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19D. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
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18744. THE ENDING OF THE COLD WAR. This paper examines the shift in the global balance of power that occurred during the 1980s, when the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union was coming to an end. The paper includes a discussion of the claim that President Reagan’s assertiveness was a major contributor to the breakup of the Soviet Union. It is argued that factors within the Soviet Union itself played a more important role in causing the superpower’s decline. KEYWORDS: history politics power Cold War détente deterrence superpowers United States Soviet Union Reagan Gorbachev. MLA Style. 11 pages, 28 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,615 words.   $77
 
18728. THE NEED FOR CHANGE IN THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL. This paper argues that certain changes are needed in the United Nations’ Security Council in order to increase the organization’s legitimacy in the eyes of the world. For example, the size of the Security Council should be made larger and the power of permanent members to veto resolutions should be reformed. It is noted that there are many challenges in making these kinds of changes. The paper addresses the steps that a change agent would need to follow, such as conducting a readiness assessment and engaging in the processes of unfreezing, movement and refreezing, as recommended by the theorist Kurt Lewin. KEYWORDS: United Nations organizational change security council enlargement veto. APA Style. 8 pages, 14 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 1,842 words.   $56
 
18668. THE MARSHALL PLAN. This paper discusses the conditions at the end of World War II and the start of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. In response to the effort of the Soviet Union to expand its influence in Europe, U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed an economic recovery plan. According to the plan, the U.S. would provide aid to help revive the economies of Western Europe, thereby building alliances with the nations there. The Marshall Plan was successful in achieving this objective, although it also contributed to increasing tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. KEYWORDS: economic recovery program Marshall plan alliances Cold War. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,318 words.   $42
 
18546. SUICIDE TERRORISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST. This paper is concerned with suicide terrorism, with an emphasis on the problem as it exists in the Middle East. Suicide terrorism is perpetrated by terrorist organizations, in reaction to the perception of being occupied. Certain individuals agree to act as suicide bombers on the basis of incentives that might be economic, psychological or spiritual in nature. Terrorist organizations continue to use the tactic because they believe it is effective. The paper concludes with a consideration of the alternatives that have been proposed for dealing with the problem. TAGS: terrorism suicide bombers Middle East international cooperation suicide terrorism. MLA Style. 12 pages, 30 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,753 words.
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18532. THREATS TO PEACE IN THE POST COLD WAR ERA. This paper argues that threats to peace in the post-Cold War era are more uncertain than in the past and are more likely to arise from multiple sources (such as civil wars, regional wars, and acts of terrorism). Therefore, there is need for collective security among democratic nations as well as a capability for flexible response. KEYWORDS: peacemaking peacekeeping post-cold war international relations military war. APA Style. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,238 words.   $35
 
18531. A STANDBY ARMY FOR THE UNITED NATIONS. This paper addresses the 1992 proposal by UN Secretary General Boutros-Ghali to create a permanent peacemaking army consisting of troops loaned by the UN’s member nations. It is argued that Boutros-Ghali’s proposal had more advantages than disadvantages, particularly in terms of providing quick and flexible response to crisis situations. Nonetheless, the proposal was defeated because of the opposition of powerful members of the UN’s Security Council and the argument that a standby army would have a negative impact on state sovereignty. KEYWORDS: standby army international relations military United Nations. APA Style. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,314 words.   $35
 
18530. NAFTA AND U.S.-CANADA-MEXICO RELATIONS. As discussed in this paper, NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement) was established in 1994 in order to create equal trade relations between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. However, analysts have argued that that the agreement has resulted in a “dual-bilateral” system rather than a true “trilateral partnership,” as originally intended. This seems to be due to the U.S. adopting a perspective of realism (emphasizing self-interest and national security) rather than the perspective of liberalism, as implied in the wording of the NAFTA document. KEYWORDS: international relations economy trade NAFTA United States Canada Mexico. APA Style. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,221 words.   $35
 
18522. AMERICAN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE CHINESE. This paper argues that American attitudes toward the Chinese have been influenced by stereotypical dualistic thinking and the perception of the Chinese people as an opposite “Other.” This argument is supported by reference to the theoretical views of Edward Said and Richard Madsen, the views of American writers such as Eva Jane Price, Bret Harte and Pearl Buck, a 2007 opinion poll, and Cold War perceptions of Communist China as an opposing force to American democracy. It is concluded that Americans need to focus more on their common humanity with the Chinese, rather than emphasizing conflicting traits. KEYWORDS: international relations culture american attitudes Chinese stereotypes China United States. APA Style. 11 pages, 21 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,683 words.   $77
 
18513. OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR II. This paper describes five events that contributed to the outbreak of World War II in 1939. These events are: Hitler’s rise to power, Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia, Germany’s seizure of the Rhineland, the Munich Conference, and the Non-Aggression Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union. The Non-Aggression Pact, in particular, is seen as the ultimate turning point in the progression toward war. KEYWORDS: history World War II Hitler Soviet Union. MLA Style. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,751 words.   $49
 
18512. THE THREAT OF GLOBAL WARMING. This paper discusses the need to address the problem of global warming. It starts by describing the scientific evidence that global warming exists, has damaging impacts, and is caused by human activity. It then considers views on the extent to which the problem can be reversed. It is argued that there is a need for cooperative action on various levels, as well as the use of a market-based approach combined with a certain degree of government intervention. KEYWORDS: science environment global warming climate change. APA Style. 18 pages, 51 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 4,171 words.   $126
 
18511. AMERICAN INFLUENCE ON JAPANESE POLITICS AND SOCIETY. This paper examines America’s influence on Japan’s politics, economy, business, culture and society in the period following the Second World War. It is noted that this influence has been declining in recent years and that the Japanese government and people have been seeking to balance U.S. influences by incorporating more regional and indigenous influences. KEYWORDS: United States Japan american influence politics economy culture. APA Style. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,331 words.   $70
 
