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  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
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12101. The Causes of the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Discusses five major causes of the revolution: 1) Dissatisfaction of the Iranian people with the Shah's modernization efforts; 2) the Shah's authoritarian government; 3) disenchantment with the influence of Western views; 4) a return to traditional Islamic values; and 5) the leadership of the Ayatollah Khomeini. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
11910. The Australian Political System. Provides the history and organization of Australia's national and state political systems. Discusses the history of Australia's political parties and mentions current issues in Australian political life. 10 pages, 6 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
11867. Ataturk & Turkey's Westernization. Investigation and analysis of Kemal Ataturk's enduring legacy of secularization and democratization in Turkey. Profiles Ataturk's early life, ideology, and military career. Considers the degree of westernization, secularization and democracy prior to the formation of the Turkish republic. Examines in detail Ataturk's reforms aimed at his six principles of republicanism, secularism, nationalism, etatism, populism, and revolution. Assesses the role of Ataturk's reforms in fostering Turkish democracy. 33 pages, 51 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $133
11851. Canada and Immigration Policies. Traces the history of immigration to Canada through three centuries. Examines a history of prejudiced criteria for what races and nationalities may enter Canada. Mentions recent scandals and debates in Canadian immigration. 10 pages, 21 footnotes in text, 20 bibliographic sources.   $70
11751. Nigeria's Long, Troubled Road to Independence. Traces Nigerian history from the time of the first independence movement through independence, civil war, and the present-day ethnic strife and political and economic discord. Examines the scope and reasons behind Nigeria's rapid political fragmentation following independence and considers how the colonial system fostered these problems. Profiles all political regimes from independence to the present-day. Considers the prospects for a unified, politically stable Nigeria in the future. 19 pages, 92 footnotes, 45 bibliographic sources. 11751   $133
11750. Nigeria: From Precolonial Times to the British Colony. Traces Nigerian history from the pre-Colonial period through its time as a British colony. Provides an overview of Nigeria's land and people and examines the early European influences and the effect of the African slave trade. Considers the British motivations for colonization -- focusing especially on the palm oil trade -- and traces the development and implementation of the British system of indirect rule. Looks at the costs and benefits of the colonialism in Nigeria. 14 pages, 47 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 11750   $98
11727. German Reunification: Problems and Prospects. Examines the problems, paradoxes and opportunities of German reunification. Looks at domestic problems presented by reunification, including economic, political and social concerns and considers the prospects of a reunified Germany with the New World Order, considering in particular Germany's relationship with the Western European states and its role in Maastricht; the obligations, opportunities and concerns in Germany's relationship with the former Soviet republics and the former Soviet bloc countries; and Germany's changing relationship with the U.S. 40 pages, 77 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources.   $133
11707. Creating Consensus and Waging War: Issues in the National Development of Saudi Arabia. Traces Saudi Arabia's development as a nation, from the era of nomadic warfare in the early 20th century, to its emergence as an independent state under Ibn Saud, its position during World War I, achievement of statehood in 1932, the impact of oil wealth beginning in the late 1940s, and its involvement in regional wars during the 1970s to 1990s. Examines Saudi Arabia's foreign relations with Western powers and with other Arab states. 12 pages, 23 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $84
11707. Creating Consensus and Waging War: Issues in the National Development of Saudi Arabia. See Section 25D. 12 pages, 23 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $84
11698. Prospects of Continued Democratic Rule in India. See Section 25E. 20 pages, 3 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $133
11698. Prospects of Continued Democratic Rule in India. Examines the prospects for continued democratic rule in India, analyzing both historical and contemporary factors in the Indian political framework, and possible future directions for both domestic and foreign policy. Focuses on the key personalities, historical events, and socioeconomic and political issues that have played the most prominent roles in shaping India's political process. Argues that providing the balance between centrist national forces and local, state-level interests is maintained, India's prospects for its unique form of democracy are reasonably good. 20 pages, 31 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $133
11600. China: Reforming Politics and Preventing Chaos. Argues that the absence of political reform in China now threatens not only to impinge on the success of economic reform, but also to disrupt the entire social order. Taking the perspective of a foreign adviser to the Chinese central government, this analysis makes recommendations on political reforms in China, taking into account the limitations and restrictions of Chinese culture and tradition. 12 pages, 32 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $84
