the Department of Homeland Security. To analyze the situation, the paper uses theoretical perspectives relating to bureaucratic organizations, hierarchical control, and the role of power and politics in public administration. It is argued that FEMA's problems are mainly due to the fact that it is a "politically controlled bureaucracy," with politicians (Presidents and Congress) using it as a tool for increasing political influence. KEYWORDS: FEMA problems management disasters homeland security bureaucracy. APA Style. 16 pages, 25 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 4,057 words.   $112
 
18023. DIRECT-TO-CONSUMER PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADS. This term paper argues for the abolishment of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical ads. Following a discussion of the historical background of the topic, the paper examines the arguments both for and against the use of DTC ads. The proponents of DTC ads claim that they educate consumers, build physician-patient relationships, and help boost the economy. The essay points out the weaknesses in these arguments and notes that they are mostly made by people with a vested interest in such ads. By contrast, there is a great deal of evidence to support the argument against DTC ads (they confuse and mislead consumers, they strain physician-patient relationships and result in over-prescribing, and they have a negative impact on the economy by inflating healthcare costs). KEYWORDS: pharmaceutical industry prescription drug advertising business ethics argumentative essay. APA Style. 22 pages, 49 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 5,637 words.   $133
 
18022. FROM MARGIN TO MAINSTREAM (SUSAN HARTMANN) AND SUBURBAN WARRIORS (LISA MCGIRR). This paper compares two books on important social-political movements in the U.S. in the late twentieth century. Hartmann's book is concerned with the women's movement and McGirr's book is concerned with the conservative ("New Right") movement. The paper first discusses the content of each book separately, and then compares and contrasts them. It is concluded that both books are useful as informative historical texts; however, Hartmann's book is more engaging and it provides broader coverage of its specific topic. KEYWORDS: comparative book review history women's movement feminism new right conservatism. MLA Style. 11 pages, 17 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,582 words.   $77
 
18021. NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT. This paper discusses the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its philosophical assumptions, and its proclaimed intention of improving quality and equality in U.S. education by tying school funding to the results of standardized tests. It is argued that the No Child Left Behind Act is ineffective because it results in "teaching to the test" and a narrowing of the curriculum. In addition, it is overly punitive and it does not provide national-based testing standards for schools in different states to follow. KEYWORDS: education standardized testing federal laws nclb bush administration argumentative essay education policy reform. APA Style. 11 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,791 words.   $77
 
18010. PRO DEATH PENALTY ARGUMENT. This paper looks at the controversial issue of capital punishment and argues in favor of the practice. Based on expert opinions and study evidence, it is argued that the death penalty is an appropriate punishment for the crime of murder (retribution), it prevents an offender from murdering again (incapacitation), and it helps to prevent others from committing murders (deterrence). The paper also rebuts some of the arguments in opposition to the death penalty. KEYWORDS: death penalty capital punishment controversy argumentative essay. MLA Style. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,450 words.   $42
 
18005. HOSPITAL INDUSTRY REGULATION. . This term paper examines governmental regulation of the U.S. hospital industry. Topics include: antitrust issues, congressional laws, federal agencies involved in oversight, the relative roles of federal and state governments, and efforts to control costs and increase quality of care. KEYWORDS: hospitals healthcare regulation. APA Style. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 2,769 words.   $77
 
17702. AIR SECURITY IN THE POST-9/11 ERA: ARE WE SAFER? This paper provides an overview and analysis of the status of U.S. aviation security from a post-9/11 perspective. The analysis considers the major “holes” or shortcomings in the current aviation security system and possible ways to address these shortcomings. The analysis identifies problems in passenger and airline/airport personnel identification and screening, cargo screening, explosives detection, airliner defense against missile attacks, ground target defense against airliners, general aviation, and problems in TSA bureaucracy. The concluding section presents specific recommendations for action. KEYWORDS: aviation safety and security passenger screening cargo screening explosives detection suicide bombing terrorism transportation security administration. APA Style. 16 pages, 68 footnotes, 39 bibliographic references. 3778 words.   $112
 
17636. THE MEDIA AND THE VIETNAM WAR. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the role of the media in shaping public opinion during the Vietnam War. Drawing on newspaper and television reports from the throughout the lengthy war, the analysis looks at how media helped to turn the tide of public opinion against the war. Concludes that the media played a critical role, convincing Americans that the war was a costly mistake, that their government had misled (or even lied to) them, and – most importantly – that America was not likely to win the war, notwithstanding its high costs and casualties. KEYWORDS: Vietnam war american public opinion media effects newspapers television. MLA Style. 8 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,970 words.   $56
 
17631. WAR, LIBERTY & PATRIOTISM: BUSH’S PREVENTIVE WAR IN THE CONTEXT OF HOBBES AND MACHIAVELLI. Using Benjamin R. Barber’s (2003) book, Fear’s Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy and the Bush administration’s policy of ‘preventive war’ in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, this paper discusses the constructs of “preventive war” and “preventive democracy” as expressed by Barber, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Thomas Hobbes’ view on these subjects. KEYWORDS: george w bush foreign policy preventive strike thomas hobbes Machiavelli Benjamin barber war liberty patriotism. MLA Style. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,674 words.   $49
 