18314. THE NEED FOR A “WHOLE-NATION” APPROACH TO RECONCILIATION AND PEACE BUILDING IN RWANDA. This paper is concerned with the effort to attain reconciliation and peace in Rwanda, a nation that has been torn by ethnic conflict between the Tutsis and the Hutus. Three major approaches have been used following the 1994 genocide: international intervention, the Rwandan court system, and gacaca (local courts, with an emphasis on reintegration of offenders). However, progress has been slow because of flaws in the existing efforts. It is argued that it is important to deal with the needs and concerns of all social groups in the nation as a whole, not just with those of the Tutsis and Hutus. KEYWORDS: Rwanda politics law justice ethnic conflict. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 22 pages, 36 footnotes in text, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
18232. THE IMPACT OF TERRORISM ON BUSINESS IN THE MIDDLE EAST. This paper describes the negative impact of terrorism and the threat of terrorism on foreign investment, tourism, airlines, oil prices, consumerism, and economic growth in the Middle East. There is evidence that business in the region is gradually rebounding from the devastating global impacts of the 9/11 terrorist attacks against the United States in 2001. Despite this, risks continue to exist and thus businesses and governments need to remain vigilant. KEYWORDS: business terrorism Middle East 9/11. APA Style. 7 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
18225. AGRICULTURE AND THE THREAT OF TERRORISM. This paper is concerned with the problem of “agro-terrorism” (the use of terrorism to disrupt the nation’s food supply). This threat is complicated by the openness and interconnectedness of the “food chain”(the various steps in moving food from farm to table). It is argued that the government needs to do more to protect the security of the food supply and the nation’s people. Some recommendations are provided to help accomplish this goal. KEYWORDS: agriculture terrorism government policy. APA Style. 18 pages, 43 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
18203. SUICIDE TERRORISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of suicide terrorism. Following a discussion of the definition of suicide terrorism, the paper traces the history of suicide terrorism from ancient times through the development of modern suicide terrorism in the latter 20th century. Focusing primarily on modern suicide terrorism, the paper then discusses the main features and characteristics of suicide terrorism and suicide terrorists (individuals and organizations). Another section examines some of the major theories or explanations of suicide terrorism, considering the influence of individual, social, and organizational motives and factors. The concluding section briefly considers steps that might be taken to slow or stop the continued expansion of suicide terrorism. TAGS: suicide terrorism suicide bombers terrorist motivations theories terrorism middle east islamic terrorist organizations. APA Style. 20 pages, 165 footnotes, 50 bibliographic sources. 6,650 words.
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18201. NGO SECTOR IN HAITI. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current state of civil society development and nongovernmental organizational sector in Haiti. The paper begins with an overview of Haitian society and economy. Following this, Haitian civil society and the non-governmental sector are profiled in the context of Haitian political culture, socioeconomic change and changing state-society relations, and the international context of Haiti's domestic politics and socioeconomic development. KEYWORDS: haiti civil society non-governmental organizations ngos political unrest international aid. APA Style. 18 pages, footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
18177. MALAYSIA-UNITED STATES FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. This term paper traces the history of the attempt to create a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between Malaysia and the United States in 2006 and 2007. Following a brief discussion of the advantages of free trade agreements in general and the US policy position on bilateral versus multilateral trade agreements, the paper focuses on Malaysia-US trade issues and the proposed FTA. The five rounds of trade talks beginning in March 2006 and ending in May of 2007 are discussed. The two sides sought to open the Malaysian market to U.S. financial services and auto-makers while opening the American market to imports of rubber, timber, garments, plastics, chemical and agricultural products, optical and scientific instruments, and electrical and electronic goods, by dropping duties, currently 5 to 32 percent. Malaysia also sought technical support to give it an advantage over other Asian countries, making it attractive for biotechnology and for high-end technical research and development. The paper considers the reasons for the breakdown in talks, noting the importance of Malaysian concerns about access to generic medications and opposition from the Malaysian agricultural sector as well as US concerns about intellectual property, patent protection, labor laws, environmental standards, and access to government contracts. KEYWORDS: bilateral trade agreements Malaysia United States trade negotiations FTA, Turabian Style with endnotes. 15 pages, 67 footnotes, 66 bibliographic sources. 4,768 words.   $105
 
18175. EXTRAORDINARY RENDITIONS: LEGALITY. This paper presents an overview and legal analysis of the Bush Administration’s post-911 counterterrorism practice of having the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) detain and deliver suspected terrorists to foreign governments for interrogation and possibly torture. After briefly describing extraordinary renditions and discussing the Bush Administration’s justifications and claims of legality versus critics’ contention that the practice is illegal, this paper reviews the various treaties, conventions, covenants, and other international legal documents to assess the legality of the US programs of extraordinary renditions. The essay concludes that the US program of extraordinary renditions represents a clear violation of international law in that such renditions violate the provisions of a number of different international treaties and covenants (including the Geneva Conventions, the International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights (ICCPR), and the Convention Against Torture) to which the United States is party. KEYWORDS: terrorists counterterrorist policy us war on terror bush extraordinary rendition torture guantanamo prisoners international law treaty. Turabian with Endnotes. 19 pages, 70 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 4,505 words excluding footnotes.   $133
 
18067. U.S. MILITARY STRATEGIES. This paper examines the four grand strategies that various U.S. military planners have recommended in recent decades. The strategies in question are: neo-isolationism, selective engagement, cooperative security, and primacy. The advantages and shortcomings of each strategy are described. In addition, the paper discusses how U.S. military strategy has evolved in recent decades, up through the period following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The paper concludes with the argument that cooperative security provides the best approach for meeting America's current national security needs. KEYWORDS: military strategy neo-isolationism selective engagement cooperative security primacy. MLA Style. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,270 words.   $84
 
17705. INTERNATIONAL WATERCOURSE AGREEMENTS: THE CASE OF THE 1995 MEKONG AGREEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE 1997 U.N. CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE NON-NAVIGATIONAL USES OF INTERNATIONAL WATERCOURSES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of two recent significant multilateral international water agreements. Specifically, the 1995 Agreement on Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin (hereinafter, “Mekong Agreement”) is described and analyzed in the context of the background and provisions of the 1997 U.N. Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses (hereafter, “UN Convention”). The 1995 Mekong Agreement governs water sharing and cooperation among four lower riparians – Thailand, Vietnam, Lao PDR, and Cambodia – on the Mekong River, the largest and most important river in Southeast Asia and the world’s tenth largest river in terms of annual water. Building on more than two decades of work by the International Law Commission, the 1997 UN Convention, which has not yet come into force, represents a move to codify customary international law governing management of use and conflict of international freshwater watercourses. The UN Convention aims at establishing “general principles for the use and management of international watercourses and to assist in the resolution of disputes. KEYWORDS: international water agreements river states Mekong river Vietnam Thailand laos Cambodia china Myanmar united nations convention navigational uses. Blue Book Legal Style. 28 pages, 82 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources. 6,729 words.   $133
 
17632. FROISSART’S CHRONICLES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Jean Froissart’s (1337-1410) views on chivalry, the nobility, God, and the events of his era (including the early part of the Hundred Years’ War, the original formation of France’s “Three Estates” – nobility, clergy, merchants, the attacks of mercenaries known as “Free Companies” and the failed revolutionary plot of Etienne Marcel) as expressed in his Chronicles. KEYWORDS: france medieval Europe middle ages hundred year war nobility chivalry froissart. Turabian/Chicago Style with Bottom-of-Page Footnotes and separate bibliography. 7 pages, 24 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,714 words.   $49
 
17590. HUMAN ORGAN SALES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of human organ shortages (for the purpose of transplants) and the extensive black market that has developed as a result of this shortage and the illegality of human organ trading. This paper argues that the best solution to the problem is to create a system for the legalized, regulated marketing of human organs. KEYWORDS: human organ sales black market kidneys. MLA Style. 8 pages, 32 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,948 words.   $56
 
17569. SECURITY & TERRORIST THREATS AT MEGA SPORTING EVENTS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the threat posed by terrorism at the Olympics and other mega sporting events and considers the efforts made since the 1972 Munich Olympics to protect the security and safety of athletes, fans and host-nations at such events. Following an overview of the impact of the terrorism at the 1972 Olympics, the analysis considers mega-event security in the post-Munich era through the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in Sydney. The impact of the terrorist attacks of 9/11 is considered as is mega-event security (at the World Series, Olympics, Super Bowl , etc.) during the post-9/11 period. Concludes that the threat of a terrorist attack is now and will continue to be a major concern at all mega sporting events. KEYWORDS: sporting events terrorism Olympics terrorists security sports. MLA Style. 18 pages, 54 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 4,231 words. 8d,19d   $126
 
