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How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
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19371. KARL MARX AND FREDERICK DOUGLASS: TWO VIEWS ON RACE, CLASS, OPPRESSION, AND RESISTANCE This essay explains, compares and contrasts Douglass’s and Marx’s views on race, class, oppression and resistance through an examination of each author’s understanding and expression of two critical keywords related to their texts: slavery and race as expressed by Douglass in his Narrative and labor and class as expressed by Marx in his Communist Manifesto. MLA Style. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources, 1,289 words.
TAGS: race, class, oppression, Karl Marx, Frederick Douglass, African Americans, resistance.
19301. CRIME AND GOVERNANCE IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDCS) This paper examines the role of good governance in crime and violence prevention in developing and less developed/lower income countries. Following a discussion and overview of the concept of governance and more particularly, good governance, including its main characteristics and how it can be applied to crime prevention at the local level, the analysis considers how this concept has been successfully incorporated into crime and violence prevention policies and programs in developed countries. This section includes a discussion of the basic principles and methods of crime prevention as established in these countries as well as consideration of some of the important barriers and difficulties developed country governments have encountered in implementing local-level crime and violence prevention. The next section discusses the opportunities and challenges in adapting the successful crime prevention experience of developed countries to developing and less developed countries. A final section presents an outline for an online course on governance and crime prevention. APA Style. 24 pages, 134 footnotes, 45 bibliographic sources. 6,020 words.

TAGS: crime, governance, public safety, lower income countries, less developed countries, corruption, violence, good governance, crime prevention, South America, South Africa

19300. COMPARATIVE POLITICAL ECONOMY ANALYSIS OF ANTI-CORRUPTION EFFORTS IN SINGAPORE AND EAST CENTRAL EUROPE. This paper provides a comparative political economy analysis of corruption and anti-corruption efforts in Singapore and Eastern/Central Europe with a close focus on Bulgaria and Romania. The analysis focuses on the interaction of political and economic processes in the comparative societies, as well on the institutional basis of corruption and anti-corruption campaigns, with consideration of the embeddedness of institutional corruption and the influence of non-economic institutions on the persistence of corruption and the failure or success of anti-corruption campaigns in the comparative countries. It is noted that Singapore’s successful model of anti-corruption highlights the need for a strong, sustained high-level political will for controlling corruption and a comprehensive anti-corruption campaign that minimizes the incentives for corruption. The difficulty of generalizing the Singapore models to other political systems is noted. Harvard Style. 14 pages, 59 footnotes, 30 bibliographic sources. 3,790 words.

TAGS: comparative political economy, anti-corruption, corruption, Singapore, Bulgaria, Romania, Eastern Europe, institutions, politics, political systems, comparative analysis.

19286. MARX AND HISTORICAL MATERIALISM. Developed by Karl Marx, historical materialism offers a method for analyzing changes in economic systems. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Marx’s influential socioeconomic theory. The analysis focuses on the key concepts of the social relations of production and the forces of production that in combination explain the development of the division of labor through history up until the rise of capitalism. MLA Style. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,551 words.

TAGS: Karl Marx, Marxism, socioeconomic theory, historical materialism, division of labor.