11412. French Socialism. An analysis of the history, objectives and accomplishments of the French Socialist Party under Mitterand's leadership from 1971 (when he assumed the role of First Secretary) and through his ascendancy to the Presidency in 1981 up to the present. Conclusion considers the future of the French Socialist Party. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources.   $84
11411. The Transition From Communism in Albania. A political history of Albania, from ancient times to Hoxha -- one of the most bizarre and dictatorial Communist leaders of all time -- and through Albania's slow transition away from communism. Examines the Alia regime, the Berisha regime, economic conditions and reforms, attempts at market creation, foreign relations with Serbia and Greece, treatment of minorities and political opponents, and rejection of Berisha's constitution in 1994. 11 pages, 26 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
11409. The State in France and England During the Early Modern Period. Considers the essential features of the "early modern" state systems of France and England in the 17th Century along with the issues that most directly threatened their strength and stability during this period. 6 pages, 3 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
11408. Narodnaia Voilia (The People's Will): Revolutionary Terrorism in the Reign of Alexander Ii. Overview and analysis of the history, development, objectives, activities, successes and failures of the People's Will, a Russian revolutionary-terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881. 17 pages, 28 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $119
11403. The Role of Religion in the Bosnian War. Personal view of the role of religion in the modern Bosnian war through the events of mid-1994. Argues that religion per se is not necessary the problem, but its identification with national differences which become involved in bloody civil wars under modern conditions, creating a situation all worthwhile religions must deplore. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
11397. The Catholic Church in Poland, 1979-1994. See Section 10F. 20 pages, 47 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $133
11397. The Catholic Church in Poland, 1979-1994. History of the Catholic church in Poland, covering most of the post-WWII period with a close focus on the period from 1979-94. Includes Wyszynski and early career of Karol Wojtyla, his election as Pope John Paul II, role of the Church under all periods of Communist regime, detailed history of Church maneuvers through the Solidarity/martial law period of 1980-83, Church role in the constitutional reforms of 1985, and how the Church became autocratic, demanding and voted down in 1989 elections and after. 20 pages, 47 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $133
11389. Two Perspectives on Welfare: The United States and Scandinavia. This paper compares the welfare state in the United States with the polar opposite system found in the Scandinavian countries of Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Following an overview of the philosophy of welfare in the two systems, the analysis compares them first in general terms and then along more specific aspects -- retirement, unemployment, health, child care, etc. A concluding section summarizes the differences and similarities and makes predictions about reform within the very different systems. 19 pages, 71 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 11389   $133
11315. The Right to Legal Counsel in the u.s., u.k., Italy, Japan and Saudi Arabia. This paper investigates these five countries' position on the right to legal counsel for defendants and accused persons in criminal proceedings. Includes a discussion and analysis of the development and application of the right to counsel under federal due process in the United States, considering Constitutional provisions, statutory material, and recent case law impacting the breadth and scope of the right to counsel. Using the U.S. system as a foundation for comparison, the existence and\or extent of the right to counsel in the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan and Saudi Arabia are then each considered. The final section presents a summary comparison of the right to counsel within all five legal systems under investigation. 30 pages, 78 footnotes, 51 bibliographic sources.   $133
11277. Who Voted for Hitler? Sources of Nazi party's electoral support, 1928-1932. Deals with recent theories regarding the greater breadth of support the Nazis enjoyed among the elderly, labor, etc. Also deals with the propaganda appeal of Nazi violence against other groups the Party had painted as opponents of the welfare of German citizens. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
11247. Mikhail Gorbachev. See Section 10F. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
11247. Mikhail Gorbachev. The life and work of the last soviet leader are placed in the context of Russian political history in the second half of the century; Gorbachev is credited with weakening the Soviet empire and bringing the end to Russian communism. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
11234. Democracy in Saudi Arabia. History of Saudi regime, nature of rentier states, democratic initiatives in SA, and chances of democracy in future. Efforts of Saudi family to maintain power by establishing leadership position in mideast and fighting off challenges from democratic modernizers and Islamic fundamentalists- both groups regarding royalty as an inappropriate form of government. 22 pages, 53 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