17485. BOOK REVIEW: THE MAKING OF GREEN KNOWLEDGE BY ANDREW JAMISON. This paper provides a largely favorable review of Jamison’s thorough and insightful examination of the environmental movement’s last thirty years. Considers Jamison’s point of view, his central thesis and major themes, and summarizes the main points of the book. Argues that it is the author’s personal involvement in the environmental movement, as well as his firsthand observations of environmental politics and activism in the US, Sweden and Denmark that give the book its weight. review environmentalist. MLA Style. KEYWORDS: green movement environmentalism history book 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,195 words.   $35
 
17483. THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE (IOC). This paper provides a profile of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), focusing on the corruption scandals and the efforts to reform the committee. Argues that corruption within the IOC did not begin with the Salt Lake City Olympic bid, but has instead steadily increased since the IOC’s founding in 1894. Traces the history and background of the IOC, discusses the Salt Lake City corruption scandal and recent failed efforts to reform the Committee, and outlines the steps that need to be taken to address the ethical problems in the IOC. KEYWORDS: Olympics management scandal ico ethics sports. MLA Style. 13 pages, 24 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 3,032 words.   $91
 
17472. U.S.-RUSSIAN RELATIONS IN THE POST COLD WAR ERA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the United States’ relations with Russia in the post-Cold War era. U.S.-Russian relations are traced from the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union and the final years of the George H.W. Bush administration through the present-day and the administration of George W. Bush. The analysis considers both the motivations for cooperation and the potential for confrontation in the relationship, as well as the impact of Russia’s overall economic and social deterioration on relations between the two countries. KEYWORDS: foreign policy Russia post cold war us Russian relations bush putin gorbachev yeltsin Clinton. APA Style. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,642 words.   $84
 
17470. 2004 OLYMPICS: A HOSTAGE CASE SCENARIO. This paper applies a comprehensive emergency management model to a hypothetical terrorist crises scenario involving hostage-taking at the Athens’ Olympics. Following a brief description of the case scenario, the analysis considers how local and state officials should respond within the context of the four phases of emergency management (mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery) as well as the issues of communications and future emergency management. The analysis concludes with a list of recommendations to officials regarding the effective management of such a crisis. KEYWORDS: crisis management terrorism hostages olympics sporting events athens emergency management disasters. APA Style. 11 pages, 22 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
17459. DOES WESTERNIZATION EQUAL MODERNITY? THE CASE OF TURKEY. Eighty-two years ago, Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, set Turkey on a course of Westernization intended to bring Turkey into the modern era. Looking at the case of Turkey, this paper considers the question of whether Westernization equals modernity. It is argued that the rigid stricture of Kemalist doctrine, which holds that the secular Western model is the only path to modernity, was not realistic. Despite progress towards modernity, Turkey has not completely succeeded at either modernization or Westernization. While Westernization and modernity are closely linked, and while it is doubtful that a state would achieve modernization without also becoming more Western, movement towards Westernization does not necessary equal modernity and there may be other paths to modernity. KEYWORDS: Kemalism Turkey Westernization modernization democracy clash of civilizations. 9 pages, 45 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 2101 words.   $63
 
17443. TURKEY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. This paper presents an overview and analysis of Turkey’s planned accession to full membership in the European Union (EU). The history of EU-Turkish relations and Turkey’s bid for membership in the EU is traced. The potential advantages and disadvantages of Turkey’s EU membership from the perspective of both Turkey and the EU are considered. Likely barriers to Turkey’s accession are identified and discussed. The paper concludes with predictions on the probable course of the accession negotiations. KEYWORDS: Turkey European Union enlargement terrorism Islam secularization. 14 pages, 46 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 3298 words.   $98
 
17421. WORKING TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF TERRORISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the definition(s) of terrorism. The controversies, contradictions and inherent difficulties in defining terrorism and terrorists are discussed. The history and scope of terrorism and terrorist acts and its relevance to a consensus definition are considered. Various definitions of terrorism formulated by academicians, governments, and terrorism experts are presented and analyzed. KEYWORDS: terrorism terror terrorist acts definitions suicide terrorism terrorist organizations. 15 pages, 57 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources. 4,021 words.
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17382. INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY (IPE) AND GLOBALIZATION. As a discipline, IPE encompasses several theories derived from three main conceptualizations or ideologies: mercantilism, liberalism, and Marxism. This paper compares and contrasts the three main conceptions of IPE. Following the general comparative overview of the three conceptions, the analysis considers how advocates of each view would assess the phenomenon of globalization. A final section of the analysis uses the IPE lens (and hegemonic stability theory in particular) to consider the merits and dangers of “hegemonic stability” in international trade. Turabian Style. 25 pages, 48 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 6,192 words.
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TAGS: international political theory political ideology political theory mercantilism liberalism marxism hegemonic stability globalization.

  $133
 
17284. “THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE” BY ALFRED CROSBY. This paper provides a review and analysis of Crosby’s (1972) book about the exchange of plants, animals and diseases that occurred between the “Old World” (Europeans) and the “New World” (Native Americans) following Columbus’ discovery of America in 1492. Crosby’s book shows that the Europeans benefitted in many ways from the exchange; by contrast, the American Indians suffered greatly and experienced drastic declines in their populations. Crosby demonstrates the ways that the Columbian Exchange gave rise to various situations which persist in the world today (i.e., overpopulation, environmental damage, and species reduction). Above all Columbian Exchange placed the West in a dominant position in international affairs. KEYWORDS: Native Americans European domination trade effects. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,088 words.   $56
 
17255. TERRORISM AND THE FOREIGN POLICIES OF LIBYA, TURKEY & SAUDI ARABIA. This paper provides a comparative overview and analysis of the foreign policies of three Muslim countries – Turkey, Libya, and Saudi Arabia – with respect to the global issue of terrorism. Following a brief definition and overview of the problem of global terrorism, the paper examines and compares Libya’s, Turkey’s and Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy initiatives and approaches regarding terrorism. Specific consideration is given to terrorism and foreign policy in Turkey’s bid for EU accession, Libya’s drive to escape the strictures of economic sanctions, and Saudi Arabia’s relations with Western states. The three foreign policies are analyzed through various contemporary analytical lenses, including the psychological approach, decision-making analysis, international political economy approach, and others (Braveboy-Wagner & Snarr, 2003; Renshon & Duckitt, 2000; Holsti, 2001; Kegley & Wittkopf, 1995). This analysis draws especially on Mohamedou’s (2003) state-centered approach to examining foreign policy. Keywords: Islamic fundamentalism terrorism foreign policy analysis Muslim states Libya Turkey Saudi Arabia suicide terrorism suicide bombers. 12 pages; 51 footnotes; 38 bibliographic sources. 3,144 words.
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17229. TORTURE AND INTERNATIONAL LAW. This paper examines the treaties, agreements and other efforts made by the international community to ban the use of torture. Special focus is placed on the landmark 1984 United Nations agreement known as the “Convention Against Torture.” The paper also addresses unresolved issues related to the international community’s responsibility to end government’s use of torture against its own citizens. Keywords: international law agreements torture conventions United Nations. 6 pages; 21 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 1,590 words.   $42
 
17225. THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I. This paper examines some of the factors leading to the outbreak of World War I. The paper discusses the role of imperialism and nationalism, military and political alliances, the assassination of the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, the failure of Germany’s Schlieffen Plan, and the U.S. entry into the war. Keywords: World War I WWI causes. 6 pages; 24 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 1,502 words.   $42
 
