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19E. FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS

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19503. CUBA, POTENTIAL FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS: COUNTRY RISK ASSESSMENT. New, Winter/Spring 2017 This paper, written from the perspective of a U.S.-based investor, provides a risk and opportunities assessment of Cuba as a location for international business and investment. Following an economic, political, and cultural overview of Cuba, the paper profiles the operations, marketing, and human resources management aspects of doing business in Cuba. Economic prospects are viewed as relatively bright over the next five years. While significant political risks to operating in Cuba remain, recent normalization of U.S.-Cuban relations predict a more favorable political risk profile in the coming years. Recommendations are made for direct and indirect foreign investment. APA Style. 15 pages, 52 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources, 4,195 words.

TAGS: Cuba, country risk assessment, international business, FDI, foreign investment, political risk, market entry, economic risk, foreign operations

  $105
 
19300. COMPARATIVE POLITICAL ECONOMY ANALYSIS OF ANTI-CORRUPTION EFFORTS IN SINGAPORE AND EAST CENTRAL EUROPE. This paper provides a comparative political economy analysis of corruption and anti-corruption efforts in Singapore and Eastern/Central Europe with a close focus on Bulgaria and Romania. The analysis focuses on the interaction of political and economic processes in the comparative societies, as well on the institutional basis of corruption and anti-corruption campaigns, with consideration of the embeddedness of institutional corruption and the influence of non-economic institutions on the persistence of corruption and the failure or success of anti-corruption campaigns in the comparative countries. It is noted that Singapore’s successful model of anti-corruption highlights the need for a strong, sustained high-level political will for controlling corruption and a comprehensive anti-corruption campaign that minimizes the incentives for corruption. The difficulty of generalizing the Singapore models to other political systems is noted. Harvard Style. 14 pages, 59 footnotes, 30 bibliographic sources. 3,790 words.

TAGS: comparative political economy, anti-corruption, corruption, Singapore, Bulgaria, Romania, Eastern Europe, institutions, politics, political systems, comparative analysis.

  $98
 
18369. TATA MOTORS IN SINGUR: PUBLIC PURPOSE AND PRIVATE PROPERTY (B) 709029. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School case study by Iyer, Alfaro, and Arora on India’s Tata Motors. The case focuses on Tata Motors’ recent cancellation of their car manufacturing plant in West Bengal in response to widespread farmer protests and the company’s relocation of operations in Gujarat state. The paper includes problem statement, problem analysis with SWOT, identification and assessment of alternatives, recommendations and implementation plan. KEYWORDS: case studies case solution Tata Motors manufacturing lobbying business government relations emerging markets India. 11 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.
About Berkeley Research Case Solutions: Berkeley Research has offered authoritative case solutions to Harvard Business School case studies since 1984. We also feature solutions to case studies from other leading graduate business schools including Stanford, Darden, Wharton and Ivey. Our case solutions feature in-depth analysis drawing on appropriate analytical tools including S.W.O.T., P.E.S.T. and Five Forces analyses, and include secondary references from scholarly journals and leading business periodicals. We do not offer student-written essays; all of our case solutions are professionally written by MBA and DBA –degreed writers with proven aptitude and long experience in writing insightful case solutions. Unlike other case solutions made available on the Internet without competent evaluation of their merits, Berkeley Research case solutions are peer reviewed by a panel of case analysts prior to being offered on our website. The strongest and most gratifying endorsement of the quality of our case solutions comes from our customers: over two-thirds of our case study sales are made to repeat customers, graduate students and executives enrolled in some of the most distinguished and selective graduate business programs, and who necessarily set a high bar for analytical rigor and expository clarity. The Berkeley Research case study solution is a premium product intended for a discerning audience.
  $77
 
18201. NGO SECTOR IN HAITI. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current state of civil society development and nongovernmental organizational sector in Haiti. The paper begins with an overview of Haitian society and economy. Following this, Haitian civil society and the non-governmental sector are profiled in the context of Haitian political culture, socioeconomic change and changing state-society relations, and the international context of Haiti's domestic politics and socioeconomic development. KEYWORDS: haiti civil society non-governmental organizations ngos political unrest international aid. APA Style. 18 pages, footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
18200. GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION. Based on a review and analysis of scholarly literature, and drawing on examples from around the globe, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of public sector corruption. The purpose of the investigation is to provide a better understanding of the problem of public sector corruption - its scope, its causes, its consequences - and to describe strategies and tactics that could be used to curtail corruption. The first section provides an overview of the problem of public sector corruption. Public sector corruption is defined (and distinguished from private or business sector corruption) and the major types of corruption and general scope of corrupt activities outlined. This section also introduces the major international indices/measurements of corruption. The next section examines the major causes and consequences of public sector corruption. Following this, the paper considers strategies and measures to address/mitigate the problem of public sector corruption. KEYWORDS: public administration ethics public sector corruption transparency international bribery embezzlement. APA Style. 13 pages, 57 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources. 3,901 Words.   $91
 
18080. AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT. This paper provides an overview of Australia's governmental system. The country is a constitutional democracy and a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The paper discusses the levels of the federal system, the branches of government, the bicameral parliament, the roles of various governmental representatives, and the nation's political parties. KEYWORDS: australia government commonwealth politics. Turabian with Bottom of Page Footnotes and Separate Bibliography. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
17639. RUSSIAN PEASANT LIFE, 1900-1940. This paper examines peasant life in Russia from the end of the Romanov Dynasty to the start of the Second World War (approximately 1900-1940). The paper discusses post-Emancipation conditions and the role of the peasantry in the 1905 and 1917 revolutions; the impact of Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP); and the negative consequences of the forced collectivization of agriculture occurring under Stalin from 1929-39. Argues that notwithstanding the important role that peasants played in Russian society, economy and even politics (given their importance to the Revolution), they were ultimately betrayed by the Soviet leaders during the early part of Stalin’s reign. KEYWORDS: Russia peasantry soviet union peasants role revolution Lenin stalin. Turabian/Chicago Bottom-of-the-Page Footnotes with separate bibliography. 11 pages, 42 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,615 words.   $77
 