17627. SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002. . This paper provides an overview and analysis of the impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (passed in the wake of the Enron accounting scandal) on publicly traded companies and on the accounting and auditing profession in general. Sarbanes-Oxley resulted in the formation of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, regulated by the SEC. This oversight, in combination with new audit standards passed by various standards board in the US, Canada, and internationally, will affect all auditors and has resulted in more assurance of independence and more likely detection of fraud in corporate audits. KEYWORDS: Sarbanes-oxley act accounting fraud corporate corruption corporate scandals auditing enron. Strict APA Style throughout. 12 pages, 17 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,320 words.   $84
 
17617. SECURITIES & EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC). This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC). Following a brief history of the SEC, the paper describes the purpose of the Commission, its organizational structure, its major divisions and operations, and its major activities over the past few decades. The paper also discusses the impact of recent laws on the SEC, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act which was passed in response to various accounting fraud and securities fraud scandals. Includes FREE annotated bibliography. KEYWORDS: SEC securities and exchange commission Sarbanes oxley. MLA Style. 8 pages, 23 footnotes, 10 annotated bibliographic sources. 2,632 words.   $56
 
17612. GAY MARRIAGE AS AN AMERICAN RIGHT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the gay marriage controversy. The history of the gay marriage controversy (including recent federal and state legislative history) is traced and the arguments for and against same-sex marriage are presented. The arguments against gay marriage are dismissed as faulty and/or specious as well as un-American and discriminatory. The conclusion makes the case for legalizing gay marriage throughout the United States. KEYWORDS: gay marriage same-sex marriage pro gay marriage. MLA Style. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,641 words.   $77
 
17590. HUMAN ORGAN SALES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of human organ shortages (for the purpose of transplants) and the extensive black market that has developed as a result of this shortage and the illegality of human organ trading. This paper argues that the best solution to the problem is to create a system for the legalized, regulated marketing of human organs. KEYWORDS: human organ sales black market kidneys. MLA Style. 8 pages, 32 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,948 words.   $56
 
17568. NIXON AND THE GOLD STANDARD. This paper provides an overview and analysis of President Richard Nixon’s August 15, 1971 decision to end the gold standard as part of the president’s broader “new economic program”. Following a description of the historical background of the gold standard and the Bretton Woods system, the analysis considers the factors contributing to American economic decline in the early 1970s and the reasons why Nixon sought to address some economic problems through the elimination of the gold standard. Concludes that the decision to end the gold standard had negative economic consequences for the United States and for stability in the international monetary system. KEYWORDS: gold standard bretton woods international monetary system us economy 1970s president Richard Nixon monetary policy. MLA Style. 24 pages, 63 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
17486. BOOK REVIEW: NO PITY: PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES FORGING A NEW CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT BY JOSEPH P. SHAPIRO. This paper reviews Shapiro’s comprehensive and insightful look at the history of American society’s relations with its disabled members and the way in which attitudes towards disability has changed over the years as well as how the disabled community’s changing perception of itself have sparked a civil rights movement. While noting that the author seems to wander off course occasionally, concludes that this is an engaging book that will change readers’ perceptions about the disabled. KEYWORDS: disabled disability rights movement handicapped Americans with Disabilities book review nonfiction. MLA Style. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,265 words.   $35
 
17482. HOMELESSNESS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of homelessness in the United States. Defines the problem, estimates the total number of homeless people, and describes the characteristics of the homeless population. Discusses the underlying causative factors in homelessness and considers the relationship between homelessness and poverty, welfare reform, drug abuse, and rising housing costs. Considers some of the ways to address the problem, focusing in particular on shelters and making recommendations on specific components of shelter programs such as drug treatment facilities. KEYWORDS: homeless homelessness poverty shelters housing street people welfare reform. MLA Style. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,146 words.   $63
 
17456. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN THE UNITED STATES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problems of overweight and obesity in America from a public health and public policy setting perspective. Following an examination of the scope of the problem, including the related health concerns/risks and economic impact, the analysis looks at the major causes and possible solutions to the problem of obesity and overweight in America. Included among the primary causes identified are technological factors which have combined to reduce levels of physical activity and increase levels of food consumption; food industry policies and marketing activities; economic factors; and a decline in Americans’ physical activities. Ultimately, to win its “war on obesity,” the government may need to more closely regulate the food industry and its advertisers, as well as provide subsidies for producers and price incentives for consumers to consume healthier, less energy dense foods while exercising more regularly. KEYWORDS: obesity overweight obese weight reduction diet exercise public policy food. 15 pages, 56 footnotes; 29 bibliographic sources. 3,552 words.   $105
 
17450. PROTECTION OF CHILDREN FROM SEXUAL PREDATORS, P.L. 105-314 Following a summary of the main provisions of the 1998 Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act and a short discussion of some of the forces that led to the Act’s passage, this paper looks closely at the case precedence, constitutional basis and constitutional issues surrounding the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act. 11 pages, 63 footnotes; 31 bibliographic sources. 2590 words.   $77
 
17442. MEDIA REPORTING ON IMMIGRATION: CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 187 & ARIZONA PROPOSITION 200. Both Proposition 187 and its progeny, Proposition 200, generated considerable attention in the local and national press. Following a brief overview of terms and a short review of the literature on anti-immigrant discourse in the media, this paper examines how the media framed each proposition, in the period leading up to and immediately following the 1994 and 2004 elections. The investigation is carried out through a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles published three weeks prior to and three weeks after each election. Data for analysis were drawn from three media outlets, encompassing a local and a national outlet covering each proposition. For the 1994 Proposition 187 analysis, data were drawn from articles appearing three weeks prior to and three weeks after the November 7th election in either the San Francisco Chronicle (representing the “local” outlet) or the Los Angeles Times (representing the “national” media outlet for this proposition). For the 2004 Proposition 200 analysis, data were drawn from articles appearing three weeks prior to and three weeks after the November 2nd election in either the Phoenix-based Arizona Republic (representing the local outlet) or the Los Angeles Times (again representing the national outlet). KEYWORDS: media analysis framing immigration media bias. 21 pages, 74 footnotes, 62 bibliographic sources. 4740 words   $133
 