11234. Democracy in Saudi Arabia. See Section 25D. 22 pages, 53 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
11228. Origins of Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). Allies' division of Germany and emergence of West German state as Britain, France, and U.S. gave up control. Also evolution of independent status of Berlin. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $49
11228. Origins of Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). See Section 10F. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $49
11224. Iran-Iraq War. See Section 25D. 25 pages, 46 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
11224. Iran-Iraq War. Origins of the historical conflict between the two nations (including Shiite/Suni and Arab/non-Arab conflicts) and immediate causes of the war (including oil fields, access to gulf). Argues that the current stoppage is a temporary cease fore, and that the Iraq/Kuwait invasion was part of the same broader conflict with Iraq attempting to prepare itself for further hostilities with Iran. 25 pages, 46 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
11220. Mussolini's Rise and Italian Interest Groups. Analyzes Mussolini's rise to power and the alliance of interests (industrialists, Church, landowners) and segments of electorate that brought it about. Details the agreements among the powerful to divide power and ignore certain aspects of the Fascists' behavior. 10 pages, 25 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
11183. The French Arms Industry. THE FRENCH ARMS INDUSTRY. Profiles the development, composition, and trends in the French arms export industry from 1960 to the present. Considers how French policy and practice is responding to the new economic and political realities in the global arms industry. 22 pages, 47 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $133
11124. The New Russian Cabinet of 1994. See Section 19E. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
11124. The New Russian Cabinet of 1994. Analyzes the departure of liberal economic planner Gaidar, the rise of old guard communist and conservative elements, and the concerns raised in the West over the fate of reform and democracy in Russia. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
11101. Factors Influencing Recent South African Political Change. Discusses political leaders, proposals for restructuring the state, international pressure, internal and external economic pressures. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
11101. Factors Influencing Recent South African Political Change. See Section 25B. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
11098. Black Consciousness Movement of South Africa. See Section 25B. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $49
11098. Black Consciousness Movement of South Africa Presents methods and goals of this radical political movement. Discusses pros and cons (in terms of achieving power) of movement's early focus on core ideas of individual self-esteem, group solidarity, and black pride. Compares movement to US groups. Its turn toward Marxism, relations with other South African groups, and eventual downfall are analyzed. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $49
11097. Shi'ism and Iranian Nationalism. Examines the origins and political ambitions of Shi'ism from the seventh century to the time of the 1979 revolution. Iranian nationalism's roots in the ancient Persian empire, and the more universal ambitions of Shi'ism within the Islamic world, are noted. 50 pages, 54 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources.   $133
11082. France and Post-War Europe. A comparison of two studies of modern European history, In Search of France (1963) and After the Cold War (1993), to compare their treatment of institutions and policies. The former's judgment of stalemate and paralysis in DeGaulle's France is contrasted with the general optimism of today's studies of European unification. 10 pages, 12 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $70
11080. German Nationalism in Wwi and Wwii. Analyzes role of nationalism in fostering national unity, independence and imperialism. Gives detailed account of power alliances leading to WWI and describes nationalistic sentiments particular to WWII, especially Nazi racism. 14 pages, 22 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $98
11063. English Education in the Nineteenth Century. This paper provides an examination of the developments in British education during the 19th Century which culminated in the Education Act of 1870, the law first establishing state funding of secular elementary schools on a national basis, with universal and compulsory education for all children. The focus of the study is on elementary education and on the conflicts and contributions of the various existing systems -- voluntarism, private fee schools, public schools, Anglican and Dissenting schools, and Sunday Schools -- to the ultimate solution reached in the 1870 Act. Argues that the system of universal compulsory popular education in England was the product of a combination of social and political influences and movements, including the reforms of the franchise and the poor laws, Chartism and secularism, rather than a brave new state-imposed, centralist creation marking an expanded government role in private life. Demonstrates that the institution of universal education was part and parcel of the wider movement toward universal manhood suffrage, reform of the workhouses and almshouses operated under the Poor Law, and the institution of labor laws and guarantees of basic civil rights that took place in the so-called Reform Era. KEYWORDS: education history 19th century great Britain universal compulsory education reform suffrage education act 1870. 56 pages, 92 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $133