17211. EXTRAJUDICIAL KILLING IN NIGERIA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of extrajudicial killings as a major human rights abuse in Nigeria. The paper focuses on the more recent continued problem of extrajudicial killing as it has occurred under the civilian administration since May of 1999. The investigation provides an overview of the abuse and its context, including a discussion of where, how and why the abuse is occurring. Additional sections identify and discuss the application of existing international human rights law to the problem of extrajudicial killing in Nigeria; describe and evaluate relevant United Nations procedural action against this type of human rights abuse; and describe and evaluate complementary and alternative strategies and procedures to address this serious abuse of human rights in Nigeria. Keywords: human rights abuse extrajudicial killings international law Nigeria United Nations sanctions. 15 pages; 45 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 4,229 words.   $105
 
17208. THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC): A CRITICAL STEP IN THE PATH TOWARDS GLOBAL GOVERNANCE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the International Criminal Court (ICC) as a positive step towards the development of a system of global governance. The analysis begins with definitions and a review of relevant concepts, including global governance, sovereignty, jus cogens, international criminal law, and universal jurisdiction. The history and purpose of the International Criminal Court is traced, looking both at the history of the Rome Statute itself as well as its historical precedents. The next sections examine the structure, functions, operations, applications and underlying principles of the ICC. The analysis then looks at the opposition to the ICC, with a strong focus on U.S. objections. The conclusion summarizes the strengths and limitations of the ICC and considers the future of the ICC as a tool of global governance. Keywords: International Criminal Court ICC universal jurisdiction sovereignty Rome Statute extradition. 32 pages; 79 footnotes; 32 bibliographic sources. 8,998 words.   $133
 
17172. GLOBALIZATION OF NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRIES. Focusing on the defense industries in the United States and the United Kingdom, this paper explores and critically evaluates some of the policy issues and challenges posed by defense globalization. The essay beings with a brief overview of globalization in general and of defense globalization in particular. Following this, the analysis focuses on four major challenges and policy issues in defense globalization: 1) technology and technology transfers; 2) procurement policy; 3) export controls; and 4) offsets. Keywords: defense military procurement globalization policy technology transfer trade. Written 2004. 10 pages; 52 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 2,914 words.   $70
 
17167. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN SOUTHEAST ASIA & ASEAN'S RESPONSE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of human trafficking in Southeast Asia. The analysis explores the causes, scope, migratory patterns, and components of human trafficking in and out of the ten member states of ASEAN (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar [Burma], Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). The investigation considers ASEAN’s role in addressing the problem, profiling the history of the association’s involvement in the problem and the steps that it has taken to address the problem to date. The effectiveness of the ASEAN’s efforts are evaluated and recommendations for future action offered. The investigation also looks at the steps that individual member states have taken to address the problem and considers the impact of cooperation (if any) from non-member states. 23 pages; 68 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 6,500 words.   $133
 
17156. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS OF PEACEKEEPING. This paper provides a summary presentation of the main ideas and concepts in an article in Armed Forces & Society which compares the leadership style, approach to peacekeeping, and approach to relations with civilian leaders of former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General John Shalikashvili with that of his predecessor, General Colin Powell. Provides a favorable assessment of Shalikashvili as compared to Powell. Consider the reasons for the military’s reluctance to engage in post-Cold War peacekeeping. 7 pages; 3 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source. 1,938 words.   $49
 
17149. PEACEKEEPING IN THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD. This paper provides an overview and analysis of peacekeeping in the post-Cold War world. The analysis considers how peacekeeping changed and devolved during the post-Cold War era, looking at the shift from peacekeeping to peace-making, peace-enforcing, and peace-building as well as the rapid expansion of humanitarian missions. The analysis also examines the changing international environment for peacekeeping in the post Cold War era, with particular attention to the changing nature of conflicts and the changing norms of sovereignty in international law. The United Nations’ legitimacy as an international organization charged with peacekeeping responsibilities is analyzed. The obstacles against and prospects for future peacekeeping efforts are considered. 17 pages; 29 footnotes; 22 bibliographic sources. 4,483 words.   $119
 
17142. AMERICA'S FOREIGN POLICY OF PREEMPTION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the foreign policy doctrine of preemption as promulgated by the George W. Bush Administration. The impact of the events of September 11, 2001 on the development of the doctrine is a special focus. The major components of preemption are outlined and compared and contrasted to previous foreign policy doctrine. Considering the war on Iraq as the first test of the doctrine, the analysis discusses the impact of the doctrine to date and its likely future impact in both the U.S. and the rest of the world. A concluding section addresses the question of whether the doctrine of preemption is good or bad for America, America’s role in the world, and the international system in general. It is argued that preemption is bad for America. 21 pages; 51 footnotes; 27 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
17139. LAW AND SOCIAL CONTROL. This paper critically analyzes five basic insights generated from viewing the law through the lens of the social scientist: 1) law is not free; 2) law is delivered by actors with limited resources and interests of their own in settings where they have discretion; 3) people cannot be expected to comply passively with the law; 4) avoidance and evasion are important ways in which our society deals with conflict; and 5) law’s influence in American society tends to be indirect, subtle, and ambiguous. Each insight is analyzed from the perspective of a sociological interpretation of the law. KEYWORDS: law society us american legal system social control citizens. APA Style. 36 pages; 26 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 8,359 words.   $133
 
17137. DO NATIONAL MEDIA STILL MATTER? Drawing on examples from the U.S., U.K., and countries of the Middle East, this paper considers the issue of whether or not national media still matter in this era of globalization. The analysis begins with an overview of the issues on globalization and media. Drawing on examples from Palestine, Iran, Kuwait, and Arab satellite TV, the changing role of national media in the Middle East is considered. Another section of the analysis considers the role of U.S. and U.K. national media in depictions of events and issues in the Middle East, looking in particular at the 1991 Gulf War, U.S. and U.K. media reports on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the U.S. -led war on Iraq. It is argued that notwithstanding extensive globalization of media, national media continue to matter – indeed, the process of globalization has in many cases heightened the importance of national media. Keywords: media globalization national Arab British US. 18 pages; 51 footnotes; 34 bibliographic sources. 5,228 words.   $126
 
17136. TALK SHOWS AS PUBLIC SPHERES: THE ROLE OF THE MASS MEDIA IN CIVIC PARTICIPATION. Drawing on the literature on TV talk shows as public spheres, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the role of the mass media in civic participation. The analysis draws on specific examples of talk shows broadcast in the U.S. and/or U.K. (e.g., Donahue, Oprah, Geraldo, Kilroy, Jerry Springer, etc.). It is argued that he audience-participation format talk show as it emerged in the 1970s and 1980s did in fact help to create multiple new public spheres and thus made a positive contribution to sparking civic participation, especially within segments of society traditionally excluded from the public sphere. At the same time, it is argued that the newer (late 1980s-early 1990s) forms focused on confrontation (e.g., Ricki Lake, Jerry Springer, Jenny Jones) have resulted in a deterioration of the talk show as a public sphere. 12 pages; 47 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 4,971 words.   $84
 