17439. THE IMMIGRATION BACKLASH: CALIFORNIA’S PROPOSITION 187 AND ARIZONA’S PROPOSITION 200. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Propositions 187 and 200 and the social movements and sentiments which underpin them. A particular focus of this analysis is the role that the media has played in creating, sustaining and expressing the anti-immigrant beliefs which form the basis for the creation of exclusionary laws. Prior to examining Propositions 187 and 200 in detail, the paper considers the current debate from the perspective of history, looking at America’s heritage as “a nation of immigrants” and examining past anti-immigrant movements, with a special focus on the Chinese Exclusion Acts of 1882. Argues that while the media has been guilty (both recently and in the past) of fanning the flames of anti-immigrant sentiment and of at times presenting a slanted view of immigration and its actual impact on citizens, neither the contemporary anti-immigration movement nor the anti-immigration movements of the past can realistically be viewed as creations of the media or even as primarily media-driven. The Chinese Exclusion Acts, Proposition 187 and Proposition 200 were all primarily driven by economic and political interests. KEYWORDS: immigration immigrants anti-immigration populist movements media. Written 2005; 24 pages, 94 footnotes, 33 bibliographic references. 6,011 words.   $133
 
17436. THE WAR ON DRUGS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of America’s “war on drugs”. Looking at both the domestic and foreign aspects, the paper profiles the history, goals, strategies, results and consequences of the decades-long drug war. The essential conflicts (e.g., criminalization versus medicalization, enforcement versus treatment, prohibition versus legalization, etc.) in the debate over what to do about the nation’s drug problem and the major controversies (e.g., hidden foreign policy objectives, environmental issues, racial aspects, impact on prison crowding, costs, overall effectiveness, etc.) in the war on drugs are considered and discussed. Recent trends in the drug war, including the federal government’s opposition to medical marijuana and the Bush Administration’s efforts to merge the war on drugs and the war on terror into a broad-based, far-reaching war on narco-terrorism are also explored. KEYWORDS: drug war mandatory minimums prison overcrowding foreign policy narco-terrorism drug abuse policy. 14 pages, 78 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 3,386 words.   $98
 
17427. NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND AND READING FIRST. Are the requirements and educational reforms included in Reading First likely to lead to significant improvements in the literacy levels of the mainly socially and economically-disadvantaged children it targets? This research question is the starting point for this paper which provides an overview and analysis of Reading First and its implications for children’s literacy improvements based on a review and synthesis of the scholarly literature on the topic. Following an overview of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and the Reading First Initiative, the positives and negatives of Reading First are assessed. The concluding section presents a summary of the findings and takes a position against Reading First. KEYWORDS: literacy education federal programs reading student testing. 12 pages, 45 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 2,927 words.   $84
 
17384. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE & THE FBI: EMPOWERING THE FIELD OFFICES. This paper recommends a new initiative to empower the field offices in the FBI as a way to address some of the ongoing problems in the Bureau=s counterterrorism and counterintelligence operations. The paper begins with a description of the problem and a discussion of how it would lend itself to improved and effective public management practices. The problem and the proposed initiative are considered in the context of Cohen and Eimicke=s (2002) theories on effective public management practices and Buckingham & Coffman=s (1999) four keys of successful management practices. The discussion and analysis of the proposed empowerment initiative shows how the initiative will: 1) address a current problem or dilemma now faced by the FBI; 2) be cost efficient; 3) be considered innovative by members of the organization; and 4) be favorably received by the public and other customers of the Bureau. KEYWORDS: public management organizational change empowerment change management federal bureau of investigation fbi restructuring counterterrorism operations. APA Style. 13 pages, 39 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3962 words.   $91
 
17374. REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF BERNARD WONG’S ETHNICITY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE NEW CHINESE IMMIGRANTS IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA. The New Chinese Immigrants in the San Francisco Bay Area. A favorable review, analysis and evaluation of Wong’s ethnographic study of post-1965 Chinese immigrants in the Bay Area. Finds that Wong has met his objective of showing how the new immigrants make their living in the Bay Area and provided considerable evidence to support his central argument that ethnicity acts as a key resource for the new Chinese immigrants. Despite an overall favorable assessment, the reviewer faults the author for failing to make clearer comparisons between the “old” and “new” Chinese immigrant groups and for maintaining a consistently uncritical view of the immigrants’ adaptive strategies and stance within the larger community. KEYWORDS: Chinese immigration san Francisco bay area immigrants post-1965 ethnography book review. 11 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,981 words.   $77
 