10581. The Government of God: The Evolution of the Iranian Revolution. An extensive paper that includes the conditions in Iran prior to the revolution, the nature of the revolution itself, and the Ayatollah Khomeini and the Islamic republic. 35 pages, 41 footnotes, 14 bibliographic source.   $133
10575. State Economic Policy in Fascist Italy and the Ussr. Compares and contrasts these regimes' economic policies, showing how they differed in terms of state-industry relations and in other ways. Primary sources are Alex Nove's An Economic History of the USSR and Roland Sarti's Fascism and the Industrial Leadership in Italy 1919-1940. 15 pages, 52 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $105
10537. Yugoslavia: American Interests in the Evolving Crisis. Examines the historical and political background to the Yugoslavian ethnic conflicts from the standpoint of U.S. policy interests. The need for a stable, democratic Balkan region is argued. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $70
10516. Gaullism and Thatcherism: Two Exercises in European Nationalist Conservatism. Compares and contrasts Gaullism and Thatcherism concerning their stances on foreign and economic policy and underlying voter appeal. Concludes that their overt differences can be attributed to the different political climates of the 1960s and 1990s as well as the differences between the cultures of France and Britain. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
10516. Gaullism and Thatcherism: Two Exercises in Nationalist Conservatism. See Section 19E. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
10500. Malaysia: Growth and Stability Within Asean. Makes the case that it has been Malaysia that has most benefited from ASEAN. The primarily political benefits have enhanced domestic stability and permitted above-average rates of economic growth. 6 pages, 22 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $42
10485. Versailles Under Louis Xiii and Louis Xiv (The Palace and Gardens of Versailles). The differing usage of the palace and gardens of Versailles under the Bourbon Kings is explored. Louis XIII's original hunting lodge, Louis XIV grand expansion into the symbol of absolutism, and later attempts to restore the rustic simplicity of the original hunting grounds are noted for social and political significance. 18 pages, 21 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $126
10451. German Strategy During World War I: The Schlieffen Plan. A discussion of Germany's plan for a two front war with France and Russia. The paper argues that the primary cause of the plan's failure was its oversight of political factors. Various approaches are used to evaluate the Plan's national political strategy context. 16 pages, 27 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 10451   $112
10442. The Rise of Fascism in Germany. Examines the causes for the rise of Nazi power, including the terms imposed after defeat in the First World War, economic and political problems in the 1920s, anti-Semitism, and the appeal of Nazi romantic mythology. Argues against any one-sided explanation for German fascism. 8 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
10429. European Nationalism in the Post-War Era. The history of nationalism from its "death" in 1945 to 1989 is closely discussed. The paper views the upswing in nationalism as a product of the forced stabilization and movement towards unification found in the late 1980s. Potential for European unification is discussed in light of events up to 1989. 12 pages, 27 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $84
10428. Economic Consequences of Quebec's Secession From Canada. This paper presents a discussion and analysis of what would happen if Quebec secedes from Canada. Foreign investment, decentralization, trade agreements, bilingualism, labor supply and other factors affecting the economy are discussed. 10 pages, 17 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $70
10425. Does Free Trade Work for Canada? A well-researched paper which discusses how the Free Trade Act of 1988 has affected Canadian economy in light of the upcoming vote on NAFTA. The paper concludes by discussing whether Canada has any real options. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $56
10421. The Challenges to Monarchial Absolutism in Early Modern Germany. Social and cultural challenges to the dominate monarchial absolutism in Germany in 1775 to 1875 are examined. Romanticism, socialism, emancipation of women and the Jewish cultural intelligentsia's liberalism are assessed. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $56
10421. Challenges to Monarchial Absolutism in Germany. See Section 10E. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $56
10395. Democratization of Britain's Parliament, 1832-1918. A survey of the electoral reforms and the political figures behind them, from the first Reform Bill of 1832 to Women's Suffrage in 1918. Disraeli, Gladstone, Peel and Salisbury's roles are discussed. 20 pages, 17 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $133
10392. Democracy in India. This paper seeks to explain and explore how India came to establish a liberal, representative political system and how that democratic system was able to develop and survive in the first critical decade following India's independence. 20 pages, 41 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.   $133