17126. PEACEKEEPING, 1648-1989. This paper provides an overview and analysis of peacekeeping from 1648 to 1989. Drawing on specific examples, the analysis considers peacekeeping within its historical, social, political, and economic contexts, with particular attention to nation-state, sovereignty, nation, colony, church-state relations, civil-military relations, alliances and trade conflict. Following an overview of the political context of war, peace and peacekeeping during the period (1648-1989) under consideration, the analysis considers peacekeeping efforts within the circumstances of specific conflicts. KEYWORDS: war armed conflict resolution peacekeeping historical sovereignty nation states. APA Style. 20 pages; 47 footnotes; 19 bibliographic sources. 4,776 words.   $133
 
17125. PEACEKEEPING IN THE ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL, AND EARLY MODERN ERAS. This paper examines the forms, application, and contingencies of peacekeeping in the ancient, medieval, and early modern worlds. The analysis considers the nature of war and peace in the ancient and medieval/early modern eras and identifies the major actors involved in peacekeeping. Drawing on specific examples, the investigation considers peacekeeping in these historical contexts, with specific attention to the influence of empire, city-state structure, church-state relations, political factionalism and trade conflict. 15 pages; 41 footnotes; 19 bibliographic sources. 4,555 words.   $105
 
17119. THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE SUPERPOWERS: BEFORE AND AFTER THE COLD WAR. This paper analyzes United Nations’ behavior under the Superpowers (the U.S. and the U.S.S.R./Russia), comparing and contrasting United Nations-Superpower relations during the Cold War and in the post-Cold War era. The analysis begins with a brief background discussion on the history, structure and function of the United Nations (UN). Focusing primary on the Security Council as the nexus of UN-Superpower relations, the next sections examine UN behavior during the bipolar era of the Cold War and during the post-Cold War era after the collapse of the Soviet Union. A final section draws on the preceding analysis to consider whether or not the UN needs superpowers to implement its Charter. KEYWORDS: superpowers international power relations united nations us international organizations ussr cold war russia america. MLA Style. 21 pages, 81 footnotes, 30 bibliographic sources. 6,632 words.   $133
 
17118. CHINA-U.S. TRADE. This paper traces China-U.S. trade relations and America’s China policy through the Clinton era into the Bush years. The analysis examines the factors behind the U.S.’s decision to re-establish Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) with China and China’s long struggle to join the World Trade Organization (WTO). The analysis also looks at problems and prospects for U.S.-China relations in the aftermath of China’s December 2001 accession to the WTO, including a discussion of disputes over agricultural imports and other trade issues. Finally, the analysis also consider the link between trade and national security issues in the aftermath of 9/11 and the re-establishment of PNTR with China. Keywords: China US trade WTO. 12 pages; 43 footnotes; 29 bibliographic sources. 5,224 words.   $84
 
17117. DEMOCRACY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of democracy in the European Union (EU). The analysis focuses on democracy at the supranational, institutional level of the EU, rather than on the various forms of national and sub-national democracy within the Member States of the Union. The investigation begins with an overview of the historical position of democracy within the EU and an outline of the EU’s institutional framework. The EU’s ‘democratic deficit’ is then explored in detail, along with consideration of the extent to which the expansion of the European Parliament’s power has democratized the overall Union. The concluding sections consider the defenses for the existing institutional framework and the possible alternative institutional arrangements for a democratic EU. 18 pages; 41 footnotes; 19 bibliographic sources. 5,173 words.

TAGS: supranational organizations, sovereignty, democracy, supranationality, European Union, EU institutions

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Supranational Organizations

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17054. THE PROBLEM OF OVER-FISHING IN DEEP-SEA FISHERIES. This paper provides an economic analysis of the problem of over-fishing and attributes it to unlimited competition for a limited “common property” resources. Past efforts at regulation are noted, and it is argued that a private ownership solution is needed (for example, through the use of Individual Transferable Quotas) in order to create an incentive to conserve. Includes a graph. Keywords: fishing conservation resources sustainable fisheries. 7 pages, 28 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
17017. MEDIATION AND THE RESOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL CONFLICTS. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the mediation process in resolving international disputes and conflicts. Considers ways to strengthen mediation effectiveness. Also discusses the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in settling international disputes. Keywords: political mediation international disputes. 9 pages; 17 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
17015. THE COLLAPSE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. This paper discusses the economic and political problems of the Ottoman Empire, the desire of European powers to divide up its territories, the Sykes-Pinchot Agreement, the Balfour Declaration, the Ottoman defeat in World War I, the establishment of Turkey as an independent state, and the French and British mandates that replaced the Ottoman Empire. Keywords: Ottoman defeat. 10 pages; 24 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
17011. THEORIES OF GLOBALIZATION: CULTURAL, ECONOMIC & POLITICAL DIMENSIONS. This paper examines theories for understanding the cultural, economic, and political dimensions of globalization, such as the world-system, Marxist, and liberal theories. It is argued that the most convincing evidence is provided by “Information Age” theories. The paper also discusses the social movements that have arisen in opposition to the impact of globalization. TAGS: globalization theoretical perspectives anti-globalization movement international political economy globalization theory. 13 pages, 38 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,137 words.
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17007. POST 9/11 CHANGES IN THE UN POLICY ON TERRORISM. This paper discusses the new challenges for the United Nations that have arisen following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States. Examines the UN resolutions on terrorism before and after the attacks and considers the expectations of the UN’s future role in the fight against terrorism. Although it is noted that terrorist organizations exist in various parts of the world, this paper emphasizes the problem as it relates to Islamic fundamentalism. Keywords: UN Security Council terrorism. 18 pages; 39 footnotes; 15 bibliographic sources. 4,319 words.   $126
 
17006. CHINA'S RELATIONSHIP WITH THE WEST. This paper examines China’s relationship with other major world powers over the past few decades. Considers China’s relations with the US and the USSR during the Cold War, the more open relations that have occurred since the 1970s, and how the perceptions of the Chinese people often differ from their government’s official stance. Keywords: China foreign relations Cold War. 6 pages; 14 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15919. ARAB IMMIGRANTS IN GREECE. This is an exploratory study, based on observations and interviews, and grounded in the immigrant assimilation theory of Ruth Johnston, that addresses the assimilation of Arab migrants in Athens, Greece. It is noted that Lebanese migrants provide the best example of economic integration in the area. 17 pages; 13 footnotes; 16 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
15908. GLOBALIZATION. This paper covers the economic and social origins of globalization, the roles of major international organizations, the potential problems of globalization, and proposed solutions to those problems. 11 pages; 34 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15900. U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AND THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT. This paper argues that U.S. foreign policy toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been inconsistent and thus ineffective in the effort to attain peace. In this regard, the U.S. needs to take a stand and make more determined and consistent efforts to find a compromise solution. KEYWORDS: us foreign policy israel palestine term paper. 9 pages; 28 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15873. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT. This paper discusses the roots of the Arab-Israeli conflict, its historical development, and the efforts that have been made to find a peaceful solution to the conflict. Argues that the problem persists because neither side is able to agree on the terms for a peaceful solution. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources, plus table.   $35
 