17350. “THE UNDERCLASS” BY KEN AULETTA (A BOOK REVIEW). This paper provides a review and critique of this book about the underclass in American society which the author, an investigative journalist, defines as the approximately one-third of the nation’s poor who are unable “to climb out of poverty after a generation or two.” Although Auletta uses numerous facts and statistics in his research, the most notable feature of the book is its inclusion of the personal viewpoints of people that he observed and interviewed during the years 1979-1980. While Auletta’s analysis of the underlying factors involved in poverty is perhaps weakened by the fact that he a journalist, not a sociologist or economist, Auletta nonethless presents a thorough, well-researched overview of the underclass problem, with useful insights for both the professional reader and the general reader alike. KEYWORDS: poverty causes lower class underclass race poor book review. 6 pages, 6 footnotes in text, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
17287. DISMANTLING DESEGREGATION. Using the text Dismantling Desegregation as a guideline, this paper argues that the recent “re-segregation” trend is an aspect of a larger trend involving the promotion of a conservative agenda. Outlines desegregation policy as it emerged following the Brown v. Board of Education case and then traces the progressive dismantling of desegregation under successive Republican Administrations beginning with Nixon and extending through George W. Bush. Summarizes the major Supreme Court cases relevant to the issue, focusing on Renquist court in the 1990s and cases such as Board of Education of Oklahoma City v. Dowell, Freeman v. Pitts and Missouri v. Jenkins. KEYWORDS: school segregation desegregation Supreme Court decisions race education conservative agenda. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,238 words.   $35
 
17270. THE RISE OF THE TWO PARTY SYSTEM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the rise of the two-party system in American politics in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, describing some of the ways that political parties can be seen as having had a positive or negative influence on the American political system. On the negative side, the parties are criticized for placing too much emphasis on party loyalty versus independent thinking. On the positive side, parties are seen as beneficial in mobilizing voters, providing a forum for the expression of opposing viewpoints and encouraging politicians to deliberate on the issues. KEYWORDS: political parties partisan politics republicans democrats. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,320 words.   $35
 
17262. DRUGS AND SPORTS: ATHLETES AND STEROIDS. This paper provides an overview of the problem of steroid abuse in sports. The paper briefly traces the history of steroids in sports, the reasons for steroid use among athletes, and the evolution of the steroid controversy in sports. The paper then explores the extent to which steroids are used by athletes (as well as by young athletes and non-athletes) in the present day. This is followed by a presentation of the ethical and medical arguments against steroids. The paper concludes with a discussion of the proposed solutions for dealing with the problem. KEYWORDS: sports drugs doping anabolic steroids athletes baseball football ethics Mark McGwire Sammy Sosa Jose Canseco Rafael Palmeiro Barry Bonds Anti-Doping Agency. MLA Style. 10 pages; 30 footnotes; 22 bibliographic sources. 2469 words.   $70
 
17228. THE SUPREME COURT, THE NEW DEAL, AND THE CONSTITUTION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of changes in Constitutional law interpretations as a result of events surrounding Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation and policies. When the Supreme Court blocked the New Deal legislation of President Roosevelt in the 1930s, Roosevelt responded with a scheme to “pack” the federal courts with younger, more liberal judges. This eventually led to a “constitutional revolution” in the way that the Supreme Court interprets the power of the federal government in terms of providing for the welfare of the people. Keywords: New Deal FDR federal courts Supreme Court Constitution public welfare. 11 pages; 27 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 2,660 words.   $77
 
17220. THE U.S. AS A "NATION BASED ON FAITH". This paper argues that the United States should become more clearly identified as a Christian country (while still accepting diverse religious beliefs). The discussion includes the role of Christian ethics in the development of the nation and its laws, and the need for moral values to overcome social problems and to strengthen the country as a whole. Keywords: morality Christianity national identity Americans Christian ethics US. 11 pages; 22 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 2,699 words.   $77
 
17217. NORTHERN DISSENT IN THE CIVIL WAR: THE CASE OF THE COPPERHEADS. Drawing on both primary and secondary sources, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the Copperhead (Northerners who opposed Lincoln and the war) movement during the Civil War era. The Copperhead term is defined and changes made to the definition by revisionist historians discussed. The emergence of the movement is traced and the principal socioeconomic groups involved in the movement identified. Although the major leaders in the movement are identified and discussed, the focus of the analysis is on the Copperhead movement in general rather than the Copperheads in particular. The paper identifies the reasons behind the emergence of the movement and looks into the motivations of the Copperheads as the Civil War progressed. Profiles the main objectives, positions and activities of the Copperheads and evaluates the Republican (Lincoln Administration) response to the Copperheads. The concluding section looks at the fate of the Copperheads in the aftermath of the war and assesses the legacy of the Copperheads as traitors or dissenters. Keywords: Civil War traitors Northern dissent Lincoln Union Confederacy secessionist Copperheads. 34 pages; 69 footnotes; 29 bibliographic sources. 7,553 words.   $133
 
17205. WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS IN DEATH PENALTY CASES. Focusing on wrongful convictions of innocent persons in death penalty cases, this paper provides a critical overview and analysis of the location and characteristics of micro and macro-level factors with the criminal justice system that seem to be the source of the errors leading to or contributing to the problem of wrongful convictions. Factors considered include problems with eyewitness identification, unreliable or duplicitous informants, prosecutorial misconduct, defense attorney incompetence, false and coerced confessions, forensic errors and fraud, judicial misconduct, systematic racism, problems with the adversarial system and the difficulties of balancing defendants’ right to due process with society’s need for crime control and the criminal justice system’s need for expediency. The concluding analysis looks at some of the steps that might be taken to remedy or reduce the error rate while still providing justice. TAGS: death penalty wrongful conviction prosecutorial misconduct eyewitness identification false confessions forensics judicial error racism crime control. 27 pages; 73 footnotes; 36 bibliographic sources. 7,134 words.