10380. Iraq Under Saddam Hussein. An analysis of Hussein's leadership in the Baathist Party in Iraq from 1968 to the present. Examination of his role in the Gulf War and a discussion of his failure to develop broad-based Arab support despite his popularity among the people of Iraq. 12 pages, 16 footnotes, 37 bibliographic sources.   $84
10367. Voodoo in Haitian Society and Politics. This paper seeks to uncover some of the mystery surrounding Haiti and voodoo. Rather than approaching the topic of voodoo in Haiti as a cult or evil practice, looks at the way in which voodoo is deeply integrated in Haitian politics and society. Following an overview of the history, definition and basic practices of vodoo, this paper examines voodoo as a cultural force in Haiti -- exploring its uses as a social lubricant and problem-solver and its role as a political tool. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $84
10344. Gatt's Uruguay Round: Cooperation and Competition. How the influence of regional trading blocs -- groups of nations with similar economic and trade interests -- has been threatening GATT's drive for freer trade, especially in agriculture. Discusses the Cairns Group; the "Green Box"; the EEC. 8p., 34b., 32f.   $56
10303. Liberal Democracy in Sweden. Reviews the state of liberal democracy in Sweden, looking at the welfare state and the structures of government. The evolution of an absolute monarchy into a progressive modern democracy is examined in Swedish history. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $63
10281. Democracy and Saudi Arabia. Concepts of democracy are surveyed and applied to the Saudi Arabian case; problems and prospects for democratization in a traditional Islamic society are reviewed. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $77
10268. Garibaldi and the Risorgimento. The focus of this paper is on the Risorgimento's "man of action," Giuseppe Garibaldi. The first part of this investigation explores the factors which led to Garibaldi's invovlement in the Risorgimento. The influence of Mazzini and Garibaldi's military "seasoning" in South America are among the most significant factors to be explored. The second part of the paper takes a closer look at Garibaldi's actual role in the Risorgimento. His strength as a military leader -- as illustrated by specific campaigns such as the Defense of Rome and the "assault of the thousand" in Sicily -- and his tenuous relationship with the philosophical and political architects of the movement -- Mazzini and Cavour -- are explored in detail. 20 pages, 47 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
10207. Smith, Hedrick, the New Russians. New York: Random House, 1990. Reviews the arguments and observations of the author concerning Soviet political, intellectual and social life under the Gorbachev regime. Argues that political reform cannot be completely reversed even if Gorbachev falls from power. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
10207. The 1967 Six Day War and the 1991 Gulf War. Examines the similarities and differences in these two major defeats and compares the effectiveness and the objectives of the leader within each conflict. Considers the major objectives, strategy and tactics, the role of the superpowers, the degree of Pan-Arab support, the relative importance of Israel and the Palestinian issue, and the relative scope of defeat in each conflict. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 74 bibliographic sources.   $84
10198. Islamic Fundamentalism vs. Modernity in Saudi Arabia. The role of Islam and the pace of development in Saudi Arabia during its recent past are considered with attention to key factors in rising fundamentalism. Includes a focus on the status of women in Saudi Arabia. The conclusion considers the compatibility of fundamentalist sympathies with efforts at future development. 20 pages, 41 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $133
10193. Bolivar and South American Liberation. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. See section 25F.   $56
10193. Bolivar and South American Liberation. A review and analysis of the Spanish revolutionary's political career. Considers his personal characteristics and the extent to which his personality and ideology contributed to his ultimate downfall. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
10191. Nasser vs. Hussein. Compares and contrasts personal characteristics and political philosophies of Egypt's Nasser and Iraq's Hussein. Points of comparison include family background, rise to power and basis of power, each man's approach to Pan-Arabism and the leadership style of each. 12 pages, 32 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $84
10189. Gamal Abdel Nasser. A biographical sketch of Nasser's personal life and political career. Considers his early military career, his rise to power and assumption of the presidency. Defines and discusses Nasserism as a unique brand of Pan-Arabism. 14 pages, 19 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $98
10188. Saddam Hussein. A biographical sketch of Hussein's personal life and his political career. Traces his troubled childhood, his early career as an officer in the Baath Party, his exile in Cairo, his rise in the Baath Party during the 1960s and his assumption of the presidency in 1979. Analyzes his leadership role and style during the 1980s and early 1990s. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 36 bibliographic sources.   $84
10187. Algeria: Political Profile. Details Algeria's political history, discussing its present political and constitutional systems and analyzing its influential groups and parties. Includes a discussion of the perceptions of political stability with speculation on the country's future. 11 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