17472. U.S.-RUSSIAN RELATIONS IN THE POST COLD WAR ERA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the United States’ relations with Russia in the post-Cold War era. U.S.-Russian relations are traced from the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union and the final years of the George H.W. Bush administration through the present-day and the administration of George W. Bush. The analysis considers both the motivations for cooperation and the potential for confrontation in the relationship, as well as the impact of Russia’s overall economic and social deterioration on relations between the two countries. KEYWORDS: foreign policy Russia post cold war us Russian relations bush putin gorbachev yeltsin Clinton. APA Style. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,642 words.   $84
 
17459. DOES WESTERNIZATION EQUAL MODERNITY? THE CASE OF TURKEY. Eighty-two years ago, Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, set Turkey on a course of Westernization intended to bring Turkey into the modern era. Looking at the case of Turkey, this paper considers the question of whether Westernization equals modernity. It is argued that the rigid stricture of Kemalist doctrine, which holds that the secular Western model is the only path to modernity, was not realistic. Despite progress towards modernity, Turkey has not completely succeeded at either modernization or Westernization. While Westernization and modernity are closely linked, and while it is doubtful that a state would achieve modernization without also becoming more Western, movement towards Westernization does not necessary equal modernity and there may be other paths to modernity. KEYWORDS: Kemalism Turkey Westernization modernization democracy clash of civilizations. 9 pages, 45 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 2101 words.   $63
 
17320. MASS MEDIA AND VOTING BEHAVIOR IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. This paper examines the extent to which the mass media have an effect on voting in Britain. It is found that the mass media indeed have an influence on British voters; however, this influence is moderated somewhat by other factors. KEYWORDS: mass media voters voting press newspapers elections. 9 pages, 18 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,185 words.   $63
 
17255. TERRORISM AND THE FOREIGN POLICIES OF LIBYA, TURKEY & SAUDI ARABIA. This paper provides a comparative overview and analysis of the foreign policies of three Muslim countries – Turkey, Libya, and Saudi Arabia – with respect to the global issue of terrorism. Following a brief definition and overview of the problem of global terrorism, the paper examines and compares Libya’s, Turkey’s and Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy initiatives and approaches regarding terrorism. Specific consideration is given to terrorism and foreign policy in Turkey’s bid for EU accession, Libya’s drive to escape the strictures of economic sanctions, and Saudi Arabia’s relations with Western states. The three foreign policies are analyzed through various contemporary analytical lenses, including the psychological approach, decision-making analysis, international political economy approach, and others (Braveboy-Wagner & Snarr, 2003; Renshon & Duckitt, 2000; Holsti, 2001; Kegley & Wittkopf, 1995). This analysis draws especially on Mohamedou’s (2003) state-centered approach to examining foreign policy. Keywords: Islamic fundamentalism terrorism foreign policy analysis Muslim states Libya Turkey Saudi Arabia suicide terrorism suicide bombers. 12 pages; 51 footnotes; 38 bibliographic sources. 3,144 words.
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  $84
 
17211. EXTRAJUDICIAL KILLING IN NIGERIA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of extrajudicial killings as a major human rights abuse in Nigeria. The paper focuses on the more recent continued problem of extrajudicial killing as it has occurred under the civilian administration since May of 1999. The investigation provides an overview of the abuse and its context, including a discussion of where, how and why the abuse is occurring. Additional sections identify and discuss the application of existing international human rights law to the problem of extrajudicial killing in Nigeria; describe and evaluate relevant United Nations procedural action against this type of human rights abuse; and describe and evaluate complementary and alternative strategies and procedures to address this serious abuse of human rights in Nigeria. Keywords: human rights abuse extrajudicial killings international law Nigeria United Nations sanctions. 15 pages; 45 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 4,229 words.   $105
 
17210. KIM JONG IL: NORTH KOREA'S 'DEAR LEADER'. This paper provides a brief biography of North Korea’s enigmatic leader, President Kim Jong Il. The paper profiles Kim’s early life, traces Kim’s rise to power; discusses the role of the hereditary presidency, the Juche ideology and the cult of personality in maintaining Kim’s power; and provides an overview of Kim Jong Il’s personality, habits and leadership style. Keywords: North Korea presidents leaders politics foreign Kim Jong Il personality. 11 pages; 42 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 3,201 words.   $77
 
17141. GLOBALIZATION AND KUWAIT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the meaning and processes of globalization in Kuwait. Following a discussion of the meaning of the term and an overview of the major forces underpinning globalization, the analysis examines the internal (e.g., political history, political structure, economic structure, social factors, religious factors) and external (e.g., reality of globalization, regional conditions and relations, relations with the West) forces encouraging and inhibiting globalization in Kuwait. Specific factors considered include the development of Kuwaiti media (including new media such as the Internet), the role of women in Kuwaiti society and politics, the need for economic restructuring, social conflicts, the challenges posed by Islamism and political factors. TAGS: globalization Islam Kuwait women media politics change international political economy. APA Style. 22 pages; 65 footnotes; 27 bibliographic sources. 5,380 words.
RELATED PAPERS

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  $133
 
17124. THE 20TH CENTURY REHABILITATION MODEL AND FEMALE PRISONERS IN GREAT BRITAIN. This paper traces the impact of the development of the 20th century rehabilitation model (as mandated by the Gladstone Committee in 1895) on female prisoners in Great Britain. The impact is noted in terms of changes in prison labor, dress, and prisoner relations as well as in terms of the introduction of educational programs, job training, borstal training, and open prisons. Negative aspects of the developing model are also noted (e.g., failure to update training programs, treatment of female prisoners as mental patients, etc.). KEYWORDS: prison system great britain 20th century rehabilitation model prisons england wales. 9 pages; 20 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 2,634 words.   $63
 
17117. DEMOCRACY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of democracy in the European Union (EU). The analysis focuses on democracy at the supranational, institutional level of the EU, rather than on the various forms of national and sub-national democracy within the Member States of the Union. The investigation begins with an overview of the historical position of democracy within the EU and an outline of the EU’s institutional framework. The EU’s ‘democratic deficit’ is then explored in detail, along with consideration of the extent to which the expansion of the European Parliament’s power has democratized the overall Union. The concluding sections consider the defenses for the existing institutional framework and the possible alternative institutional arrangements for a democratic EU. 18 pages; 41 footnotes; 19 bibliographic sources. 5,173 words.