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17202. LAW VERSUS JUSTICE. The relationship between the idea of law as a legal concept and justice as an equitable ideal is often a contentious one when put into everyday practice. Following a brief overview of the differing and sometimes contradictory meanings of law and justice, this paper analyzes and critiques the ideals of law and justice, drawing on examples from antitrust, agency, intellectual rights and discrimination. A concluding section articulates and defends the position that laws should be derived from assumptions of justice, while arguing simultaneously that justice is inherently an evolving concept. Keywords: justice law philosophy agency discrimination intellectual property antitrust. 16 pages; 34 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 4,258 words.   $112
 
17198. THE CRASH OF TWA FLIGHT 800. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the midair explosion and crash of TWA Flight 800 on July 17, 1996. Drawing on information from the National Transportation Safety Board investigation and other reports, the paper describes the accident and the resulting damages and fatalities; analyzes the causes behind the accident; and reports on the remedies and changes that were put into place as a result of the accident and subsequent investigation. The first part of the paper dissects the accident and its causes. The next section looks at the lawsuits that arose as a result of the crash. Another section details the remedies and regulations that have been put into place in response to the crash and its likely causes. A concluding section discusses how the accident could have been avoided and briefly considers some of the unresolved issues related to the crash. Keywords: Flight 800 commercial aviation accidents investigation airplane crash lawsuits air safety prevention. 15 pages; 54 footnotes; 31 bibliographic sources. 4,882 words.   $105
 
17194. MARINE CONTAINER SECURITY AND INSPECTION PRE- AND POST-9/11. This report provides an overview and analysis of ocean-going container security and inspection at U.S. ports. Following an overview of the scope of the container security problem, the analysis looks at how the approach to maritime container security and inspection has changed in the aftermath of 9/11. The major technologies – including gamma-ray, e-seals, pulsed fast neutron analysis, thermal neutron analysis, tracking technologies, and sophisticated x-rays – used in maritime container inspection are identified and discussed. The costs and practicality of these technologies as a means of improving seaport security are considered. Keywords: ports shipping security containers maritime technologies inspection e-seals. 15 pages; 71 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 4,377 words.   $105
 
17192. SHOULD THE FCC BE GIVEN BROAD REGULATIVE POWERS? REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. Following a brief history of freedom of speech, this paper presents a review of the literature on FCC (Federal Communications Commission) regulation of speech and expression on all types of media. Key concepts and existing theories related to government regulation of media and speech are identified. Contradictions, shortcomings, and gaps in the evidence related to FCC regulation of media are discussed. Keywords: FCC regulation media broadcasting free speech ownership television radio. MLA Style. 8 pages; 49 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 1,891 words.   $56
 
17188. MICROSOFT ANTITRUST LAWSUIT. This paper provides a summary overview and analysis of the Microsoft antitrust case (United States v. Microsoft), Civil Action No. 98-1232, U.S. District Court, D.C.). The claims and positions of both parties to the case are identified and explained. The precise charges the government raised against Microsoft are identified, and the legal basis for these charges explained. Microsoft’s responses to the charges are discussed and explained. The procedural (litigation) history of the case is summarized and the terms of the final settlement are reviewed and analyzed. The concluding section offers a personal assessment of the major issues in the case. Keywords: antitrust litigation Microsoft software windows anti-competitive bundling tie-ins. 12 pages; 32 footnotes; 20 bibliographic sources. 3,653 words.   $84
 
17176. US MILITARY ACQUISITION SYSTEM. This paper critically analyzes the organizations, concepts and processes that comprise the defense (military) acquisition machine in the United States. The main part of this paper provides a general overview of the key components, organizations and concepts of the U.S. military acquisition system, including a definition of defense acquisition and its components; a discussion of the role of the key players in the acquisition process (Congress, the Executive Branch, the defense industry) and the special role of DOD (Department of Defense) acquisition program managers and the Defense Acquisition University; a description of the acquisition authority chain; and an overview of the acquisition environment. The concluding part of the paper focuses more closely on military acquisition processes, looking especially at acquisition reform and the move to “evolutionary, knowledge-based” acquisition processes. Keywords: DOD defense military procurement budget. 12 pages; 31 footnotes; 28 bibliographic sources. 3,184 words.   $84
 
17160. WELFARE REFORM UNDER PRESIDENT CLINTON. Clinton’s welfare reform law, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, better known as the Welfare Reform Act (WRA) promised to “end welfare as we know it.” This paper examines Clinton’s welfare reform and looks at the results and the impact of the reform on recipients. It is argued that welfare reform should not be viewed as a success. In terms of decreasing poverty and meeting important social goals, welfare reform is a failure. 8 pages; 25 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 2,124 words.   $56
 
17158. THE HIGH COST OF PRESCRIPTION DRUGS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of prescription drug costs as well as consideration of the steps that might be taken to address the problem. Following an overview of the scope and components of the problem, the analysis looks at some fo the major reasons behind the high costs of prescription drugs, including the traditional reasons offered by the drug industry and the reasons suggested by consumer advocates and analysts outside of the pharmaceutical industry. Various ideas for controlling prescription drug costs and/or for solving the problem are considered and discussed. The concluding section makes recommendations on the adoption of specific measures aimed at addressing the problem. 11 pages; 34 footnotes; 28 bibliographic sources. 3,450 words.   $77
 