18699. AMERICAN ORIGINS AND THE PRINCIPLE OF LIMITED GOVERNMENT. This paper discusses how America’s Founding Fathers (in the late eighteenth century) sought to create a government with sufficient power to carry out the nation’s interests, yet a government in which centralized power is limited at the same time. This effort was related to the abuses of centralized power that had occurred under British imperial rule. In making its argument, the paper refers to the views of Tom Paine and James Madison, as well as the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. TAGS: founding principles abuse of power centralization of power, American history independence movement founding fathers. MLA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,453 words.   $42
18693. MACHIAVELLI, GANDHI AND M.L. KING ON LEADERSHIP AND POWER. This paper examines the philosophical foundations of power by comparing the position of Niccolò Machiavelli with the position held by Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Machiavelli had a purely practical view on the use of power, while Gandhi and King took an ethical view on its use. Reference is made to the argument of Carl Sagan that leaders need to be adaptable in their use of strategies. It is concluded that there are advantages and disadvantages to both views of power and that leaders should incorporate the best ideas from both as they adapt to the situations placed before them. TAGS: philosophy legitimate charismatic coercive power leadership ethics Machiavelli Gandhi King Sagan. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 11 pages, 16 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,590 words.   $77
18527. THE COMPATIBILITY OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY AND NATIONALISM. This paper responds to a 1909 quote by Herbert Croly regarding the need for “healing” the split between American democracy (represented by the ideals of Thomas Jefferson) and patriotic nationalism (represented by the views of Alexander Hamilton). It is argued that the tension between democracy (individualism) and nationalism (collective interests) is a natural factor in American politics and is not in need of “healing,” per se. It is further argued that the U.S. Constitution was designed to seek a balance between the forces of democracy and nationalism. KEYWORDS: politics United States democracy patriotism nationalism Jefferson Hamilton. APA Style. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,879 words.   $56
18329. SOCIALISM IN INDIA. This paper discusses the roots of Indian socialism, which was predominant in the nation’s politics between 1947-1991. The roots are traced to the late 19th Century, with the influence of European thinkers and indigenous reactions to British imperialism. References are made to the relevant views of Marx, as well as to the contributions made by such Indian thinkers as Dadabhai Naoroji (“Drain Theory”), Romesh Chandra Dutt, and others. KEYWORDS: history politics imperialism socialism India Marxism. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 10 pages, 29 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
18325. ANTISEMITISM AND THE HOLOCAUST. This paper traces the Nazi antisemitic ideology during the Holocaust (1933-1945) to the 19th Century and earlier. Topics include: centuries of Christian hostility, the emancipation movement, the failure of Jews to assimilate, accusations of Jews dominating prestigious occupations, the views of various antisemitic writers that were popular in Germany, racist beliefs, and the impact of nationalism. The paper also discusses how the Nazis were aided by collaborators throughout Europe, who were likewise influenced by antisemitism. KEYWORDS: history Europe Judaism antisemitism Holocaust Hitler Nazis. APA Style. 11 pages, 31 footnotes in text, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
18324. THE DREYFUS AFFAIR. This paper discusses the case of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish French army officer who was charged with treason in 1894. Although there was a lack of evidence against him, Dreyfus was found guilty in military court. The case revealed the extent of anti-Semitism in France at the time, and the media controversy over the case divided the nation. The Dreyfus Affair was significant in other ways as well; for example, it helped inspire the founding of the Zionist movement. KEYWORDS: France history criminal justice anti-Semitism. APA Style. 11 pages, 32 footnotes in text, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
18314. THE NEED FOR A “WHOLE-NATION” APPROACH TO RECONCILIATION AND PEACE BUILDING IN RWANDA. This paper is concerned with the effort to attain reconciliation and peace in Rwanda, a nation that has been torn by ethnic conflict between the Tutsis and the Hutus. Three major approaches have been used following the 1994 genocide: international intervention, the Rwandan court system, and gacaca (local courts, with an emphasis on reintegration of offenders). However, progress has been slow because of flaws in the existing efforts. It is argued that it is important to deal with the needs and concerns of all social groups in the nation as a whole, not just with those of the Tutsis and Hutus. KEYWORDS: Rwanda politics law justice ethnic conflict. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 22 pages, 36 footnotes in text, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
18228. APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA AND SEGREGATION IN THE UNITED STATES. This paper discusses how Jim Crow laws oppressed African Americans in the Southern U.S. despite their emancipation in the 1860s. Similarly, race-related problems have persisted in South Africa despite the end of the apartheid policy with the election of the African National Congress in 1994. Based on these examples, it is argued that various factors contribute to the persistence of problems in countries with a legacy of racial oppression, even after laws have been passed to prevent such problems. KEYWORDS: race relations apartheid South Africa segregation Jim Crow America. MLA Style. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
18227. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND COMMUNITY COHESION IN THE IDEAL STATE. This paper considers the views of various political philosophers (Plato, Aristotle, Hobbes, Marx, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, J.S. Mill, Bastiat, and Dewey) on the proper balance between individual freedom and the rights of society as a whole. It is concluded that a “social contract” needs to include laws that protect citizens while simultaneously guaranteeing equal justice to all. KEYWORDS: political philosophy individual freedom rights community justice. MLA Style. 14 pages, 24 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $98
18200. GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION. Based on a review and analysis of scholarly literature, and drawing on examples from around the globe, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of public sector corruption. The purpose of the investigation is to provide a better understanding of the problem of public sector corruption - its scope, its causes, its consequences - and to describe strategies and tactics that could be used to curtail corruption. The first section provides an overview of the problem of public sector corruption. Public sector corruption is defined (and distinguished from private or business sector corruption) and the major types of corruption and general scope of corrupt activities outlined. This section also introduces the major international indices/measurements of corruption. The next section examines the major causes and consequences of public sector corruption. Following this, the paper considers strategies and measures to address/mitigate the problem of public sector corruption. KEYWORDS: public administration ethics public sector corruption transparency international bribery embezzlement. APA Style. 13 pages, 57 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources. 3,901 Words.   $91
18175. EXTRAORDINARY RENDITIONS: LEGALITY. This paper presents an overview and legal analysis of the Bush Administration’s post-911 counterterrorism practice of having the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) detain and deliver suspected terrorists to foreign governments for interrogation and possibly torture. After briefly describing extraordinary renditions and discussing the Bush Administration’s justifications and claims of legality versus critics’ contention that the practice is illegal, this paper reviews the various treaties, conventions, covenants, and other international legal documents to assess the legality of the US programs of extraordinary renditions. The essay concludes that the US program of extraordinary renditions represents a clear violation of international law in that such renditions violate the provisions of a number of different international treaties and covenants (including the Geneva Conventions, the International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights (ICCPR), and the Convention Against Torture) to which the United States is party. KEYWORDS: terrorists counterterrorist policy us war on terror bush extraordinary rendition torture guantanamo prisoners international law treaty. Turabian with Endnotes. 19 pages, 70 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 4,505 words excluding footnotes.   $133