TAGS: supranational organizations, sovereignty, democracy, supranationality, European Union, EU institutions

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Sovereignty: Changing Norms in a New World Order Research Paper

Supranational Organizations

  $126
 
17103. RESEARCH ON SEX DISCRIMINATION IN THE YOUTH JUSTICE SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES. This paper provides a critical analysis and comparison of a few research-based studies investigating how young women suffer systematic discrimination in the youth justice system in England and Wales. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the traditional assumptions regarding female crime and delinquency and a summary of some of the major findings from the early investigations of young women’s encounters with the justice system, as well as synopsis of contemporary feminist positions concerning young women and the justice system. The investigation then turns to a critical analysis and comparison of specific (England & Wales-based) studies, focusing on the relationship between research methods and theoretical findings. 19 pages; 33 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 4,909 words.   $133
 
17058. THE ASSASSINATION OF GAITAN AND COLOMBIA'S ERA OF VIOLENT CONFLICT ("LA VIOLENCIA"). This paper discusses the political career of Jorge Eliecer Gaitan and how his 1948 assassination led to a period of violent conflict between Colombia’s liberals and conservatives. The paper also discusses how these events gave rise to the Communist guerilla organizations that continue to exist in the country today. Keywords: assassination Colombia politics violence. 11 pages; 47 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
17015. THE COLLAPSE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. This paper discusses the economic and political problems of the Ottoman Empire, the desire of European powers to divide up its territories, the Sykes-Pinchot Agreement, the Balfour Declaration, the Ottoman defeat in World War I, the establishment of Turkey as an independent state, and the French and British mandates that replaced the Ottoman Empire. Keywords: Ottoman defeat. 10 pages; 24 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
17014. THE OTTOMAN TANZIMAT. The Ottoman Empire underwent a period of reform between 1839-1878 (called the Tanzimat, or the reorganization), during which various social, political, and economic improvements were made. This paper discusses the Tanzimat reforms, as well as the reasons for their eventual decline. Keywords: Ottoman reform. 5 pages; 25 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,355 words.   $35
 
17013. THE REFORM EFFORTS OF MUHAMMAD ALI, PASHA OF EGYPT. In early nineteenth century, Egypt was a semi-autonomous state within the Ottoman Empire. At that time, Egypt’s leader, Muhammad Ali, instituted a series of modernizing reforms. This paper examines those reforms and considers how Muhammad Ali’s reform efforts were subsequently undermined during the reign of his son, Ismail Pasha. Keywords: Muhammad Ali Egypt modernization reforms. 6 pages; 21 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,558 words.   $42
 
17005. CHINA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. This paper argues that the 20th century was a “century of revolution” for China. Emphasis is placed on the role of Chinese Communism in creating this reality. It is noted that the Communist revolution ultimately had a negative impact on peasants, women, and others. Keywords: China Communism revolution. 6 pages; 18 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15977. GUYANA, JAMAICA & TRINIDAD: COUNTRY PROFILES. This paper compares the history, economic development, political leadership and social problems in the three Caribbean countries of Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad. 24 pages; 59 footnotes; 15 bibliographic sources. 5,445 words.   $133
 
15968. THE NAZI DECISION TO IMPLEMENT THE "FINAL SOLUTION" Although the plan to exterminate the Jews became apparent in late 1941, this paper argues that there are indications that Hitler and his associates were developing such plans long before that time. 6 pages; 17 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources. 1,375 words.   $42
 
15967. WORLD RESPONSES TO THE "FINAL SOLUTION" OF THE NAZIS. This paper argues that the Allied governments, Jewish organizations and the Pope all failed to respond appropriately to the Nazi effort to exterminate the Jews, simply because the information about the “Final Solution” was not believed or understood at the time. On the other hand, there were some altruistic individuals and groups that did respond with an effort to rescue European Jews. 6 pages; 20 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,471 words.   $42
 
15893. THE PORFIRIATO. This paper discusses the reign of General Porfirio Diaz in Mexico between the years 1876 and 1910. His dictatorship resulted in certain economic benefits, but social inequalities also stirred great resentment among the Mexican people. This resentment, in turn, contributed to the conditions that gave rise to the Mexican Revolution of 1910. 8 pages; 24 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15892. THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION. This paper examines how the Mexican Revolution arose in reaction to the social inequalities of the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz. The paper also discusses the different goals of the conservative and radical revolutionary leaders, and argues that the revolution resulted in at lest some social changes and opened the way for further improvements. 8 pages; 31 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15849. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE AND THE IDEALS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. This paper argues that Napoleon was more like a pre-Revolutionary monarch than he was a promoter of Revolutionary values such as liberty and equality. Notes for example that Napoleon Bonaparte suppressed freedom of speech and declared himself emperor by divine rights. 6 pages; 16 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15827. INTERNAL CONFLICTS IN THE SOCIETY OF ISRAEL. This paper explores internal conflicts in Israeli society, including religious versus secular views, right-wingers versus left-wingers, differing opinions of Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews, and efforts by politicians to form unity governments. Argues that despite multiple internal conflicts, the external conflict with the Arabs has helped to keep Israeli society united. 19 pages; 49 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15815. WOMEN AND POVERTY IN GREAT BRITAIN. This paper is concerned with the problem of inequality and the fact that women are more likely than men to live in poverty in Great Britain. Examines the evidence regarding the causes of the problem, and makes recommendations for alleviating it. 7 pages; 21 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 1,953 words.   $49
 
15810. POLITICAL AND SOCIAL DYNAMICS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY IN BANGLADESH. To help workers for the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, this paper provides theories and examples regarding social and political dynamics in the area, and also discusses the types of mistakes that need to be avoided. Includes reference to the problem of elite members of the society taking advantage of the poor. 10 pages; 21 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 2,546 words.   $70
 