15864. U.S. POLICY ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS. This paper explores U.S. policies on greenhouse gas emissions. It is noted that industrial and corporate interests may have influenced the Bush Administration to reject the international agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, this action may have a positive impact in the long run by bringing the issue of global warming to the forefront of policy debate. This paper also discusses the growing local-level effort to reduce emissions, in spite of the failings of the federal government. KEYWORDS: climate change global warming greenhouse gas us policy international agreements. 13 pages; 25 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15830. "LATITUDES AND ATTITUDES" BY THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN AND "THE CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS" BY SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON (BOOK REVIEW). This paper compares and contrasts the views of these two authors on the nature of the international system. Friedman emphasizes globalization and the threat of certain groups and individuals being isolated from the global system. Huntington emphasizes the idea that conflicts are likely to arise as a result of differing cultural values. 6 pages; 22 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15807. REASONS FOR THE US ATTACK ON IRAQ IN MARCH 2003. Compares the view of George Soros (the war was due mainly to political and economic reasons) with the view of Thomas Barnett (the war was due mainly to military and security reasons). Concludes that the full truth is probably found in a combination of these two views. 5 pages; 0 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources. 1,377 words.   $35
 
15787. THE COLD WAR: HISTORY AND EVOLUTION. This essay traces the history of the Cold War between the United States (and its allies) and the Soviet Union (and its allies), noting its World War II antecedents and focusing on its initial development in the post-war years and its early history through the 1950's. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
15697. ISRAEL'S WATER CRISIS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL CONFLICT. This paper provides a sociological perspective on Israel's current water crisis, examining the scope of the problem and focusing on the effect of Israel's water problem on it relations with Arab neighbors (most specifically the Arab neighbors within the Jordan River System basin - Syria, Lebanon, Jordan) and the Palestinians. The first section examines the overall importance of water to Israeli state building and survival; the next section provides an overview of the scope of Israel's water problem, examining major sources of water, current and projected demand levels, and the scope of the water quality problems and their causes. The final section focuses on water as a source of conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors and the Palestinians. KEYWORDS: water resources israel israeli palestinian conflict. APA Style. 16 pages, 42 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 5,567 words.   $112
 
15685. ALFRED ROSENBERG: CRIMES OR MISDEMEANORS? Did Rosenberg deserve his Nuremberg death penalty and his conviction on the four criminal counts, or was he merely a hapless pawn of the more cunning and politically adroit leaders in the Third Reich? This paper explores this question through an examination of Alfred Rosenberg's rise in the German National Socialist Party, his role as the Nazi ideologue, his role and duties in Hitler's Third Reich, and his activities as Delegate of the Fuhrer for the Supervision of the Entire Spiritual and Ideological Teaching and Education of the NSDAP and as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories. The analysis includes an assessment of the case made against him during the Nuremberg Trial and the defense put forward on his behalf. Concludes that while Rosenberg was a relatively unimportant and certainly ineffectual Nazi policymaker, he nevertheless should have been held culpable for the consistent promulgation of an ideology which inexorably led to the commission of the Nazi atrocities. KEYWORDS: nazi war criminals rosenberg nazi trials nuremberg nazi. MLA Style. 25 pages, 38 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 6,337 words.   $133
 
15680. ITALIAN COLONIALISM IN ALBANIA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Italian colonial interests and activities in Albania. The analysis traces the history of Italian interests in Albania and examines the motivations behind Italy's interests, focusing in particular on strategic motivations and the impact of Italian-Albanian relations on Italy's relations with its European neighbors and on Italy's overall position in the world community. KEYWORDS: albanian history italian colonialism albania italy. 19 pages, 37 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 5,145 words.   $133
 
15671. GLOBALIZATION & OUTSOURCING BACK OFFICE SERVICES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of offshore outsourcing of back office services, looking in particular at the offshore outsourcing practices of U.S. firms. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the offshore outsourcing of services in the context of globalization, considering the extent to which offshore outsourcing is a natural progression of globalization and the internationalization of the firm and providing a brief overview of the evolution of outsourcing. The scope and current profile of back office outsourcing, current trends, and the advantages and disadvantages of offshore outsourcing are examined. The concluding section summarizes the findings and speculates on the future of offshore outsourcing of back office functions. KEYWORDS: outsourcing globalization offshore labor white collar workers office offshore location. 24 pages, 59 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources. 7,306 words.   $133
 
15668. IMMIGRATION, GLOBALIZATION, AND THE CITY: THE CASE OF BUENOS AIRES. This paper explores and compares the impact of the two major waves of immigration (the first European, the second Latin American) on the city of Buenos Aires, looking at the forces underpinning each movement, the characteristics of the two immigrant waves, the role played by each group in the local economy and society, and the overall impact of each wave on the status of Buenos Aires as a world city and perhaps, evolving global city. In looking at the impact of the more recent wave of immigration, the analysis will focus closely on the relation between the second-wave type of immigration and the concept of the global city as articulated by Sassen (1991) and others. KEYWORDS: immigration urbanization buenos aires north south migration global cities globalization. 29 pages, 59 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources. 7,545 words.   $133
 
15653. LONG-TERM COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE & GLOBALIZATION. This essay analyzes Alfred Chandler's views (as expressed in his 1990 book, Scale and Scope) on managerial enterprise and international comparative advantage with a view towards assessing its relevance and validity for contemporary economic, market, and organizational structures. Considers whether Chandler's views on managerial enterprise rely too heavily on the U.S. ideal to adequately explain the long-term comparative success of nations and their industries. Argues that while Chandler's (1990) historical analysis provides an excellent explanation of the rise of the modern industrial organization and the factors of comparative success from the emergence of the organization in the late 19th Century up until World War II, changes in the global economic structure and concomitant profound shifts in the international competitive environment render much of Chandler's analysis inapplicable to an understanding of contemporary factors in comparative success. 17 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
15637. ARABS AND ARABIA IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY: THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN TRAVELER. This paper examines European perceptions of Arabs and the Middle East in the early 20th Century through the lens of three early European Arabists: T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), Gertrude Bell, and Muhammad Asad. Drawing on Bell's Syria: The Desert and the Sown, Asad's Road to Mecca, and Lawrence's Seven Pillars of Wisdom, this paper seeks to answer the following questions: 1) What did these Europeans see in the lives of Arabs and Arab tribes of northern Arabia in the early decades of the 20th Century; and 2) what do their observations tell us about European perceptions of Arabs and how can we use their observations and information they supply us as a source for the history of northern Arabia, if indeed we can? KEYWORDS: arabs history arabia 1900s tribal history. MLA Style. 22 pages, 61 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 6,295 words.   $133
 