18130. RESEARCH DESIGN FOR A STUDY ON POLITICAL PARTICIPATION. This paper, which is written in first person, describes a proposed study on the political participation of British university students. It is hypothesized that the students will be influenced by parents, degree subject studied, party allegiance, and gender. The questionnaire is described, as well as the results of a preliminary test in which students were randomly approached on campus. The responses of twelve of the students are also discussed. KEYWORDS: research design questionnaire political participation. 9 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources. 2,010 words.   $63
18091. ASSASSINATION OF JOURNALISTS & CENSORSHIP. This paper discusses the problem of journalists being killed (by corrupt politicians, rebels, gangsters, terrorists, etc.) in order to silence them. The paper provides some background on the problem and discusses the role of watchdog organizations such as Reporters Without Borders and the Committee to Protect Journalists. Examples of the problem are given from such places as Iraq, Russia, the Philippines, Latin America, and elsewhere. It is argued that the problem is perpetuated by a lack of punishment and that it interferes with the important role that a free press is supposed to play in society. The paper includes an outline. KEYWORDS: journalism censorship free press. MLA Style. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,558 words.   $70
18084. ACCOUNTABILITY IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. This term paper discusses the importance of accountability in public administration (among individuals, leaders, and organizations as a whole). It is argued that mistakes will always occur, and what is most important is taking responsibility and being sincere and honest in efforts to provide for the welfare of the public. KEYWORDS: public administration accountability. APA Style. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,296 words.   $35
18082. IMMIGRATION AND FUTURE RACE RELATIONS. This termpaper discusses the massive influx of immigrants to America and the potential future impact that this might have on national identity and ethnic/racial relations. The issue of assimilation (or lack thereof) is addressed, with special attention to the situation of Mexican immigrants in California. The growing trends of intermarriage and the adoption of multiracial identities are also discussed. It is predicted that racial/ethnic differences won't disappear in the upcoming future, but there will probably be a diminishing of the differences in life chances that currently exist. KEYWORDS: immigration race ethnicity national identity future. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes and Separate Bibliography. 14 pages, 22 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $98
18069. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE UNITED STATES. This term paper provides a brief overview of the evolution of public administration in the U.S., which is said to have originated with Woodrow Wilson's groundbreaking essay "The Study of Administration" in 1887. The paper includes references to the purpose and importance of public administration, as well as to how the views on the best approach to public administration have changed over time. KEYWORDS: public administration U.S. government. MLA Style. 4 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 909 words.   $28
18062. “THE WRETCHED OF THE EARTH” BY FRANTZ FANON. This paper critically reviews the first chapter of Fanon's book ("Concerning Violence"), as well as the preface by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. These authors seek to justify the use of violence in decolonization efforts. The paper criticizes Fanon and Sartre for their argument that violence is always necessary in national liberation, and for their glorification of violence as a "virtue." In addition, flaws are found in the arguments of both authors. For example, their claims are not convincing because they rely on emotional appeals and neo-Marxist views, and because they fail to address possible alternative ways of overcoming colonial oppression. KEYWORDS: book review violence decolonization frantz fanon jean-paul sartre. MLA Style. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,665 words.   $49
18041. FEMA (FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY). This paper addresses the challenges and difficulties faced by FEMA in its dual role of responding to both natural disasters and attacks against the nation. References are made to the agency's response to Hurricane Andrew (1992) and Hurricane Katrina (2005), and to the changes that occurred with 9/11 and the agency becoming a branch of the Department of Homeland Security. To analyze the situation, the paper uses theoretical perspectives relating to bureaucratic organizations, hierarchical control, and the role of power and politics in public administration. It is argued that FEMA's problems are mainly due to the fact that it is a "politically controlled bureaucracy," with politicians (Presidents and Congress) using it as a tool for increasing political influence. KEYWORDS: FEMA problems management disasters homeland security bureaucracy. APA Style. 16 pages, 25 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 4,057 words.   $112
17631. WAR, LIBERTY & PATRIOTISM: BUSH’S PREVENTIVE WAR IN THE CONTEXT OF HOBBES AND MACHIAVELLI. Using Benjamin R. Barber’s (2003) book, Fear’s Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy and the Bush administration’s policy of ‘preventive war’ in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, this paper discusses the constructs of “preventive war” and “preventive democracy” as expressed by Barber, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Thomas Hobbes’ view on these subjects. KEYWORDS: george w bush foreign policy preventive strike thomas hobbes Machiavelli Benjamin barber war liberty patriotism. MLA Style. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,674 words.   $49
17610. POLITICAL CULTURE & INSTITUTIONS OF EARLY AMERICA VERSUS POLITICAL CULTURE & INSTITUTIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN. This paper compares and contrasts the political culture and institutions of early America with those of Great Britain, detailing their similarities and differences. Concludes that major differences in political culture included the lack of a strong aristocratic class in America, the growing diversity and factional conflicts in different regions of the colonies, and the American view that members of their representative assemblies had the right to make changes in local constitutions. The paper details similarities and differences between the British House of Lords and the early American representative assemblies. KEYWORDS: colonial America political culture institutions british political heritage. Turabian/Chicago style with bottom-of-page footnotes and separate bibliography. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,492 words.   $42
17582. PLUTARCH’S LIFE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. This paper provides a review and analysis of Plutarch of Chaeronea’s account of the life of Alexander the Great, which, in addition to providing a biography of Alexander, provides lessons on the moral qualities found in a great leader. Argues that the main moral lesson of Plutarch’s account is that a great leader is able to make use of his virtues while controlling his vices. KEYWORDS: Plutarch Alexander the great qualities leader. MLA Style. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
17500. CHARTIER & FURET ON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. This paper considers the unique and modern perspectives on the French Revolution offered by Chartier and Furet. Roger Chartier’s The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution argues against the Enlightenment as the Revolution’s source, while Francois Furet dismisses the notion of a Marxist foundation in Interpreting the French Revolution. Concludes that both Chartier and Furet establish entirely new ways of thinking about the history of the French Revolution, and allow readers to appreciate the complexity of this momentous historical event. MLA Style. KEYWORDS: French revolution enlightenment Marxism ideological shift French culture reading habits. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,821 words. **************************************************** ABOUT BERKELEY RESEARCH CASE STUDIES We offer many high-quality, professionally written Harvard Business case study solutions...   $84
17421. WORKING TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF TERRORISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the definition(s) of terrorism. The controversies, contradictions and inherent difficulties in defining terrorism and terrorists are discussed. The history and scope of terrorism and terrorist acts and its relevance to a consensus definition are considered. Various definitions of terrorism formulated by academicians, governments, and terrorism experts are presented and analyzed. KEYWORDS: terrorism terror terrorist acts definitions suicide terrorism terrorist organizations. 15 pages, 57 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources. 4,021 words.