10172. Swiss Broadcasting. The evolution and regulation of radio and television broadcasting in Switzerland are examined. Recent changes allowing cable, satellite and commercial broadcasting are noted, and continuing government control of the national media is seen as probable. 14 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $98
10159. The Political, Economic and Strategic Future of Reunified Germany. Explores the prospects of the new united Germany by looking at the probable state of affairs five years hence. Considers probable condition of German politics, economy, military posture, role in a Unified Europe and general international position. Predicts upcoming disagreements about Germany's role in NATO and a unified Europe. 15 pages, 20 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $105
10148. Government Leadership and the Economic Modernization of Taiwan, 1953 -- Present. Analyzes the 3 phases of Taiwan's miraculous economic growth, demonstrating how judicious government policies helped make this possible. (1) IMPORT SUBSTITUIONS PHASE (1950-62): land reform, monetary policies, foreign exchange and trade policies, budgetary policy, privatization, social spending. (2) EXTERNALLY (EXPORT)-ORIENTED SUB-PHASE (1962-1980): Role of 4-Year Plans, Enterprise Zones, tax incentives, monetary and budgetary policies, oil crises. (3) TECHNOLOGY-ORIENTED SUB-PHASE (POST-1980): Government's call for switch from labor-intensive to capital-intensive manufacturing; swelling of export position; Taiwan's cash hoard. concludes with an assessment of whether Taiwan's experience can help developing nations. 31 pages, 146 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $133
10148. Government Leadership and the Economic Modernization of Taiwan, 1953 -- Present. 31 pages, 146 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources. See section 25A.   $133
10146. Great Britain and the Common Market. Report summarizing British economic situation prior to and following membership in the European Economic Community. Describes economic and political effects of non-membership. Chart depicting economic indicators included. 9 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $63
10146. Great Britain and the Common Market. 9 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. See section 7C.   $63
10145. Standards of Living in the Soviet Union. Examines the objective criteria of the Soviet standard of living (consumer goods, food, housing, health care, education, government benefits) and measures the actual availability of these material living requirements against the stated goals of the 12th Five-Year Plan. Study findings shows a considerable disparity. A continuing decline in the material standards of living are predicted in the upcoming years. 20 pages, 40 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $133
10096. The May Fourth Movement and Tiananmen Square: Revolution or Student Uprising? This paper compares and contrasts the May Fourth Movement of 1919 with the Tiananmen student protests of 1989. The first part of this analysis explores the history, precipitating factors, objectives, and outcomes of each movement. The concluding analysis addresses the longer-range consequences and impacts of the movements, and attempts to provide an answer to the question of whether or not these movements constituted revolutions. Concludes that while the May Fourth Movement more closely approximated a genuine "revolution", both events are better viewed as important markers in a revolutionary process rather than revolutions in themselves. 16 pages, 34 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $112
10096. The May Fourth Movement and Tiananmen Square: Revolution or Student Uprising? 16 pages, 34 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. See section 25A.   $112
10095. The Iraqi Revolution of 1958 and the Rise of the Ba'th. 18 pages, 38 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. See section 25D.   $126
10095. The Iraqi Revolution of 1958 and the Rise of the Ba'th. This paper analyzes the 1958 Iraqi Revolution and traces the Arab Ba'th Socialist party's rise to power in the aftermath of the revolution. The investigation begins with an historical overview of the 1958 coup. Political, economic and social causes of the revolution are considered, as are the central objectives of the new revolutionary government. The role of various internal ethnic and political groups -- including the Kurds, the Iraqi Communist Party and the Arab Ba'th Socialist Party -- in the eventual destablization and downfall of the Qasim regime are noted. Of particular interest is the rise of the Ba'th. The early history of the Ba'th Party in Iraq, its relations to Naser's Egypt, and its connection with its Syrian parent are discussed. Ba'thist revolutionary activities against the Qasim regime, including the attemped assassination of Qasim in 1959 and the 1963 coup which marked the end of his rule and his life are noted. 18 pages, 38 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $126
10091. The Battle of Baku: Ethnic Conflict, Military Repression and Nationalism in the Soviet Union. This paper examines rising nationalism in the Soviet Union through a case analysis of the battle of Baku. Background on the Azerbaijani-Armenian conflict and events leading up to the violent eruptions of January 1990 are presented and analyzed. The varying roles of territorial claims, religious differences, and central government policies as causal factors in the conflict are considered. To the extent possible – given widespread censorship and propaganda efforts of both Soviet official news agencies and the Populist Front – the specific details of the military intervention are analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to the disparity between the central government’s stated objective of resolving ethnic conflict and its hidden agenda of suppressing nationalism. The causes, outcomes and ramifications of the battle are then considered within the broader context of Soviet ethnic conflicts and emergent nationalism in the late 1980s. Keywords: USSR Azerbaijan Armenia Baku 1990 ethnic conflict. 20 pages; 80 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources.   $133