15768. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN PALESTINE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history and current status of the education system in Palestine, focusing on the West Bank and Gaza. The analysis traces the history of the system, describing the major features of the system as it existed under the various authorities and as it exists today, and analyzing the systems in terms of equality, access, equity, and financing. The social, political, and economic factors in the region which work against the development and maintenance of an effective educational system are considered. Changes and challenges within the Palestinian educational system during the period of the first intifada (1987-1995) are considered. While the primary focus of the report is on the K-12 educational system, the analysis also includes a section on the development and status of Palestinian higher education in the occupied territories. 14 pages, 43 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
15756. WOMEN WHO KILL THEIR HUSBANDS AND THE BATTERED WOMAN DEFENSE IN THE U.S. AND U.K. This paper provides a comparative analysis of how the criminal justice systems in the United States versus England and Wales treats women accused of killing their husbands. The analysis begins with a general overview of spousal homicide, and its central features in the U.S. and the U.K. Following this, the historical treatment of women murderers and the legal evolution of self-defense law will be examined. This is followed by an examination of the current and evolving legal status of women who kill their husbands in the U.S. and the U.K., with a close focus on the expansion of the battered woman's syndrome self-defense strategy in the U.S. and the reliance on provocation defenses in the U.K. KEYWORDS: battered women syndrome spouse abuse victim retaliation female killers. 15 pages, 36 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 4,185 words.   $105
 
15729. THE GREEK NATIONAL LIBERATION MOVEMENT AND THE ITALIAN UNIFICATION MOVEMENT. Covers the history of these two 19th Century movements and discusses their similarities and differences. For example, they were different because the Greeks relied on European powers in their struggle against Ottoman rule, whereas the Italians relied on dynamic leaders in unifying their various city-states. Yet, the two movements were also similar because of their place in time and the role played by secret societies, among other things. 9 pages, 27 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15716. THE ROLE OF THE PARLIAMENTS IN THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. By challenging the monarchy, the members of the parliaments (aka: parlement) helped bring about the conditions that caused the French Revolution. For example, the members resisted paying taxes and opposed tax reforms; in addition, they encouraged popular revolution by being apparently in favor of individual rights (although they were actually only interested in improving conditions for themselves). 11 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15701. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: THE ROLE OF WOMEN. This paper provides a brief analysis of the role of women in the French Revolution. The analysis considers the role of women in the Revolution both in terms of their actual roles (e.g., as marchers, participants in political clubs, leaders, etc.) and their symbolic roles. The contributions of both ordinary women (e.g., the market-women who marched on Versailles) and relatively famous women (e.g., Madame Roland and Marie Antoinette) are noted. A concluding section briefly compares the role of women in the French Revolution with their substantially greater role in the Russian Revolution. Concludes that the role of women in the French Revolution was mainly important from a symbolic perspective. 9 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15686. FEMINISM, GLOBALIZATION AND THE AUSTRALIAN STATE: PERSPECTIVES OF GIDDENS AND FOUCAULT. This paper draws on the perspective of the social theories of Michel Foucault and Anthony Giddens to explain and analyze the Australian government's approach to feminist issues and the gendering of world politics in an era of globalization. Focusing especially on Giddens' conceptions of globalization and self-reflexivity and Foucault's theories of power and identity (with reference to queer theory and Butler's expansion of Foucault's ideas to gender identity and relations), the analysis looks at the changing position of women within the Australian state, political leadership and politics and the state's changing approach to women and feminist issues in an era of globalization. KEYWORDS: foucault feminist theory globalization australia status women feminism. APA Style. 23 pages, 59 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources. 6,308 words.   $133
 
15685. ALFRED ROSENBERG: CRIMES OR MISDEMEANORS? Did Rosenberg deserve his Nuremberg death penalty and his conviction on the four criminal counts, or was he merely a hapless pawn of the more cunning and politically adroit leaders in the Third Reich? This paper explores this question through an examination of Alfred Rosenberg's rise in the German National Socialist Party, his role as the Nazi ideologue, his role and duties in Hitler's Third Reich, and his activities as Delegate of the Fuhrer for the Supervision of the Entire Spiritual and Ideological Teaching and Education of the NSDAP and as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories. The analysis includes an assessment of the case made against him during the Nuremberg Trial and the defense put forward on his behalf. Concludes that while Rosenberg was a relatively unimportant and certainly ineffectual Nazi policymaker, he nevertheless should have been held culpable for the consistent promulgation of an ideology which inexorably led to the commission of the Nazi atrocities. KEYWORDS: nazi war criminals rosenberg nazi trials nuremberg nazi. MLA Style. 25 pages, 38 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 6,337 words.   $133
 
15684. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG ABUSE AND CRIME IN THE U.K. This paper critically examines the evidence of a link between drug abuse and crime in Great Britain. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the basis for the current government's claim of an "irrefutable link" between drug abuse and crime and for the government's implied assertion that the link is causal. Following this, the literature on drug abuse-crime linkages is reviewed and alternative explanations for the drug/crime connection considered. 10 pages, 34 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15683. IMPACT OF THE WOOLF REPORT ON BRITISH PRISON POLICY SINCE 1991. This paper discusses and analyzes the impact of the Woolf Report on British prison policy (and British prison conditions) over the eleven years since its publication. The paper begins with a brief overview of the events leading up to the commissioning of the Woolf Report and a discussion of the major recommendations for reform included in the report. Following this is an assessment of the impact of the Report, both in terms of its impact on government prison policy and in terms of its impact on prison conditions. KEYWORDS: prison reform uk home office woolf report criminal justice policy england wales. 13 pages, 48 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,443 words.   $91
 
15680. ITALIAN COLONIALISM IN ALBANIA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Italian colonial interests and activities in Albania. The analysis traces the history of Italian interests in Albania and examines the motivations behind Italy's interests, focusing in particular on strategic motivations and the impact of Italian-Albanian relations on Italy's relations with its European neighbors and on Italy's overall position in the world community. KEYWORDS: albanian history italian colonialism albania italy. 19 pages, 37 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 5,145 words.   $133
 
15679. THE FREE OFFICERS MILITARY COUP OF 1952. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history, objectives, scope, accomplishments and implications of the Free Officers' movement of 1952. The analysis draws on English-language primary sources such as the memoirs and political tracts of the key members of the Free Officers (Naguib, Nasser, Sadat) and a range of scholarly secondary sources. The first section outlines the history of the movement, defines its central players, and describes its general scope and activities. The next section explores the objectives of the movement, both as originally conceived and as they evolved through the course of the coup, and examines the key factors which precipitated action on the part of the Free Officers. A final section examines the main outcomes and accomplishments of the Free Officers movement. KEYWORDS: nasser egypt military coup egyptian revolution 1952. 17 pages, 25 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 4,629 words.   $119
 