Suicide Terrorism Research Paper

Suicide Terrorism in the Middle East Research Paper

Terrorism and the Foreign Policies of Libya, Turkey & Saudi Arabia Research Paper

Bioterrorism: Biological Terrorism, Anthrax, Smallpox, Botulism, Plague, Tularemia Research Paper
17382. INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY (IPE) AND GLOBALIZATION. As a discipline, IPE encompasses several theories derived from three main conceptualizations or ideologies: mercantilism, liberalism, and Marxism. This paper compares and contrasts the three main conceptions of IPE. Following the general comparative overview of the three conceptions, the analysis considers how advocates of each view would assess the phenomenon of globalization. A final section of the analysis uses the IPE lens (and hegemonic stability theory in particular) to consider the merits and dangers of “hegemonic stability” in international trade. Turabian Style. 25 pages, 48 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 6,192 words.

Arguments Against Globalization Research Paper

Theories of Globalization: Cultural, Economic and Political Dimensions Research Paper

Globalization and China Profile Research Paper

China and India Face the Challenges of Globalization Research Paper

Globalization and Kuwait Research Paper

TAGS: international political theory political ideology political theory mercantilism liberalism marxism hegemonic stability globalization.

17255. TERRORISM AND THE FOREIGN POLICIES OF LIBYA, TURKEY & SAUDI ARABIA. This paper provides a comparative overview and analysis of the foreign policies of three Muslim countries – Turkey, Libya, and Saudi Arabia – with respect to the global issue of terrorism. Following a brief definition and overview of the problem of global terrorism, the paper examines and compares Libya’s, Turkey’s and Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy initiatives and approaches regarding terrorism. Specific consideration is given to terrorism and foreign policy in Turkey’s bid for EU accession, Libya’s drive to escape the strictures of economic sanctions, and Saudi Arabia’s relations with Western states. The three foreign policies are analyzed through various contemporary analytical lenses, including the psychological approach, decision-making analysis, international political economy approach, and others (Braveboy-Wagner & Snarr, 2003; Renshon & Duckitt, 2000; Holsti, 2001; Kegley & Wittkopf, 1995). This analysis draws especially on Mohamedou’s (2003) state-centered approach to examining foreign policy. Keywords: Islamic fundamentalism terrorism foreign policy analysis Muslim states Libya Turkey Saudi Arabia suicide terrorism suicide bombers. 12 pages; 51 footnotes; 38 bibliographic sources. 3,144 words.