17157. SENATOR PAUL WELLSTONE MENTAL HEALTH EQUITABLE TREATMENT ACT OF 2003. Introduced into both the House (H.R. 953) and the Senate (S.486) on February 27, 2003, the Mental Health Equitable Treatment Act is a bill “to provide for equal coverage of mental health benefits with respect to health insurance coverage unless comparable limitations are imposed on medical surgical benefits.” Taking a policy advocacy perspective, this paper provides an overview of this proposed legislation and an analysis of the underlying policy issue. Using Jansson’s (2003) framework, potential interventions and techniques to support the bill and/or empower others to take action on mental health parity are discussed. 15 pages; 27 footnotes; 19 bibliographic sources. 4,035 words.   $105
 
17143. POVERTY AND CHILDREN'S EDUCATION. This paper analyzes the impact of poverty on a child’s capacity to benefit from schooling. Following a brief review of the literature demonstrating the link between lower income and lower levels of educational achievement, the analysis looks at how poverty influences the child’s initial readiness for learning, parent-child relations, parental school involvement, child nutrition, access to educational resources outside of school, and school environment in ways that negatively impact the child’s ability to benefit from education. 8 pages; 24 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
17142. AMERICA'S FOREIGN POLICY OF PREEMPTION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the foreign policy doctrine of preemption as promulgated by the George W. Bush Administration. The impact of the events of September 11, 2001 on the development of the doctrine is a special focus. The major components of preemption are outlined and compared and contrasted to previous foreign policy doctrine. Considering the war on Iraq as the first test of the doctrine, the analysis discusses the impact of the doctrine to date and its likely future impact in both the U.S. and the rest of the world. A concluding section addresses the question of whether the doctrine of preemption is good or bad for America, America’s role in the world, and the international system in general. It is argued that preemption is bad for America. 21 pages; 51 footnotes; 27 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
17140. THE GREAT MIGRATION AND RACE RELATIONS IN AMERICA. This paper considers the history, scope and impact of the Great Migration of blacks from the rural south to the urban north beginning in 1915. Following an overview of the forces driving the Great Migration and a discussion of the status of race relations prior to the migration, the analysis draws on examples from various northern and western cities and the South in general to examine how the Great Migration changed race relations in both the North and the South. Demonstrates how the Great Migration turned race into a national, versus just a southern issue. The argument is made that the migration, and more specifically, the pattern of settlement in the migration (with blacks clustered in geographically segregated areas of the cities) set the stage for increased racial conflict. KEYWORDS: black migration southern us northern cities racial conflict us american migratory patterns african americans. APA Style. 21 pages; 39 footnotes; 17 bibliographic sources. 4,908 words.   $133
 
17136. TALK SHOWS AS PUBLIC SPHERES: THE ROLE OF THE MASS MEDIA IN CIVIC PARTICIPATION. Drawing on the literature on TV talk shows as public spheres, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the role of the mass media in civic participation. The analysis draws on specific examples of talk shows broadcast in the U.S. and/or U.K. (e.g., Donahue, Oprah, Geraldo, Kilroy, Jerry Springer, etc.). It is argued that he audience-participation format talk show as it emerged in the 1970s and 1980s did in fact help to create multiple new public spheres and thus made a positive contribution to sparking civic participation, especially within segments of society traditionally excluded from the public sphere. At the same time, it is argued that the newer (late 1980s-early 1990s) forms focused on confrontation (e.g., Ricki Lake, Jerry Springer, Jenny Jones) have resulted in a deterioration of the talk show as a public sphere. 12 pages; 47 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 4,971 words.   $84
 
17116. SENATOR KERRY AND THE WORKPLACE RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ACT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history, development, and status (as of 2002) of the Workplace Religious Freedom Act (WRFA) of 2002 (S. 2572) and its sponsorship by Senator Kerry (D-MA). The analysis begins with a brief biographical sketch of Senator Kerry. The history and development of the WRFA and its sponsorship by Senator Kerry is traced. The analysis considers the factors which led to the development of this bill and examines the intended and possible effects it will have on public policy, employees and employers. Keywords: work religion John Kerry senate bill. 25 pages; 47 footnotes; 38 bibliographic sources. 6,721 words.   $133
 
17115. THE GREEN PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES. Traces the history, ideology and politics of the Green Party of the United States. Examines the Green Party's role as “spoiler” in the 2000 Presidential election and the 2002 mid-term elections. Contrasts the Green Party ideology with that of the Democrats and Republicans. Discusses factional splits within the Green Party and consider the future of the Greens in U.S. politics. Keywords: political parties Greens elections politics. 12 pages; 25 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 3,181 words.   $84
 
17114. EVALUATING MEDIA PERFORMANCE IN DEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES. This essay addresses the question, “By what standard should we evaluate media performance in democratic societies?” The analysis begins with the premise that the appropriate standards for evaluating media performance in democratic societies are necessarily condition by the form of democracy and the underlying political and social values of the democratic society. Focusing on Anglo-American democratic societies, the analysis then defines and discusses the traditional and emerging roles of media within the democracy, considering also the constraints and limitations on the execution of these roles. Based on the articulation of these roles, the appropriate standards for the evaluation of media are outlined, along with general performance indicators and measurements. 12 pages; 27 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 3,622 words.   $84
 