15650. WOMEN IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of how women are treated within the criminal justice system in England and Wales. The investigation begins with a general overview of women's status in British crime statistics and of the general orientation of the criminal justice system towards women offenders. The analysis then takes a closer look at how the CJS treats women by examining the position of two distinct groups of female offenders: 1) women of color, and 2) female killers and/or perpetrators of serious violent crime. Another major section examines the status of women in the prisons of England and Wales. The concluding section considers the implications of the treatment of women for the implementation of justice in Britain. KEYWORDS: female killers uk criminal justice women prison essay. APA Style. 21 pages, 87 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 5,904 words.   $133
 
15634. ZIMBABWE: THE POLITICS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS. This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of the current economic situation in Zimbabwe and the prospects for future recovery. Following a background discussion, the analysis examines current economic conditions and the scope of the economic crisis and its underlying causes. It will be argued that Zimbabwe's economic crisis is rooted in the political strategies and ambitions of Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe's president since the country achieved independence in 1980. The concluding section assesses Zimbabwe's prospects for recovery. 9 pages, 28 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15620. SYSTEMATIC GENDER BIAS IN YOUTH JUSTICE IN ENGLAND AND WALES. A brief overview and analysis of systematic discrimination against young women and girls in the youth justice system of England and Wales. Argues that while the existence of gender bias in the system is indisputable, its nature is complex. On some levels (e.g., cautions versus sentencing) young women appear to be treated more leniently than young men. On the other hand, young women are treated more harshly than young men in terms of sentencing on first convictions and remanded to secure local accommodations. Other areas of juvenile justice showing evidence of gender bias include disparate treatment for status offenses, differences in prison environment, differential policies on adult/youth mixing, and the preoccupation with sexual aspects or possible sexual consequences of young women's criminal behavior. KEYWORDS: discrimination against women girls gender bias uk juvenile justice system britain. APA Style. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,771 words.   $70
 
15619. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE IN THE YOUTH JUSTICE SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN. This paper assesses the impact of restorative justice principles on contemporary juvenile justice policy and practice in Great Britain. The analysis explains the concept of restorative justice and its evolution in England and Wales. Practical examples of the implementation of restorative justice in the juvenile system are discussed, as are problems in the implementation of the model. Concludes that the restorative justice model will not be truly viable until the underlying culture of the youth justice system shifts away from retribution and towards the principles of restorative justice. 10 pages, 48 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15615. WHY THE GERMAN INVASION OF RUSSIA FAILED. This essay in military history surveys the historical literature for the reasons behind the failure of the German invasion of Russia. It is argued that the primary reasons behind the failure of the invasion (1941-1944) were poor planning and the lack of resources (winter clothing, food, troop and equipment replacements, antifreeze) during the first six months of the invasion, and over the longer terms, the ability of Germany's enemies to stick together; the Soviet's ability to re-supply their troops; Stalin's success at stirring up Russian patriotism and sparking resistance against the Germans; and not only Germany's failure to cultivate support amongst the Soviet peoples, but the horrible power of the German attacks to inspire the Russian military and public to hateful resistance. 13 pages, 24 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15610. REGIONAL DISPARITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT IN THE EU. This paper discusses and critically evaluates the assertion that: "Public infrastructure investment by the European Union [EU] does little to improve cohesion: such investment tends to assist economic development in richer regions relative to those that are poorer." Drawing on examples from studies examining the actual and/or projected regional impacts of various infrastructure projects, it will be argued that the assertion that infrastructure investment does little to improve cohesion is overly simplistic. While it is true that there appears to be a natural bias for such investment to assist economic development in richer versus poorer regions, and although it is also true that in some specific cases regions in the periphery have experienced disproportionately adverse impact as a consequence of investment in some supranational infrastructure projects, it is argued that under the proper circumstances, infrastructure investment can serve as a force for economic and social cohesion and as a tool for reducing inter-regional economic disparities. 14 pages, 33 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: EU European Union, supranational organization, infrastructure investment, economic unity, regional disparities, research paper

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Supranational Organizations

  $98
 
15526. THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION ON WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Argues that, although many women participated in the Revolution and made demands for reform, in the end their social position was basically the same as it was in the beginning. The male-dominant views of the time are contrasted with the arguments for women's equality, and it is shown that women were ultimately suppressed by the male leaders of the Revolution. 10 pages, 20 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15498. THE TALIBAN AND AFGHANISTAN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Taliban and their use of Islamic fundamentalism to influence and control the people of Afghanistan. Following a brief background overview of Afghanistan and its strategic importance, the first section details the Taliban's rise to power in Afghanistan. The second section focuses on the Taliban's strategy and actions after coming to power, with particular attention to the regime's subjugation of women's rights and basic human liberties. The Taliban's relations with foreign powers - including the U.S. - are discussed within the context of this topic; broader foreign policy concerns related to September 11th and its aftermath are not considered within this analysis. KEYWORDS: afghanistan taliban human rights status women us intervention 911. APA Style. 15 pages, 47 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
15479. COMPARATIVE JUSTICE: ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO INCARCERATION REGARDING SUBSTANCE ABUSERS IN THE U.S., BRITISH & DUTCH SYSTEMS. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the domestic drug policies of three liberal Western democracies: United States, Great Britain (the focus will be on England as the policies vary somewhat in other regions of the UK), and the Netherlands. The paper focuses on the three criminal justice systems' treatment of the substance user/abuser, with a particular focus on alternative approaches to incarceration in the U.S., English and Dutch criminal justice systems. KEYWORDS: comparative criminal justice systems drug crimes US UK Netherlands substance abusers treatment punishment term paper. APA Style. 29 pages, 71 footnotes, 33 bibliographic references.   $133
 
15474. DEMOCRATIZATION IN BRAZIL. This report examines both the process and the results to date of democratization in Brazil. The first section examines theories of democratic transition, focusing on Samuel P. Huntington's (1991) The Third Wave and considering its application to Brazil. Again using Huntington's theory of democratization as the framework for analysis, the second part of the report presents a case analysis of democratization in Brazil, looking first at how Brazil made the transformation from an authoritarian to a democratic form of rule, and then examining and evaluating Brazil's progress and success to date with democratization. 25 pages, 67 footnotes, 34 bibliographic references.   $133
 