Suicide Terrorism Research Paper

Suicide Terrorism in the Middle East Research Paper

Defining Terrorism Research Paper

Bioterrorism: Biological Terrorism, Anthrax, Smallpox, Botulism, Plague, Tularemia Research Paper
17220. THE U.S. AS A "NATION BASED ON FAITH". This paper argues that the United States should become more clearly identified as a Christian country (while still accepting diverse religious beliefs). The discussion includes the role of Christian ethics in the development of the nation and its laws, and the need for moral values to overcome social problems and to strengthen the country as a whole. Keywords: morality Christianity national identity Americans Christian ethics US. 11 pages; 22 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 2,699 words.   $77
17202. LAW VERSUS JUSTICE. The relationship between the idea of law as a legal concept and justice as an equitable ideal is often a contentious one when put into everyday practice. Following a brief overview of the differing and sometimes contradictory meanings of law and justice, this paper analyzes and critiques the ideals of law and justice, drawing on examples from antitrust, agency, intellectual rights and discrimination. A concluding section articulates and defends the position that laws should be derived from assumptions of justice, while arguing simultaneously that justice is inherently an evolving concept. Keywords: justice law philosophy agency discrimination intellectual property antitrust. 16 pages; 34 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 4,258 words.   $112
17164. AMERICAN MASS CONSUMERISM, 1880-1940. This essay examines and analyzes the key characteristics of American mass consumerism during the period 1880-1940 and considers how this mass consumerism differed from other modes of consumption before the Second World War. The investigation looks at the social, political, and economic aspects of American mass consumerism during this period and considers some of the ways in which consumption patterns and responses were affected by class, race, and most especially, gender. It is argued that American mass consumerism during this period was fused into a political ideology supporting consumerism that helped to foster a belief in mass consumerism as a part of the “American way of life.” 16 pages; 42 footnotes; 17 bibliographic sources. 4,823 words.   $112
17149. PEACEKEEPING IN THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD. This paper provides an overview and analysis of peacekeeping in the post-Cold War world. The analysis considers how peacekeeping changed and devolved during the post-Cold War era, looking at the shift from peacekeeping to peace-making, peace-enforcing, and peace-building as well as the rapid expansion of humanitarian missions. The analysis also examines the changing international environment for peacekeeping in the post Cold War era, with particular attention to the changing nature of conflicts and the changing norms of sovereignty in international law. The United Nations’ legitimacy as an international organization charged with peacekeeping responsibilities is analyzed. The obstacles against and prospects for future peacekeeping efforts are considered. 17 pages; 29 footnotes; 22 bibliographic sources. 4,483 words.   $119
17137. DO NATIONAL MEDIA STILL MATTER? Drawing on examples from the U.S., U.K., and countries of the Middle East, this paper considers the issue of whether or not national media still matter in this era of globalization. The analysis begins with an overview of the issues on globalization and media. Drawing on examples from Palestine, Iran, Kuwait, and Arab satellite TV, the changing role of national media in the Middle East is considered. Another section of the analysis considers the role of U.S. and U.K. national media in depictions of events and issues in the Middle East, looking in particular at the 1991 Gulf War, U.S. and U.K. media reports on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the U.S. -led war on Iraq. It is argued that notwithstanding extensive globalization of media, national media continue to matter – indeed, the process of globalization has in many cases heightened the importance of national media. Keywords: media globalization national Arab British US. 18 pages; 51 footnotes; 34 bibliographic sources. 5,228 words.   $126
17126. PEACEKEEPING, 1648-1989. This paper provides an overview and analysis of peacekeeping from 1648 to 1989. Drawing on specific examples, the analysis considers peacekeeping within its historical, social, political, and economic contexts, with particular attention to nation-state, sovereignty, nation, colony, church-state relations, civil-military relations, alliances and trade conflict. Following an overview of the political context of war, peace and peacekeeping during the period (1648-1989) under consideration, the analysis considers peacekeeping efforts within the circumstances of specific conflicts. KEYWORDS: war armed conflict resolution peacekeeping historical sovereignty nation states. APA Style. 20 pages; 47 footnotes; 19 bibliographic sources. 4,776 words.   $133
17125. PEACEKEEPING IN THE ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL, AND EARLY MODERN ERAS. This paper examines the forms, application, and contingencies of peacekeeping in the ancient, medieval, and early modern worlds. The analysis considers the nature of war and peace in the ancient and medieval/early modern eras and identifies the major actors involved in peacekeeping. Drawing on specific examples, the investigation considers peacekeeping in these historical contexts, with specific attention to the influence of empire, city-state structure, church-state relations, political factionalism and trade conflict. 15 pages; 41 footnotes; 19 bibliographic sources. 4,555 words.   $105
17119. THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE SUPERPOWERS: BEFORE AND AFTER THE COLD WAR. This paper analyzes United Nations’ behavior under the Superpowers (the U.S. and the U.S.S.R./Russia), comparing and contrasting United Nations-Superpower relations during the Cold War and in the post-Cold War era. The analysis begins with a brief background discussion on the history, structure and function of the United Nations (UN). Focusing primary on the Security Council as the nexus of UN-Superpower relations, the next sections examine UN behavior during the bipolar era of the Cold War and during the post-Cold War era after the collapse of the Soviet Union. A final section draws on the preceding analysis to consider whether or not the UN needs superpowers to implement its Charter. KEYWORDS: superpowers international power relations united nations us international organizations ussr cold war russia america. MLA Style. 21 pages, 81 footnotes, 30 bibliographic sources. 6,632 words.   $133
17114. EVALUATING MEDIA PERFORMANCE IN DEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES. This essay addresses the question, “By what standard should we evaluate media performance in democratic societies?” The analysis begins with the premise that the appropriate standards for evaluating media performance in democratic societies are necessarily condition by the form of democracy and the underlying political and social values of the democratic society. Focusing on Anglo-American democratic societies, the analysis then defines and discusses the traditional and emerging roles of media within the democracy, considering also the constraints and limitations on the execution of these roles. Based on the articulation of these roles, the appropriate standards for the evaluation of media are outlined, along with general performance indicators and measurements. 12 pages; 27 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 3,622 words.   $84
15891. RENAISSANCE HUMANISM AND THE RESURRECTION OF CLASSICAL TEXTS. This paper discusses how the imitation of classical texts resulted in a sense of anachronism which in turn led to the development of a relativistic perspective on history (the historical perspective of the modern era). Also discusses how this view evolved in the works of Petrarch, Valla, Machiavelli, Erasmus, Montaigne, and others. 12 pages; 29 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
15877. INCREASED SURVEILLANCE FOLLOWING THE 9/11 TERRORIST ATTACKS. This paper refers to a New York Times article regarding how Americans, in response to their perceptions of fear, are giving up their liberties for the sake of greater security. The paper discusses how a Weberian theorist and a functionalist theorist would interpret this development. A personal interpretation is also given, which basically agrees with the Weberian view that increased surveillance is a negative and dehumanizing (and probably ineffective) development. 10 pages; 18 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 2,173 words.   $70
15849. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE AND THE IDEALS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. This paper argues that Napoleon was more like a pre-Revolutionary monarch than he was a promoter of Revolutionary values such as liberty and equality. Notes for example that Napoleon Bonaparte suppressed freedom of speech and declared himself emperor by divine rights. 6 pages; 16 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
15801. THE ROLE OF COMPROMISE IN PUBLIC POLICY DECISIONS. Compromise is beneficial to the results in policy issues, and it is something that is expected in the normal operations of government (as seen, for example, in the process of passing a congressional bill). Nevertheless, there have been instances of politicians and other policy makers failing to compromise; this paper discusses the problems caused by this failure. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
15767. CONFLICTING VIEWS ON SOCIAL POWER: TALCOTT PARSONS VERSUS C. WRIGHT MILLS. This paper analyzes and compares Mills' and Parsons' conceptions of power and its social systematization. Since it is the more clearly defined of the two views, the analysis begins with an overview of Mills' conception of social power and then turns to Parsons' view and the differences in the central assumptions and implications of the two versions. Concludes that Mills' conceptualization focuses on the distributive aspects of power while Parsons emphasized the consensual aspects in power. Mills' conceptualization assumes that power is inherently evil; Parsons finds social benefit in the exercise of legitimate power. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $84
15737. THE CONCEPT OF FEDERALISM. Discusses how the concept of federalism has changed over the years, and argues that the "new federalism" (as seen in recent Supreme Court decisions, for example) is contrary to the original purposes of federalism. In particular, the "new federalism" (which seeks to give more authority and autonomy to the states) undermines the ability of the federal government to protect the rights of individual citizens. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
15734. DEMOCRACY AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF PRAGMATISM. American democracy has been influenced by pragmatism despite the fact that the Founding Fathers emphasized the importance of natural law and pragmatism rejects absolute principles. This paper describes the pro and con views on pragmatism's influence, and argues that the pragmatic view is the correct one to take because there is a need for the acceptance of pluralism and tolerance in contemporary democracy. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