15625. MERCOSUR: IMPOSSIBLE ALLIANCE OR PRAGMATIC REGIONALISM? The history, current status and future prospects of Latin America's leading trade bloc is considered in the context of the following specific questions: MERCOSUR -- an impossible alliance on the road to nowhere or an example of pragmatic, open regionalism? The analysis makes a qualified argument in favor of the latter position, noting that although MERCOSUR's economic benefits are questionable and its future ambitions related to economic integration unrealistic, it has served its members well in terms of political objectives, and that it will continue to do so in the future. 16 pages, 54 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
15499. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: FOCUS ON THE MIDDLE EAST. This paper provides an overview and analysis of international terrorism, with a focus on Middle Eastern terrorist groups (including Al-Qaida, Hamas, Hizbollah and the Egyptian Jihad) and the U.S. and international response to the terrorist threat from these groups. The analysis begins with a brief history and overview of international terrorism. The next section describes a few of the most significant Middle East terrorist organizations now posing a threat to the international community (particularly the U.S. and its interests abroad). The final section examines the international and domestic policy and legal responses to international terrorism, looking at the most significant U.N. conventions and treaties as well as specific U.S. policies, executive orders, and legislation. 20 pages, 71 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15498. THE TALIBAN AND AFGHANISTAN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Taliban and their use of Islamic fundamentalism to influence and control the people of Afghanistan. Following a brief background overview of Afghanistan and its strategic importance, the first section details the Taliban's rise to power in Afghanistan. The second section focuses on the Taliban's strategy and actions after coming to power, with particular attention to the regime's subjugation of women's rights and basic human liberties. The Taliban's relations with foreign powers - including the U.S. - are discussed within the context of this topic; broader foreign policy concerns related to September 11th and its aftermath are not considered within this analysis. KEYWORDS: afghanistan taliban human rights status women us intervention 911. APA Style. 15 pages, 47 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
15496. BIN LADEN AND THE AL QAEDA TERRORIST NETWORK. A profile of the terrorist group believed to be responsible for the September 11th attacks. The analysis includes a review of the history of Al Qaeda and its leader, including an exploration of the group's origins, general motivations, organization/strength and previous actions against the U.S. and U.S. interests abroad. The analysis considers the evidence linking Al Qaeda to the September 11th attacks and examines the organization's purposes in making the attack. Finally, the analysis examines how the U.S. has responded to-date by the threat posed by Al Qaeda. The concluding section makes suggestions about strategies that might be useful in fighting this organization. KEYWORDS: osama bin laden terrorists al qaeda al qaida terrorism terrorist cells networks. 14 pages, 42 footnotes, 31 bibliographic references. 4,114 words.   $98
 
15468. IMMIGRANT & REFUGEE WOMEN OF EUROPE & NORTH AMERICA. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the current status and acculturation issues among the immigrant/refugee women of Europe and North America. Following an overview of some of the issues of legal and illegal immigration and the distinction between immigrants and refugees, the essay explores issues of acculturation and assimilation among the immigrant/refugee women as they struggle to settle in their new homelands. KEYWORDS: women immigrants refugees immigration female term paper. APA Style. 23 pages, 53 footnotes, 26 bibliographic references. 7,407 words.   $133
 
15463. MEXICAN IMMIGRATION & ACCULTURATION. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of Mexican immigration and acculturation/assimilation in the United States. The essay begins with a background overview on the history and current character of Mexican immigration to the U.S. Following a discussion of models of assimilation/acculturation, the paper then focuses on the acculturation/ assimilation of Mexican immigrants and their descendants, looking at factors such as language acquisition, economic integration, and adoption of American social-cultural values and traditions. KEYWORDS: mexican immigration immigrants mexican-americans assimilation language acquisition mexicans term paper. MLA Style. 16 pages, 57 footnotes, 33 bibliographic references.   $112
 
15215. ROLE OF THE U.S. IN THE THIRD (1967) AND FOURTH (1973) ARAB-ISRAELI WARS. Cold War concerns caused the U.S. to counteract the Soviet Union's support of the Arabs by siding with Israel. This paper discusses the initial reluctance of the U.S. to take a stand, the subsequent arms shipments to Israel, and the various efforts by U.S. diplomats to negotiate a peaceful settlement, which culminated in the "shuttle diplomacy" of Secretary of State Kissinger. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15121. COULD WORLD WAR II HAVE BEEN PREVENTED? This paper examines the historical and political science literature considering whether or not World War II was inevitable, given the actions (and inactions) of the Allies and Axis powers. It is argued that given the conditions imposed by various treaties and commitments of the great powers after World War I, and the frustrated aspirations to empire of the Axis powers, World War II was probably inevitable. The only questions regarding the war plans of Germany, Japan and Italy were when they would attack, how much they would take, and what they might settle for short of war. KEYWORDS: second world war WWII causes inevitability conflict. Chicago Parenthetical Style. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15067. FRENCH FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Presents an overview an analysis of French foreign policy in the Middle East, focusing on policy since World War II. Traces the changes in the French position on the Arab/Israeli conflict, noting the shift in policy under de Gaulle, moderation among his predecessors, and then the re-emergence of a strong pro-Arab, anti-Israeli policy under Chirac. Considers French motivations behind the policy shifts. KEYWORDS: France Middle East French policy arab-israeli conflict term papers. APA Style. 13 pages, 41 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references. 4,637 words.   $91
 
15056. A NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE WOULD REDUCE U.S. SECURITY. This paper argues in support of the hypothesis that a National Missile Defense (NMD) system will ultimately serve to decrease the level of security in the United States. It is argued that the construction of a NMD provides no protection against terrorist or other non-ICBM attacks; that building a missile defense will inflame both allies and adversaries, spurring a Chinese- and Russian-led nuclear build-up; and that NMD is currently technological unfeasible and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore proposed that not only will NMD fail to provide the security its supporters promise, it will itself serve as a destabilizing force in the arena of international security, with particularly adverse effects on U.S. security. KEYWORDS: national missile defense shield mutually assured destruction reagan star wars strategic defense initiative star wars clinton defense policy bush missile shield. APA Style. 12 pages, 30 footnotes, 21 bibliographic reference. 3,728 words.   $84
 
15012. WATERSHEDS IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN LATIN AMERICA AND THE U.S. Includes the Monroe Doctrine, the Spanish-American War, the Panama Canal, differing policies of Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Cold War and Cuba, reduction in U.S. hegemony after the 1960s, and efforts to develop free trade. 15 pages, 38 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $105
 
14059. UN SECURITY COUNCIL: PROBLEMS & PROPOSALS FOR REFORM. This research paper examines perceived problems in the operations and effectiveness of the United Nations Security Council and considers various proposals for the reform of the UNSC. The paper includes a background discussion of the Security Council (describing its purpose, membership, and functioning), major failures of the Security Council in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War, the significance of the Security Council failures, the growing role of NATO and other regional organizations, proposals for increasing representation in the Security Council, proposals for increasing the transparency of the Council, proposals regarding the right to veto held by the permanent members, proposals regarding the role of the UN Secretary General, and other ideas on reforming the UNSC. KEYWORDS: united nations security council reform post cold war permanent members veto rights. MLA Style. 65 pages, 176 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 15,661 words.   $133
 
14053. BORDERS & THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT. This termpaper examines the components of the borders (geographical divisions) element within the Arab-Israeli conflict, discussing the origin and evolution of the issues, the contemporary elements, and the position of the parties. A concluding section of the essay presents arguments for a proposed solution to the problem. Although the territory and sovereignty of Jerusalem is ultimately an integral component of the borders issue, for the purpose of this analysis, Jerusalem is discussed only briefly and in general terms within a proposed settlement framework. KEYWORDS: Palestine arab israeli conflict disputed borders term paper. 16 pages, 44 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 4,178 words.   $112
 
14015. REGIONALISM V. MULTILATERALISM & INTERNATIONAL TRADE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the regionalism versus multilateralism in international trade relations. Defines regionalism, places it in historical context, considers the WTO/GATT rules on regional blocs, and outlines the arguments and evidence for and against regionalism, considering in particular whether regionalism increases or decreases the movement towards a liberalized global trade regime. KEYWORDS: international trade world trade organization wto regionalism multilateralism term paper. APA Style. 18 pages, 42 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 4,771 words.   $126
 