15454. CHILEAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 1970-2000. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the past thirty years (1970-present) of development in Chile. The analysis identifies the major economic strategies and models followed during this period, tracking their shifts and consistencies through the various administrative regimes and considering the degree of "fit" (or lack thereof) between the political and economic systems of the respective eras. In assessing the performance of each sub-period, the central focus will be to examine the relationship between the process of economic growth and social equity. The analysis begins with a summary overview of the main models of political/economic development followed in Chile over the last thirty years and a discussion of current political and economic conditions in Chile. The remainder of the paper is broken into subsections corresponding to the major economic/political sub-periods: 1) socialist democracy (pre-1973); 2) the authoritarian free market (1973-1989); and 3) the democratic transition (1990-present). A concluding section summarizes recent political/economic events and looks towards the future. KEYWORDS: chile economy politics chilean economic development term paper. APA Style. 15 pages, 69 footnotes, 26 bibliographic references.   $105
 
15451. IRAN AND REFORM IN AN ERA OF GLOBALIZATION. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the constraints of globalization on the political economy of modern-day Iran. The essay considers the prospects for Iranian globalization from both the political (i.e., democracy and Islam) and economic (i.e., integration with the Western-dominated global economy) perspective. Following a brief background discussion of Iranian political economy in the pre- and post-revolutionary period, the main focus of the term is on the period following the 1997 elections. The investigation profiles the major supporters and opponents of globalization in the current regime, examines the reasons behind Khatami's focus on political versus economic reforms, and considers some of the major problems in implementing reform. KEYWORDS: Iran politics economy Iranian reform khatami term paper. APA Style. 22 pages, 69 footnotes, 30 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15227. EQUALITY AND NON-DISCRIMINATION IN INDIA AND CHINA. Problems exist in India because of such traditional factors as the caste system and male dominance. However, it is argued that the situation is worse in China because of the oppression of the central government and its views regarding racial purity. Although there are signs of positive change gradually taking place in India, change in China is unlikely unless the government becomes more tolerant of religious and cultural diversity. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $49
 
15216. POLITICAL ISLAM IN TURKEY. This paper looks at the role of the nation's military leaders in maintaining a secular government over the years. Although Islam-based political parties have competed for power since the 1950s (such as the Welfare Party and the Virtue Party), the military has consistently undermined the efforts of these parties and has caused them to be banned. As such, it is argued that Turkey has failed to establish a true representative democracy. 12 pages, 43 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15154. THE 1979 IRANIAN REVOLUTION. This paper discusses the various social groups that were involved in the revolution that led to the creation of an Islamic state. Also discusses how these groups protested against the shah's regime, with its political repression, economic problems and Western influences. Footnotes in text. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $70
 
15069. SOMALIA: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHALLENGES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current political and economic conditions in Somalia and the major challenges the country faces as it tries to re-create a state. The analysis provides an overview of the recent historical and current political and economic conditions in Somalia; considers the underlying social-political-economic structure of the country and the presence (or absence of the prerequisites of statehood); summarizes the major threats and challenges faced by the newly-emerging Somali state; and considers the most appropriate structure of government for Somali survival. Contrary to the bias of international authorities, it is argued that Somalia should not attempt to forge a new state based on a single central authority. Rather, Somalia must rebuild its nation on a foundation of multiple centers of local control. KEYWORDS: Somalia politics economy somali conflict war disintegrating states international intervention. MLA Style. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references. 4,624 words.   $84
 
15060. SOMALIA: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHALLENGES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current political and economic conditions in Somalia and the major challenges the country faces as it tries to re-create a state. The analysis provides an overview of the recent historical and current political and economic conditions in Somalia; considers the underlying social-political-economic structure of the country and the presence (or absence of the prerequisites of statehood); summarizes the major threats and challenges faced by the newly-emerging Somali state; and considers the most appropriate structure of government for Somali survival. Contrary to the bias of international authorities, it is argued that Somalia should not attempt to forge a new state based on a single central authority. Rather, Somalia must rebuild its nation on a foundation of multiple centers of local control. 11 pages, 40 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references.   $77
 
15036. RASTAFARIANS, REGGAE MUSIC AND JAMAICAN POLITICS. Covers the history of the Rastafarian movement, the elements of its lifestyle, and its struggle for the rights of the poor and oppressed. Also discusses the influence of reggae in popularizing the movement, and the efforts of Jamaican politicians to exploit the music's popularity for their own gain. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $77
 
15008. CHANGES IN RURAL WALES IN THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY. This paper concerns the impact of government incentives to boost the local economy, changes in industries and employment patterns, and such problems as social fragmentation and housing shortages. Concludes with a positive outlook on future economic development and the preservation of Welsh culture. 10 pages, 35 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $70
 
15002. THE CANADIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. This paper will provide an overview and analysis of the past, present and future of Canada's health care system. Following an overview of the history and evolution of the Canadian health care system, the investigation examines current conditions in Canada's health care system and details recent efforts towards reform. Major problem areas, including patient satisfaction, provider satisfaction, funding, and service delivery delays are identified and discussed. The current state of the Canadian health system is considered within an international context, with direct comparisons to the U.S. health care system in particular and additional comparative references to the national health systems in Britain, Europe, Japan and Australia. The concluding section identifies future trends in Canadian healthcare and makes recommendations for system reform. 25 pages, 86 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
14083. DEATH PENALTY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. Argues that the death penalty, abolished in the 1960s, was eliminated because of the will of politicians rather than the will of the British public. The discussion includes reference to opinion polls, the workings of the British political system, and international pressures. 16 pages, 47 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $112
 
14025. ALGERIA AND THE PROSPECTS FOR DEMOCRACY. This paper covers the nation’s politics after Independence (1962) and then discusses how the failed elections of 1991 led to a violent civil war between Islamic fundamentalists and the military-based government. The prospects for democracy appear bleak at this time, but there are also signs of hope for the future. Topics covered include the need for compromise and a change in the military’s perceived role, as well as the need to address the nation’s economic problems and to develop agreed-on rules for fair elections. 24 pages, 81 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.   $133
 
13970. THE LIFE AND LEGEND OF EVA PERÓN. Beginning with a biographical sketch, the analysis considers a number of specific topics including Evita’s rise to power in the Perón Administration and her role in the October 1945 crisis; political activities related to labor unions, women’s rights, the working poor and charitable work; relations with the elite; her role as an independent political actor or a loyal supporter in her husband’s administration; and factors underlying the development of the Evita legend. A concluding section attempts to provide a balanced assessment of Evita’s tangible contributions to Argentine society and politics versus the alleged harm or benefits espoused within the Evita legend and mythology. 21 pages, 31 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $133
 