15729. THE GREEK NATIONAL LIBERATION MOVEMENT AND THE ITALIAN UNIFICATION MOVEMENT. Covers the history of these two 19th Century movements and discusses their similarities and differences. For example, they were different because the Greeks relied on European powers in their struggle against Ottoman rule, whereas the Italians relied on dynamic leaders in unifying their various city-states. Yet, the two movements were also similar because of their place in time and the role played by secret societies, among other things. 9 pages, 27 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
15728. POLITICAL RULE IN AN AGE OF INEQUALITY. The paper describes the differing ways that Machiavelli, Martin Luther and Rousseau all argued that, although people are fundamentally equal, there is still a need for political rule. Concludes with a personal opinion emphasizing the need for balance between government and individual and for the importance of the consent of the people in legitimizing governmental power. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
15718. CULTURE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE 20TH CENTURY. This paper discusses the role played by culture in economic and political development, and in such things as local resistance, views on human rights, the influence of religion, and gender inequalities. It is argued that all of these factors are interconnected and that there is a need to work on all of them in order for development to be attained. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
15716. THE ROLE OF THE PARLIAMENTS IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. By challenging the monarchy, the members of the parliaments (aka: parlement) helped bring about the conditions that caused the French Revolution. For example, the members resisted paying taxes and opposed tax reforms; in addition, they encouraged popular revolution by being apparently in favor of individual rights (although they were actually only interested in improving conditions for themselves). 11 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $77
15713. THOMAS JEFFERSON AND EQUALITY. Jefferson's claim that "all men are created equal" contrasts the inequalities that exist in reality (in fact, Jefferson himself owned slaves). This paper discusses the interpretations of what Jefferson really meant by his claim and argues that although the claim does not describe the truth, it provides an ideal for the government and the law to strive toward. 9 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $63
15700. A COMPARISON OF THE AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS. This paper compares and contrasts the American Revolution and the Russian Revolution in terms of their causes, course, and impact. The analysis draws on Crane Brinton's Anatomy of Revolution as a guide for comparing the two revolutions. Specifically, the analysis considers the extent to which each revolution fits within Brinton's stages of a revolution and examines the differences between the two revolutions using Brinton's framework. In addition to Brinton's work, information on each revolution is drawn from scholarly monographs and journal articles. KEYWORDS: american revolution russian revolution comparative analysis revolutionary theory brinton. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes. 13 pages, 32 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,644 words.   $91
15666. LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: WESTERN EUROPE VS. NORTH AMERICA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the factors contributing to the historic differences between Western Europe (both as independent nations and as the European Union) and North America (the U.S. and Canada) in the involvement of local government in economic development. The analysis begins with an overview of locally-based economic development and regional policy in the two regions. Following this, the analysis considers some of the specific factors which have contributed to the differences in these two regions' approach to local economic development, considering in particular structural issues (e.g., political-legal structure, population, urban structure, etc.), regional policy objectives, and differences in labor mobility. It will be argued that the European-North American differences in local economic development programs and general approach to regional policy have both been unintentionally shaped by forces related to geography, demography, structure of government and the weight of history, and have been deliberately shaped by each region's formal or defacto regional policy objectives. KEYWORDS: local economic development regional economics local economies governments. 13 pages, 27 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 4,763 words.   $91
15665. REGIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT IN EUROPE & UK. In terms of finding a solution to the problem of regional unemployment, one school of thought holds that, "The basic cause of local or regional concentrations of unemployment must be a lack of sufficient jobs, and the answer is thus essentially to create more jobs." This essay critically analyzes and discusses that assertion with respect to the situation in the UK and throughout Europe. The paper argues that while the assertion is over-simplified and lacking in specificity critical to solving the problem of regional unemployment disparity, it is rooted in truth. The underlying veracity of the statement is made evident through an examination of the specific causes of regional unemployment and by looking at the results of various efforts to reduce regional unemployment disparities. The essay argues that solutions to the problem will require job-creating strategies specifically targeted to the locality and the category of effected workers, particularly the most vulnerable manual laborers and less skilled female workers. KEYWORDS: european unemployment regional employment uk unemployed regional disparities employment. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,243 words.   $84
15621. NEOLIBERALISM IN LATIN AMERICA: ARE THERE ALTERNATIVES? This paper discusses the assertion that "There is no alternative to neoliberalism in Latin America." The analysis begins with a brief overview of the ideology and central components of what is known as "neoliberalism" and a review of the outcomes of neoliberalism in Latin America and the problems associated with the model. The major criticisms of neoliberalism as a development strategy for Latin America are then considered. A final section briefly reviews the possible alternatives to the neoliberal model. The conclusion argues that there are alternatives to neoliberalism in Latin America and that the region's achievement of sustainable development will depend upon the successful implementation of these alternative models. 13 pages, 57 footnotes in text, 24 bibliographic sources.   $91
15597. "MEGAN'S LAW" AS A VIOLATION OF THE EX POST FACTO CLAUSE. It is argued that the notification provisions of sex-offender registration laws are a violation of the Constitution's prohibition against retroactive punishments. In making this argument, various Federal Court and Supreme Court opinions, as well as the debate over how "punishment" is defined, are discussed. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
15585. THE "INCUMBENCY EFFECT" IN CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS. Despite low approval ratings in opinion polls, incumbents have many advantages over newcomers in elections. For example, voters tend to prefer candidates with prior experience, and incumbents have better access to funding sources. The paper concludes with some suggestions for creating a more level "playing field" in Congressional elections. 14 pages, 43 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $98
15582. CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES AND "MEGAN'S LAW." This paper concerns the laws that have arisen since the 1990's regarding registration and community notification in cases involving released sex offenders. It is argued that despite the apparent unconstitutional elements in the laws (relating to such issues as bill of attainder, the Ex Post Facto clause, double jeopardy and cruel and unusual punishment), they have been mostly upheld by the courts for the sake of "community protection." 11 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
15573. THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE AS AN EXPRESSION OF THE "REVOLUTIONARY SPIRIT." This paper discusses the sources of Jefferson's political theory and how the Declaration represents his views on governmental power and human rights. It is argued that the purpose of the Declaration was to stir up and maintain a revolutionary spirit, and to unite the Colonists in a common cause, the ultimate purpose of which was to create a new nation built on the principles of equality. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $70
15532. CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. Argues that the view of historian Howard Zinn (that the war was caused by economic conflicts rather than concerns about the morality of slavery) is limited. Compares this view with those of other historians and concludes that the war was due to multiple causes; these included cultural and political differences between the North and South, and especially divisiveness over the issue of the abolition of slavery. Includes outline. 12 pages, 28 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
15507. A HISTORIOGRAPHY OF AMERICAN SLAVERY. Eight books regarding the topic of slavery are compared and discussed; in this way the reader is shown how the views and methodologies of historians have changed over time. The eight authors discussed in the paper are: Phillips, Aptheker, Stampp, Genovese, Starobin, Blassingame, Gutman, and Levine. 18 pages, 45 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $126
15474. DEMOCRATIZATION IN BRAZIL. This report examines both the process and the results to date of democratization in Brazil. The first section examines theories of democratic transition, focusing on Samuel P. Huntington's (1991) The Third Wave and considering its application to Brazil. Again using Huntington's theory of democratization as the framework for analysis, the second part of the report presents a case analysis of democratization in Brazil, looking first at how Brazil made the transformation from an authoritarian to a democratic form of rule, and then examining and evaluating Brazil's progress and success to date with democratization. 25 pages, 67 footnotes, 34 bibliographic references.   $133
15200. POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AMONG SWAT PATHANS (BARTH). Examines the use of the interactionist approach in this 1959 anthropological study, and the view that individual rational choices play a vital role in the formation of political alliances. Barth's approach can be criticized because it focuses on the actions of leaders and thus fails to give a full account of Swat Pathans; nevertheless, the study is useful for what it reveals about political leadership in the society. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $49
15129. KANT AND POLITICAL PROPAGANDA. Analyzes a case of Internet political spam in the 2000 election as an ethical problem. Kant's categorical imperative is seen as more moral than a utilitarian, hedonistic or consequentialism ethical interpretation. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $70