17109. THE EVOLUTION OF THE FREE PRESS IN AMERICA. This paper traces the evolution of the free press in America from the early Colonial Era through the 19th century. Argues that notwithstanding the First Amendment provisions, freedom of the press existed more as an idea than as a reality for the first decades of American nationhood and that when finally put into practice, a “free press” was not the equivalent of a “responsible press”. Includes analysis of the press in Colonial America, looking at America’s English newspaper heritage and discussing the pamphlet and broadside forerunners of the first newspapers; considers the foundations of press freedom as established through key early libel cases such as the Zenger case; profiles the role of newspapers in the American Revolution; traces the development of the popular press; considers freedom of press during the Civil War; and examines the development of the modern press in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 31 pages; 69 footnotes; 17 bibliographic sources. 9,026 words.   $133
 
17018. STATEMENT 34 OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD (GASB). This paper describes the mission of the Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) and examines its 1999 statement (GASB 34) regarding new standards for financial reporting by government entities. The paper also discusses the expected benefits of the new standards to taxpayers, investors, political decision-makers, and others. Keywords: federal accounting standards. 12 pages; 39 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 2,589 words.   $84
 
17009. CORPORATE TAXATION. This paper argues that the capital outflows caused by corporate taxes have a negative impact on investment and economic growth. Despite reform efforts in the past, there are ongoing problems with the existing tax code. Nonetheless, it is acknowledged that elimination of corporate taxes is unlikely in the near future because of public resistance. In the meantime, there are certain strategies that corporations can use to help reduce their tax burden. Keywords: taxes taxation corporations business tax code reform investment. 16 pages, 44 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
15970. "THE CRUCIBLE" AND "AFTER THE FALL" BY ARTHUR MILLER (DRAMA REVIEW). This paper discusses how these two Arthur Miller Plays use law as a theme. Both plays relate to the anti-Communist McCarthy investigations of the 1950s. In addition, both plays show the legal process to be ineffective in attaining ‘truth’ and ‘justice,’ and in dealing with emotions. In both plays, the main characters end of ‘judging’ themselves. Keywords: fiction red baiting fifties McCarthyism. 11 pages; 35 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 2,519 words.   $77
 
15962. FIVE EVENTS THAT CHANGED THE LIVES AND ROLES OF WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES. This paper discusses the 1848 women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, the ratification of the 19th Amendment (giving women the right to vote), the increased number of women in the labor force caused by the Second World War, the approval of the birth control pill in 1960s, and the rise of the civil rights movement and modern feminism. 9 pages; 35 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 2,530 words.   $63
 
15935. SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE AS A CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUE. This paper examines Constitutional issues in church-state separation. Discusses the First Amendment, Thomas Jefferson’s views, Supreme Court decisions over the years, and the recent trend of using a less strict interpretation of the law requiring church-state separation. Also refers to cases on the matter that were pending in the Supreme Court in the fall of 2003. 7 pages; 16 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 1,770 words.   $49
 
15929. UPTON SINCLAIR'S CAMPAIGN FOR CALIFORNIA GOVERNOR IN 1934. This paper discusses Upton Sinclair’s efforts to become governor of California on the Democratic ticket in 1934. Examines the ways his opposition used wealthy and powerful connections in order to run a negative smear campaign against him. 10 pages; 26 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15927. CRUZ BUSTAMANTE'S CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE 2003 GUBERNATORIAL RECALL ELECTION IN CALIFORNIA. This paper discusses how Bustamante, who ran against Arnold Schwarzenegger for Governor of California, used a loophole in the law to obtain campaign contributions in excess of the legal limit. It is argued that, although the ethics of Bustamante’s tactics can be questioned, the root of the problem is to be found in the inconsistencies of the state’s campaign financing laws. 11 pages; 33 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15901. AMERICAN IGNORANCE OF VIETNAMESE CULTURE IN THE VIETNAM WAR. This paper discusses the cultural misconceptions of Americans (both soldiers and political leaders) during the course of the Vietnam War, and how these misconceptions contributed both to America’s involvement in the war and to the nation’s ultimate failure. 12 pages; 44 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15895. THE PROTECTION OF CHILDREN FROM SEXUAL PREDATORS ACT (PL 105-314). This paper discusses this 1998 federal law designed to protect children from sexual predators, providing an overview of the components of the law and the problems which prompted its passage (e.g., child pornography on the Internet, access to online porn by children, and sexual predators online). The political, economic, and administrative feasibility of the law is also discussed. 24 pages; 56 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15886. THOMAS JEFFERSON AND THE EMBARGO OF 1807. Using primary sources, this paper discusses the embargo that President Jefferson imposed in response to British and French interference with the right to conduct free oceanic trade. Argues that Jefferson erred in judgment because the embargo had more of a negative impact on US merchants than on the European nations. 16 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
15885. JIMMY CARTER AND U.S. RELATIONS WITH NICARAGUA. Using primary sources, this paper discusses President Carter’s support of the corrupt and repressive Somoza regime, his efforts to create a moderate government in Nicaragua and his decision to support the leftist Sandinistas when they took over. It is noted that the issues were not fully resolved by the time Carter’s presidency ended. 16 pages; 27 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
15880. "THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN" (BOOK REVIEW) This paper presents a summary and analysis of Franklin’s autobiography. Following a summary of the basic contents of the book – the events of Franklin’s life his philosophy of success – the paper considers how Franklin combined the ideas of entrepreneurship and American capitalism with a quest for moral perfection. It is argued that the practical guidelines of the book are still useful to today’s readers. Despite its historical context, the book contains a good deal of timeless wisdom. 9 pages; 8 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $63
 