13957. EUROPEAN UNIFICATION AND U.S. FEDERALISM. This term paper compares European unification with U.S. federalism. The first part of the research paper provides an overview of federalism and its development in the United States. The essay looks at how federalism evolved in the U.S., considers its central elements and features (including its relation to democracy and liberty), and examines how federalism has changed in the U.S. since its founding. Drawing upon the perspective of U.S. federalism, the second part of the paper examines the case of federalism in the EU. The analysis examines the institutional framework of the EU, considers the relations between Member States and the emerging ‘federal’ European polity, addresses questions of national sovereignty and the changing nature of the nation-state, and considers the issue of ‘European’ versus state (or in this case, national) citizenship. A concluding section provides a summary comparison of European unification and U.S. federalism and makes projections about the future course of European federalism and the prospects for a “United States of Europe.” APA Style. 29 pages, 104 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.

TAGS: european union eu european unification us federalism term paper comparative political systems federalism essay, state sovereignty, supranational organization, supranationality.

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Supranational Organizations Research Paper

  $133
 
13924. CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN WALES. Following a brief profile of the history, geography, culture, economy and political structure of Wales, this paper examines the criminal justice system in Wales, paying close attention to the similarities and differences with the nation's parent government, Great Britain. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
13887. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES TOWARDS ALCOHOLISM: THE U.S. AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. Compares and contrasts the public perception and social policies towards alcoholism in the United States and the former Soviet Union. Argues that the Soviets' traditional approach to alcoholism was that it was a "social problem" amenable to treatment with social/political policies such as taxes, restrictions in production, and education. Attempts in the 1980's to limit production proved fruitless because of the Soviet public's attitude towards drinking as a "right." Notes that the Soviets began moving towards a U.S.-style medical model of alcoholism in the late 1980's. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13800. THE RISE OF RIGHT-WING RADICALISM IN HITLER'S GERMANY. Considers the reasons for the rise of right-wing radicalism in Germany. Argues that neither political personalities, the trauma of defeat in WWI, nor socioeconomic disintegration can alone account for Hitler's rise to power. Rather it is argued that a complex interplay between a number of factors in German culture, society and history was responsible for the rise of fascism. 8pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $56
 
13799. HISTORIANS' VIEW OF NAZI SUCCESS. Examines three prominent historians' (William Sheridan Allen, William L. Shirer and Hans Staudinger) explanations for the success of the Nazi movement and fascism under Hitler. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
13742. "HITLER AMONG THE GERMANS" BY RUDOLPH BINION. Review essay which uses Binion's thesis that Hitler was the victim of a series of traumatic psychological blows from infancy to adulthood, the cumulative effect of which was to create a pathological hatred of the Jews and a lust for revenge against the Allied victors of WWI as a starting point for an analysis of Hitler's personal and political psychopathology. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $56
 