15102. CITIZENSHIP AND THE WELFARE STATE. This essay argues that the sociological analysis of the concept of citizenship, as first popularized by the British sociologist T.H. Marshall, remains a valid and valuable concept in trying to understand the relations of individuals to the state and to society as whole, as well as for understanding the dynamics of inter-group relationships within a society, in all types of states. KEYWORDS: T.H. Marshall sociological analysis citizenship welfare states. Parenthetical Turabian Style. 10 pages, 34 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
15063. AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS: ELEMENTS OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY. This paper draws on theory and findings from modern political science research to support the arguments and observations concerning the critical elements in America's dynamic yet stable democracy. The discussion begins with an overview and analysis of some of the specific elements and institutions of American democracy. The executive branch, the administration/bureaucracy, Congress, the judiciary, voters and elections, and interests groups are examined for their role in American democracy. The concluding section takes a "big picture" view of American democracy and its processes and institutions, examining various theoretical and research assessments of the complexities of the American democratic system and its articulation in American political life. KEYWORDS: democratic instituttions democracy theory robert dahl american political structures. 36 pages, 54 footnotes, 21 bibliographic reference. 9,579 words.   $133
15039. DESCRIPTION OF A UTOPIAN SOCIETY. Concerns a fictitious society run by an elite group, and the methods used to keep the citizens satisfied, most of which are based on the principle of "moderation." The paper is creative, but also draws on utopian theories to support the society's validity. 14 pages, 13 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $98
15038. DEMOCRACY UNDER GLOBALIZATION. Looks at both the pessimistic and optimistic views on the future of democracy in a globalized economy, and argues in favor of the optimistic point of view. 13 pages, 36 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $91
14103. PLATO'S REPUBLIC. A comprehensive analysis of the ten books of Plato's major work. Examines Plato's model of the soul, theory of the ideal state, concepts of justice and fairness, and ideas on family and education. The metaphysical and mythical aspects of Plato's philosophy are also described in relation to the theory of the Good and Forms. 25 pages, 22 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $133
14098. THE CONCEPT OF FREEDOM IN LOCKE AND J.S. MILL. Locke’s views on natural freedom and the need for consent in forming societies are compared to Mill’s arguments for “absolute freedom” (with some exceptions). Also, whereas Locke emphasized the right of people to rebel, Mill emphasized the importance of freedom to express any opinion. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 6 bibliographical references.   $63
14084. WHY AMERICANS DON’T VOTE: TURNOUT DECLINE IN THE UNITED STATES, 1960-1984 BY RUY TEIXEIRA. This paper provides a review and critique of Teixeira’s book investigating and explaining the decline in American voter turnout during the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s. The paper summarizes Teixeira’s findings regarding socio-political and demographic explanations for the decline in voter turnout. KEYWORDS: book review voter turnout political participation statistical analysis. MLA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
14083. DEATH PENALTY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. Argues that the death penalty, abolished in the 1960s, was eliminated because of the will of politicians rather than the will of the British public. The discussion includes reference to opinion polls, the workings of the British political system, and international pressures. 16 pages, 47 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $112
14080. LEGISLATIVE POLITICS. Drawing on the work of political science theorists in the field of legislative decision-making, this paper examines three analytical models or approaches used to study and explain legislative policymaking: 1) principal-agent; 2) rational expectations (with reference to the rational choice model as its precursor); and 3) coalition analysis. The investigation considers the pros and cons of each of the three appraches and looks at the kinds of problems in legislative policymaking for which each of the models has most often been used, considering the applicability of the other two models to these types of problems. A concluding section makes a summary comparison of the three models. 18 pages, 34 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $126
14079. BUREAUCRACY AND GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. Considers the role and purpose of bureaucracy in the United States and its status as the "fourth branch of government." Drawing upon the work of contemporary and classical theorists in administrative politics (including Weber, Simon, Wilson, Selznick, Kaufman, Tullock, and others), discusses the role of bureaucracy in American government and how it relates to prevailing American democratic theory. Keywords: american bureaucracy government theory essay. APA Style. 17 pages, 25 footnotes, and 11 bibliographic references. 4,644 words.   $119
14077. INTEREST GROUP THEORY. Using Mancur Olson's (1965) classic book, The Logic of Collective Action, as a starting point for the analysis, this term paper presents an analysis and overview of interest group theory. The paper considers the major contributions of Olson's work towards the understanding of interest groups. Discusses the limitations of Olson's theory, drawing upon the works of other analysts and theorists in the field. The essay specifically considers the limitations of Olson's work with regard to the existence of ideologically-based interest groups and the political influence of the media. KEYWORDS: mancur olson logical collective action book review interest group theory term paper. APA Style. 18 pages, 33 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 4,656 words.   $126
14068. RACE AND POVERTY IN CITIES. This paper considers the current state of the political economy of urban America, with a close focus on the central city and the issues related to race and poverty. The first section provides a general overview of poverty and race in the central city. The next section considers some of the major theoretical approaches to explaining urban poverty. The concluding section examines the parameters (including some of their weaknesses and/or problems) of current and past approaches to attempting to 'fix' the urban poverty problem. KEYWORDS: urban poverty political economy cities racism term paper. APA Style. 13 pages, 54 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,847 words.   $91
14066. GLOBAL CITIES. This paper presents an overview and analysis of the impact and implications of globalization for cities (focusing on American cities). The analysis considers the relationship between globalization and urban economic change, the importance of cities in the global economy, the emergence of 'global' cities and their characteristics, and the relationship between globalization and urban social, racial and spatial configurations. KEYWORDS: globalization urban global cities term paper. APA Style. 14 pages, 31 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 3,974 words.   $98
14064. URBAN GOVERNMENT SERVICES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of current issues and concerns in urban governments' provision of services. It includes a focus on equity issues in service distribution and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of recent trends in alternative urban services delivery. KEYWORDS: city services urban government service delivery term paper. APA Style. 15 pages, 20 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 3,763 words.   $105
14063. METROPOLITAN GROWTH POLITICS. This paper examines the challenges and issues of contemporary suburban and metropolitan regional growth politics and governance. The first section traces the rise of the suburbs, noting some of the forces behind their growth, and outlines the current composition of American metropolitan areas. The second section considers the consequences of suburbanization and its impact on local government and quality of life. The third and final section considers strategies for addressing the problems wrought by suburbanization, focusing most closely on policies and programs aiming at controlling growth. KEYWORDS: city suburbs metropolitan growth strategies politics term paper. APA Style. 15 pages, 24 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 4,033 words.   $105
14020. PUBLIC BUDGETING POLITICS. This essay considers the politics of public budgeting, focusing on the importance of economic issues in the public budgeting process and the role of environmental and balancing constraints and considering the extent to which democratic politics serves as an appropriate alternative to the marketplace for allocating the values that people hold dear in a democracy. KEYWORDS: public budget political aspects term paper. APA Style. 14 pages, 32 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,966 words.   $98
14009. A DEFENSE OF MACHIAVELLI. Argues that Machiavelli was being realistic when he urged his prince to match the ruthlessness of the other political leaders of the time. Also, based on his desire to see a strong, unified Italy, Machiavelli believed that the stability of the state was more important that normal moral concerns. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.   $42
13991. SOCRATES ON DEMOCRACY. In the Republic (Plato), Socrates used exaggerated examples to argue that democracy is inferior to his vision of an “ideal state.” Socrates defined democracy as the ability to do as one pleases; based on this definition, he claimed that it results in a lack of social unity and the destruction of natural hierarchies. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 1 bibliography.   $42
13957. EUROPEAN UNIFICATION AND U.S. FEDERALISM. This term paper compares European unification with U.S. federalism. The first part of the research paper provides an overview of federalism and its development in the United States. The essay looks at how federalism evolved in the U.S., considers its central elements and features (including its relation to democracy and liberty), and examines how federalism has changed in the U.S. since its founding. Drawing upon the perspective of U.S. federalism, the second part of the paper examines the case of federalism in the EU. The analysis examines the institutional framework of the EU, considers the relations between Member States and the emerging ‘federal’ European polity, addresses questions of national sovereignty and the changing nature of the nation-state, and considers the issue of ‘European’ versus state (or in this case, national) citizenship. A concluding section provides a summary comparison of European unification and U.S. federalism and makes projections about the future course of European federalism and the prospects for a “United States of Europe.” APA Style. 29 pages, 104 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