14011. SYRIAN-ISRAELI PEACE PROCESS. This paper provides an overview and critical analysis of the Syrian-Israeli peace process in the post-Oslo period. Traces the course and major issues of the Syrian-Israeli negotiation is from 1991 and the opening of the Madrid Conference through Israel’s May 2000 unilateral withdrawal from Southern Lebanon. Considers the major issues in the negotiations, including Israeli withdrawal from the Golan Heights, the status of Lebanon, water rights, and economic relations. In the explication of the Syrian-Israeli peace process, the analysis places special focus on the Syrian perspective and gives consideration to how the process has impacted Syrian liberalization and democratization. KEYWORDS: Syria Israel peace golan heights lebanon palestinians. APA Style. 30 pages, 71 footnotes, 35 bibliographic sources. 8,400 words.   $133
 
13998. CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND THE VELVET REVOLUTION OF 1989. This termpaper provides an overview and analysis of the socio-political impact of Czechoslovakia’s 1989 ‘Velvet Revolution’ on the transition states (including Czechoslovakia itself which split into two independent nations, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, in 1993) of eastern-central Europe and the former Soviet Union. In particular, the essay analyzes the Czechoslovakian revolution and its aftermath and argues that the situation in Czech/Slovakia provides a metaphor for the difficulty all the states of Eastern European and the former Soviet Union have encountered in forming a new civil society in the aftermath of communism. KEYWORDS: post-soviet states czech velvet revolution civil society term paper. APA Style. 12 pages, 39 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references. 3,629 words.   $84
 
13996. EASTERN EUROPE AND EU EXPANSION. This termpaper examines the challenges, opportunities and issues related to integrating Eastern European countries into the European Union. The essay considers both the perspective of the EU (in terms of admission criteria, impact on existing members and institutions, etc.) and the perspective of the Eastern European countries seeking admission (in terms of expectations, readiness, etc.). The paper examines major areas of friction in the integration process. KEYWORDS: european union eastern europe eu expansion research paper. APA Style. 13 pages, 41 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3,668 words.   $91
 
13901. NAFTA: IMPACT ON MEXICO. Taking the perspective of the Mexican Economics Minister, this paper examines the impact of NAFTA on the Mexican economy. It is argued that overall, NAFTA has had a net beneficial impact on Mexico’s economy. The positive impact on the manufacturing sector (particularly the automotive, textile, food processing, and electronics industries) is unequivocal. The impact on the services sector is not yet apparent. While some agricultural producers have benefited from NAFTA, the overall impact of the trade agreement on this sector is negative. KEYWORDS: NAFTA north american free trade agreement mexico mexican economy term paper. 14 pages, 52 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references. 3,859 words.   $98
 
13900. THE EUROPEAN UNION: CAN THEY AFFORD NOT TO EXPAND? This paper provides an overview and analysis of the issue of European Union enlargement. Following an overview of the history of EU enlargement and a summary of the current trends and directions in EU enlargement, the analysis considers the advantages and disadvantages of enlargement. A concluding section makes the case that on both political and economic grounds, the EU must stay on its current course towards rapid enlargement. 13 pages, 33 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references.   $91
 
13889. SOVIET IMMIGRANTS: A U.S. POLICY PERSPECTIVE. Reviews and analyzes U.S. policy towards immigrants from the Soviet Union during the 45-year Cold War and through the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Discusses U.S. political pressures on the Soviet Union to allow emigration of Jews and other religious dissidents as well as U.S. policies giving preference to Soviet immigrants over immigrants from some other countries. Reviews numerous legal cases involving Soviet immigrants. Discusses the changing policies in the wake of the collapse of the USSR and the implications of the loss of refugee status for many of these immigrants. 14 pages, 15 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13808. THE NUREMBERG TRIALS: A LEGAL ANALYSIS. An analysis of the proceedings and legal/political history and ramifications of the Nuremberg trial. Examines the legal justification trials; the public and private controversy over the decision to try the Nazi war criminals; the structure and procedures of the Nuremberg Court; the other war crimes trials occurring at about the same time; and the legal ramifications and extensions of the Nuremberg Doctrine. 25 pages, 53 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13804. THE TWENTY YEARS' CRISIS, 1919-1939 BY EDWARD HALLETT CARR. Analysis of the respected political scientist's study of power politics and the deterioration of international relations in Europe in the two decades prior to WWII. Focuses on Carr's "moderate realist theory" of power politics as expressed in the book. Compares elements of Carr's theory with ideas from Marx, Machiavelli and contemporary political theorists. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13735. THE GULF WAR: BACKGROUND OF THE CRISIS. An analysis of the factors and forces leading up to the 1991 Gulf War and a consideration of the extent to which the apparent military resolution of the conflict in fact left many of the region's problems and conflicts unresolved. Among the important factors cited are the region's widespread economic inequities, Iraq's historical claims to Kuwaiti territory, Kuwait's innate vulnerability, Saddam Hussein's leadership and inclination to military opportunism, and the strong U.S.-led coalition against Iraq. 9 pages, 10 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13713. INTERNATIONAL EXTRADITION LAW: THE POLITICAL OFFENSE EXCEPTION. An investigation of the "political offense exception" in international extraditions, considering its history from its inception in the mid-19th Century through the World Wars of the 20th Century and up to the present era; examining the legal and political rationale for the use of the exception; exploring the changing definition of the political offense exception; tracing the applications of the exception in contemporary international human rights law; and examining the development of standards for application of the exception, with a close focus on American jurisprudence. 18 pages, 26 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
13660. REVIEW OF TEN ARTICLES ON JAPANESE-AMERICAN RELATIONS. Brief summary and reviews of ten articles drawn from the business and popular media. All articles were published in 1992 and focus on various aspects of Japanese-U.S. relations, including trade relations, management differences, cultural misunderstandings, and political brinkmanship. 19 pages, 22 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13657. THE HISTORY OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT. An investigation of the history and contemporary scope of the Arab-Israeli conflict from the perspective of Israel in the 1990's. Traces the conflict to its ancient claims over land, through the first modern migration of Jews from Europe to Palestine and the rise of the Zionist movement, on to the Balfour Declaration of 1917 and the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, and through the major Arab-Israeli wars and military actions since 1948. Argues that Israel's best prospects for resolution of the Palestinian problem are through internationally mediated negotiated settlement. 24 pages, 22 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13635. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO). This paper examines the history, current status, and future of the World trade Organization (WTO). Traces the evolution and history of the WTO as a successor to GATT, examining GATT's deficiencies and the extent to which the WTO provides corrections. Examines the current controversies and concerns with the WTO. Profiles the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and speculates on its future. KEYWORDS: international trade world trade organization wto gatt term paper. 15 pages, 31 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13542. PRAGMATIC IMPERIALISM, AND OTHER LESSONS OF THE WAR IN KOSOVO, 1999: Sharp, well-informed, balanced assessment of the Kosovo war in international relations theory and practice. Includes why the current period remains one of uncertainty and ambiguity, and how this is reflected in assessments of the war; American world supremacy, and the limits to this; the effects of the 'information age', and how this contributes to an erosion of previous concepts of state sovereignty; and recommendations by leading scholars for a type of pragmatic American Imperial leadership in world affairs, with more clear criteria for when, where, and how America should intervene in future crisis. 15 pages, 44 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13471. IRELAND IN WORLD WAR II. Discusses the reasons for Eire's neutrality, and contrasts it with Northern Ireland's cooperation with the British and the IRA's efforts to side with the Nazis. Also discusses how neutrality caused some problems for the Allies, but also led to the repression of the IRA. 15 pages, 47 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
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