10008. Soviet-Iraqi Relations. 15 pages, 10 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources. See Section 25D.   $105
10008. Soviet-Iraqi Relations. Examines relations between the Soviet Union and Ba'thist Iraq over the past twenty years. Looks at the history of conflict between the Bathist Party and the ICP. Considers how Soviet military aid and rising oil prices have affected Iraqi-Soviet relations through the years. 15 pages, 10 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $105
10007. Brazilian Nationalism. 29 pages, 58 footnotes, 36 bibliographic sources. See Section 25F.   $133
10007. Brazilian Nationalism. A paper which traces the history and development of Brazilian nationalism, beginning with its first manifestation as colonial nativism in the 17th century and focusing on nationalism's heyday under the 20th century Vargas and Kubitschek administrations. Concludes with an appraisal of the nationalistic elements within the current movement toward democratic reform. 29 pages, 58 footnotes, 36 bibliographic sources.   $133
09982. Economic Effects of Political Changes in Eastern Europe. Considers the components and ramifications of Eastern Europe's transformation to a market economy after years of Communist domination and reliance on central planning. Argues that initially wages will drop, unemployment will rise, and businesses will fail but that in the long run, the natural forces of the open market will result in gains for the economy and the overall standard of living. 10 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
09981. The People's Republic of Albania. 35 pages, 77 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources. See Section 10F.   $133
09981. The People's Republic of Albania, 1944-1990: Religious, Ethnic and Tribal Divisions in the Stalinist State. A survey of the religious, ethnic and tribal divisions of the people of Albania, in the context of the social and political revolution sweeping Eastern Europe. Following a description of the land and government, the historical background of religious, ethnic and tribal groups is reviewed. The role of the Muslim majority, and the situation of the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox minorities, are examined. 35 pages, 77 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources.   $133
09979. The Demise of Communism in Czechoslovakia. An analysis investigating the historical background and factors involved in the recent end to Communist rule in Czechoslovakia. The investigation begins with an overview of the 1968 attempt at democracy and the subsequent Communist military invasion. The second part of the investigation focuses on the "Prague Autumn" of 1989, and in particular on the role of now-president Vaclav Havel. The concluding seciton analyzes the factors which contributed to the success of the recent uprising in light of the failure of the 1968 attempt. 14 pages, 25 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $98
09975. British and French Nationalism: An Historical Comparison. An in-depth historical analysis of French and British nationalism, arguing that British nationalism was an indigenous, insular phenomenon in comparison to the continental, international conception of the nation in France. Considers the subject during three periods: the rise of nationalism in the Renaissance, the expansion and development of Empire, and the changing role of nationalism in the modern era. KEYWORDS: Britain France nationalism international comparison empire and nation modernism. 31 pages, 42 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 7,862 words.   $133
09813. Turkey and Nato During the 1980s: A Pivotal and Often Perilous Alliance. 22 pages, 66 footnotes, 36 bibliographic sources.   $133
09806. Evolution and History of Serfdom in Russia. Analyzes the economic, agricultural and political factors involved in the development and establishment of serfdom in Russia under the reign of Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV). 11 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
09794. The Influence of Geography on British Defense Policy. 15 pages, 16 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. See Section 19E.   $105
09794. The Influence of Geography on British Defense Policy. Examines the role of geography in current British defense policy, both in the conventional sphere of the defense of her coastal perimeters, and in the larger sphere of NATO strategy and tactics. Focuses on the significance of Britain's location off Western Europe and in relation to major North Atlantic sealanes and theaters of operation, and on the role of the British military more distant defense operations. 15 pages, 18 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $105
09789. The Inner Nazi: A Critical Analysis of “Mein Kampf” by Hans Staudinger (A Review). The German-American sociologist's critical analysis of Hitler's "Mein Kampf" is reviewed. Staudinger's insights into Hitler's political program and the state of post-war Europe are remarked upon. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
09778. Rural Reform in China Since 1978. 9 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. See Section 25A.   $63
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