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13952. HOBBES AND ARISTOTLE ON SECURITY AS A POLITICAL GOAL. Hobbes believed that conflict arises because people are naturally equal, and claimed that security requires a strong ruler who keeps citizens in fear of punishment if they disobey the law. Aristotle believed that conflict is caused by inequalities and claimed that security comes from wise, just and moderate rulers. The paper argues that Aristotle's position is in fact the stronger of the two. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.   $49
13918. THOMAS MORE'S UTOPIA AND THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES. This paper analyzes how the political and social structures of More's ideal society reflect the tensions at the end of the Middle Ages when Europe was changing politically from a feudal, agricultural society made up of smaller states, to large modern nation states with power concentrated in the central government. KEYWORD: medieval philosophy thomas more britian utopia. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
13838. TWO POLITICAL PROCESS MODELS OF THE AMERICAN ANTI-WAR MOVEMENT. This investigation provides a sociological perspective on the anti-war movement during the Vietnam War era. Argues that the anti-war movement which arose in the 1960's in response to U.S. involvement in Vietnam was a distinct social movement. The analysis examines the movement's growth using two of McAdam's political process models: one model of movement emergence and another of movement development -- testing McAdam's basic theory of movement dynamics against the historical evidence. 23 pages, 28 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $133
13798. NATIONS AND NATIONALISM SINCE 1780 BY E.J. HOBSBAWM. A critique and analysis of Hobsbawn's theory of nationalism and 'national patriotism' as outlined in his 1990 book. Argues that while Hobsbawn's argument does in fact explain much about the origins and nature of nationalism, it fails to clearly distinguish between different types of nations and their defining characteristics. 14 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $98
13797. NATIONALISM: EMERGENCE AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT. This paper examine the initial development and emergence of nationalism in a variety of settings, in an effort to identify the major characteristics which distinguish the formation of nation states from empires, principalities, and smaller political units. Examines early European nationalism, English nationalism, Islamic nationalism, Arab nationalism, and nationalist movements in Czechoslovakia, Romania, the Ukraine and Hungary. 11 pages, 20 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
13788. MAYORAL POWER IN AMERICAN CITIES. A broad discussion of mayoral elections and mayoral power in American cities. The first part of the paper focuses on the politics and major influences in mayoral elections, considering in particular the role of the local media, political parties, interest groups and the candidates. The second part of the paper compares and contrasts mayoral power in strong and weak city council systems. Cites specific examples from New York City, Baltimore, Atlanta, San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Antonio, and other cities. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $77
13780. MACHIAVELLI AND ITALIAN PATRIOTISM. An analysis of Machiavelli's arguments - advanced in chapters 25 and 26 of The Prince - exhorting Italian patriots to seize control of their country from its occupying armies. Considers Machiavelli's revolutionary ideas in the context of the Late Renaissance. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
13691. CULTURE WARS: THE STRUGGLE TO DEFINE AMERICA BY JAMES DAVISON HUNTER. A review and analysis of Hunter's 1990 study, focusing on the author's proposed steps "toward democratic possibilities" that will theoretically lead America to a new "moral pluralism." 5 pages, 3 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
13676. GEORGE BUSH VS. SADDAM HUSSEIN: LEADERSHIP STYLES. This paper compares and contrasts the political leadership styles of U.S. President George H. Bush and the Iraqi leader. Examines the stereotype of Bush as a "wimp" versus Hussein as a "ruthless bully." 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
13633. JAMES Q. WILSON ON BUREAUCRACY. This paper presents an overview and analysis of James Q. Wilson's (1989) assessment of bureaucracy (in Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It) comparing and contrasting it with the viewpoints of major theorists in the field of public administration. The survey of major theorists in the field includes "classical" writings by Marx Weber, Woodrow Wilson, Frederick Taylor, and Chester Barnard, as well as more contemporary viewpoints provided by theorists such as Charles Perrow, W. Richard Scott, John Mayer, Michael M. Harmon, and Richard T. Mayer. Keywords: bureaucracy theory wilson book review essay. APA Style. 16 pages, 34 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $112
13553. STRATEGIC LESSONS OF THE U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN VIETNAM. Includes the failure of the attrition strategy, the need for a quick, decisive victory, the importance of alliances, and the need for "self-responsibility" among client nations. Also covers how the U.S. underestimated the enemy, and became involved in Vietnam despite a lack of vital interests there. 11 pages, 41 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
13351. USING APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY TO FORMULATE POLITICAL STRATEGY. Draws on literature in political psychology to construct a positive, image-oriented campaign for a Republican candidate in a hypothetical state election. Argues that affect supercedes cognitions in voter decision-making. 5p., footnotes in paper, 8b.   $35
13304. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT IN THE AFTERMATH OF TOKYO. Focusing on biological and chemical terrorism (an analysis of preparedness for nuclear terrorist attack is excluded from this investigation), this paper considers crisis and emergency management issues. Using the Tokyo subway attack as a starting point and following an overview of the central components of biological/chemical terrorism and weaponry, the analysis examines some of the emergency/crisis management “lessons learned” from the Tokyo incident and attempts to outline an appropriate crisis management plan. 14 pages, 48 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $98
13294. REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT IN VENICE AND FLORENCE. Examines the popular basis and republican electoral systems of Venice and Florence in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Indirect election, government by committee, and balancing of power among families are seen as the source of republican freedom in these two cities; dynasticism and nationalism are however shown to be the growing trend of the period. 10 pages, 18 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
13258. AMERICA'S TWO-PARTY SYSTEM. Argues that the system is still important today, despite criticisms that have been leveled against it. Discusses views of voters and political scientists, difficulties faced by "third parties," and roles of the two major parties. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
13251. THE ASIATIC MODE OF PRODUCTION. Examines Marx's concept of a stagnant system of primitive mass production in Asian cultures, focusing on modern Chinese historiography and debate over the validity of this theory. Marx's theory, and recent rejection of the unilinear model of history East and West, are summarized. 15 pages, 16 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $105
13173. THE LIMITS TO "MODERNIZATION" IN COLONIAL AFRICA. A detailed examination of the problem of psychological and social "modernization" in late colonial Africa. Focuses on three specific examples: the 'Kimbangist' church movement (an adaptation of Christianity) in the Congo region 1920's--1940's; the tribal 'consolidation' and renewal movement of the Fang peoples in Cameroun and Gabon 1947-51; and the career of Adegoke Adelabu, a Nigerian politician who made a transition from a distinctly marginal commercial/bureaucratic career to a Cabinet position before and untimely death in 1958. Conclusion mixes importance of 'modernization' changes in individual lives, with socio-political-economic structures that provided firm limits to large-scale social change. 12 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $84
13164. EVENTS LEADING TO WORLD WAR I. Incisive analysis of the developments precipitating the Great War. Offensive military doctrines, arms buildups, decline of Eastern empires, and a system of treaties binding the Great Powers to mutual defense all seen as playing important roles. The role of new military technology and defensive stalemate is emphasized. 10., 15f., 6b.   $70
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