15875. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR. This paper examines the revisionist historical view that President Roosevelt and his administration knew of the impending Japanese attack in advance and may have even provoked the attack as an excuse to become involved in the war effort and to overcome public resistance to American participation in World War II. It is argued that there is a lack of solid evidence to support these claims. Rather, it seems that the surprise of the attack was due to miscommunication and other human errors instead of a conspiracy on the part of the U.S. government. 17 pages; 40 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
15872. THE USA PATRIOT ACT. This paper discusses the Patriot Act, hastily passed in response to the events of September 11, 2001. Although the Patriot Act provides certain benefits regarding the ability of the government to fight terrorism, it also raises serious concerns about depriving U.S. citizens of their civil liberties. In addition, some have argued that the Act may be ineffective in the long run. KEYWORDS: Patriot Act anti-terrorism policy domestic security civil liberties privacy rights. APA Style. 11 pages; 31 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 2,877 words.   $77
 
15864. U.S. POLICY ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS. This paper explores U.S. policies on greenhouse gas emissions. It is noted that industrial and corporate interests may have influenced the Bush Administration to reject the international agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, this action may have a positive impact in the long run by bringing the issue of global warming to the forefront of policy debate. This paper also discusses the growing local-level effort to reduce emissions, in spite of the failings of the federal government. KEYWORDS: climate change global warming greenhouse gas us policy international agreements. 13 pages; 25 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15851. THREE BOOKS ON THE VIETNAM WAR (BOOK REVIEW). This paper provides a comparative review and critique of three books about America's involvement in the Vietnam War: 1) "America's Longest War" by George C. Herring; 2) "In Retrospect" by Robert S. McNamara; and 3) "Vietnam, the Necessary War" by Michael Lind. Concludes that while all three books have value, Herring's book is the most thorough and objective. 11 pages; 17 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15845. AMERICA'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE VIETNAM WAR. This paper examines how the policies and actions of successive presidential administrations had a 'snowball effect' and contributed to the escalation of the war in Vietnam. Traces America's involvement in Vietnam beginning with the Cold War concerns of the Truman administration and looks at how Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon all expanded on Truman's basic Vietnam policy. 14 pages; 53 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
15844. THEODORE ROOSEVELT AND THE AMERICAN CONSERVATION MOVEMENT. This paper concerns the conservation efforts made by Theodore Roosevelt throughout his life and during his time as president. Although some of his efforts failed as a result of controversies, he made a great contribution overall to the American conservation movement. 14 pages; 59 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
15831. "BLACK POWER: THE POLITICS OF LIBERATION" BY STOKELY CARMICHAEL AND CHARLES V. HAMILTON (BOOK REVIEW). This paper reviews this seminal book on the need to empower African Americans through the development of a type of consciousness known as Black Power. Although the book was written in 1967, many of the ideas found in the book are still applicable in the present day. 6 pages; 18 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
15824. THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM IN "CRISIS". This paper examines the claim by Donald L. Robinson that America's political system is in crisis because of constant deadlocks between the President and Congress. Using examples from recent history, this paper concurs with Robinson's claim. 6 pages; 15 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15823. THE INFLUENCE OF THE PRINCIPLES OF JOHN LOCKE ON THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. Discusses Locke's views on the separation of powers and the role of the executive branch in the use of power, and argues that the U.S. government has strayed from the principles of Locke in regard to these issues. 6 pages; 18 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15822. THE PRESIDENCY AND THE FRAMING THE U.S. CONSTITUTION. The framers of the U.S Constitution were concerned with three issues regarding the presidency: unity, selection, and the distribution of powers. This paper claims that the framers may have reconsidered their decisions if they had known how the presidency would have subsequently developed. 7 pages; 20 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources. 1,505 words.   $49
 
15821. THEORIES OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER HELD BY TAFT, LINCOLN & TEDDY ROOSEVELT. This paper describes the theories of presidential power held by Presidents William Howard Taft, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. The analysis looks at ways of assessing presidential performance in terms of the use of power such as by evaluating presidential character or presidential greatness. 8 pages; 20 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15814. CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES IN THE JACKSONIAN ERA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of three important constitutional issues which arose during the era of President Andrew Jackson: 1) equal rights for individuals; 2) states’ rights versus national government rights; and 3) the power of the president. The analysis looks at the debate over these issues during the Jacksonian era as well as considering the extent to which the issues were resolved, concluding in each case that they were only partially resolved at the time. KEYWORDS: Jacksonian era Andrew Jackson administration us constitution equal rights states rights presidential power dual federalism nullification crisis. MLA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes,3 bibliographic references. 1,390 words.   $42
 
15813. CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS DURING THE RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD. A paper on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, and how each raised issues of constituionality in the period immediately following American Civil War. Differing theories of Reconstruction are discussed, as well as the implications of the Amendments in regard to governmental power. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
15812. SUPREME COURT DECISIONS AND THE SHIFT IN POLITICAL POWER IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY. This paper looks at how Supreme Court decisions of the 19th century contributed to giving the federal government more regulatory control while at the same time increasing the economic power of industry and big business. In addition, some of the decisions resulted in creating a more powerful position for the Supreme Court itself. KEYWORDS: Supreme Court history 19th century major decisions federal government big business. 6 pages; 19 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,419 words.   $42
 
15801. THE ROLE OF COMPROMISE IN PUBLIC POLICY DECISIONS. Compromise is beneficial to the results in policy issues, and it is something that is expected in the normal operations of government (as seen, for example, in the process of passing a congressional bill). Nevertheless, there have been instances of politicians and other policy makers failing to compromise; this paper discusses the problems caused by this failure. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
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