13625. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IRISH STATE. A paper on how the "Protestant Ascendancy" (18th century) led to the Catholic Emancipation movement in Ireland. Also discusses the role of Daniel O'Connell and Catholic Association, and how the Catholic movement was an important step toward the attainment of statehood in 1922. 7 pages, 24 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
13622. PRESS REACTIONS TO THE NUREMBERG LAWS. Discusses how the world's press responded to the 1935 laws that took away the German Jews' civil rights. Argues that, although there were various reactions, the major press misinterpreted the significance of the laws. The paper also discusses some of the publications that reacted appropriately, as well as the way the press coverage changed with the start of World War II. 16 pages, 52 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
13618. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS IN PRE-MODERN CHINA. This report examines China's political institutions during the pre-modern period (defined, for the purpose of this essay as prior to 1911 and the fall of the last dynastic regime), examining their structure, function, underlying ideology and transformations over time. The focus of the analysis is on the periods of the Ming (1368-1644) and Ch'ng dynasties (1644-1911), with comparative reference to the Han dynasty (206-220) and a discussion of the evolution of the seeds of formal political structures during the Shang and Chou dynasties. 14 pages, 31 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13609. ARGENTINA'S TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Argentina's transition to democratic rule. the analysis considers the significant factors working for and against the democratic transition, including the role of the military and the legacy of decades of military rule, Peronism, and the relation between the economy and democracy. the first part of the paper provides a historical overview of Argentina's struggle towards democracy (from the democratic governments in the early 20th century through the decades of military rule) and the first sixteen years of the transition (1983-1999). The second part of the paper considers in greater detail the most significant factors impacting Argentina's democratic transition: the role of the unions and Peronism; the role of the military; and the relationship between the Argentine economy and democracy. KEYWORDS: argentina democracy term paper democratic transition peronism. APA Style. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
13579. CONTEMPORARY METROPOLITAN PARIS. A study of the city and its surrounding region (Ile-de-France) as they exist in the present day. Includes discussions of Paris' centrality to the French economy, the city's ethnic groups, culture, neighborhoods, suburbs, and transportation systems, and controversies over whether or not Paris is in a state of decline. 22 pages, 58 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13471. IRELAND IN WORLD WAR II. Discusses the reasons for Eire's neutrality, and contrasts it with Northern Ireland's cooperation with the British and the IRA's efforts to side with the Nazis. Also discusses how neutrality caused some problems for the Allies, but also led to the repression of the IRA. 15 pages, 47 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13424. BORIS YELTSIN: RISE TO POWER. Drawing on three biographies, traces the political career and rise to power of Boris Yeltsin. Provides background on Yeltsin’s early life, education and engineering career and then details his first failed career of 1985-1987 and his second, successful political career after 1989. 11 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13240. THE GERMAN MIDDLE CLASS AND THE "SONDERWEG CONTROVERSY." Argues that divisions within the middle class resulted in its failure to overcome the influence of the nobility. Also argues that, despite its political failures, the middle class made important contributions to culture and society. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13217. POLITICAL INSTABILITY AND THE FAILURE OF THE SUDANESE REGIME. Following a brief background discussion of Sudan's political structure, this report examines the causes of Sudan's chronic political instability and its threatened disintegration. Traces key causal factors in the failure to form a national identity, looking back to the 1820 Turko-Egyptian invasion and forward to the failure of the 1972 Addis Ababa Accord during the Numeiri regime. Examines the continued failure to create an accountable government among the successive regimes, with particular emphasis on the disruptive influences of the Numeiri regime and the current regime officially led by President Omar al Bashir but under the defacto leadership of NIF founder and speaker of the parliament Hassan al-Turabi. A concluding section considers the prospects for a future in Sudan. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13207. MUHAMMAD ALI AND THE MODERNIZATION OF EGYPT. Reviews the life and accomplishments of Muhammad Ali (Kavalali Mehmet Ali) Pasha, who ruled Egypt from 1805 to 1848. Critically reviews Muhammad Ali's role in the founding of the modern Egyptian state. Concludes that while the Pasha was exclusively motivated by the desire to establish his own dynasty, his self-interests aligned with the reforms to state and society which ultimately laid a solid foundation for the modern Egyptian state. 16 pages, 38 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
13184. HUMAN RIGHTS IN AUSTRALIA. Argues that the laws and programs for providing human rights are inadequate, despite the tradition of "fairness" in the country and the fact that citizens can appeal to the United Nations. Also discusses the recent spread of racist attitudes in the nation's political arena. 9 pages, 25 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13143. DRUG TRAFFICKING AND CORRUPTION IN MEXICO. Describes the extent of the problem and gives several examples of news stories that show evidence of drug corruption among Mexican officials. Discusses recent steps toward overcoming the problem, but notes that the problem is deeply entrenched because of the nation's economic difficulties. Concludes by arguing that the U.S. needs to place more emphasis on reducing the demand for drugs, rather than simply trying to cut off the supply. 21 pages, 96 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13058. DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM. Analyzes how Marx (in association with Engels) developed this philosophical viewpoint. Includes such topics as the selective influence of Hegel and Feuerbach and Marx's rejection of idealism in favor of a scientific approach to historical analysis. Also discusses how this theory led to Marx's criticism of capitalism and his prediction of a proletariat revolution. In addition, the paper notes that elements of both determinism and free choice are included in the perspective. 23 pages, 64 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13056. COOPERATION AND CONFLICT: HINDU AND MUSLIM IN THE INDIAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENT, 1914-1925. Very detailed political history of Hindu-Muslim relations in Indian politics, extending well before the years mentioned in title. Basically, 1916-20 were the high point of Hindu-Muslim cooperation, which gradually but relentlessly eroded to the separatism of later decades. Thorough coverage of historical attitudes toward British Raj in the two communities, major issues and sources of tension, voting rights issues before 1914, the Lucknow Pact establishing common goals, rise of Ghandi and his use of Caliphate Movement 1919-21, Muslim criticisms of Ghandi, lasting sources of communal tensions. Concludes that no new sense of identity transcended the ancient religious divide. 12 pages, 37 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
13023. DEMOCRATIZATION IN BRAZIL. This report examines both the process and the results to date of democratization in Brazil. The first section examines theories of democratic transition, drawing on Samuel P. Huntington's (1991) The Third Wave and considering its application to Brazil. The rest of the report presents a case analysis of democratization in Brazil, looking first at how Brazil made the transformation from an authoritarian to a democratic form of rule, and then examining and evaluating Brazil's progress and success to date with democratization. 14 pages, 34 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
12746. THE STRUGGLE FOR INDONESIA'S INDEPENDENCE. Thorough, scholarly, summary of the details of Indonesian history. Beginning with the "cultivation system" of 19th century Dutch colonialism, the study covers the beginnings of Indonesian nationalism in early 20th century, origins of Sukarno's political career, Japanese conquest in World War II, Indonesian-Japanese relations and tensions, events of August 1945 declaration of independence, Allied attempts to re-occupy Indonesia, battle of Surabaya and other conflicts, international involvement and peace making, Dutch counterattacks and repression, First and Second Dutch "police actions," attitudes and actions of USA as chief mediator, why the Dutch were unable to prevail militarily, final treaty and implementation. 20p. 12b. 33f   $133
 
12720. MILITARY-CIVIL TENSIONS IN DEMOCRATIC CHILE. This paper explores the ongoing tensions between Pinochet's military legacy and the existing civil government as it struggles to make the transition back to democracy. Based on a background analysis of the history of Chilean democracy and the legacy of 17 years of military rule, the investigation looks at the civil-military tensions as they impact a few key areas: 1) the institutional framework of government under the 1980 Constitution; 2) the popular demands that Pinochet and his followers be held to account for the violent excesses of their long regime; and 3) the coalition government's struggle to balance the need to repay the enormous "social debt" left by the Pinochet regime and its own commitment to adhere to the military government's program of economic reform. 18 pages, 36 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
12681. ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR. This paper traces the roots of the superpower struggle to World War II. U.S. containment and deterrence policies are discussed, as well as confrontations between the superpowers and reasons why World War III never happened. 5p, 17f. 6b.   $35
 
12678. CONSTITUTION OF FRANCE. A complete dissection of the Constitution of France, with comparisons to America. Includes historical background of why Constitution of Fifth Republic in 1958 was written and perceived problems it needed to solve, basic principles, Presidential system of Constitution, parliamentary system of Constitution emphasizing restrictions on Parliament, how these systems have balanced in practice, provisions of French Constitution for judiciary, civil liberties, local government, amendment, etc. Conclusion assesses what parts of French Constitution would work in USA (direct election of President) and what wouldn't (most everything else). 14 pages, 34 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
12657. SOUTH KOREA: ECONOMIC & POLITICAL RISK ASSESSMENT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current economic and political environment in South Korea, with an emphasis on assessing the risks and opportunities for foreign investors. The economic risk assessment profiles of the basic structure and features of the South Korean economy, discusses the historical attitude towards foreign investment and recent new foreign investments, and provides an analysis of South Korea's recent economic meltdown, including a profile of the IMF package and the planned economic reforms and a discussion of current economic conditions. Part II, which focuses on a political risk assessment, overviews South Korea's basic political structure and history, and appraises the current political climate in terms of both domestic and international relations. This part also includes a discussion of the politics of South Korean xenophobia and its implications for foreign investors. Both sections conclude with summary risk assessments. 42 pages, 104 footnotes, 47 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12561. THE GOVERNMENTS OF PERU (FUJIMORI) AND CUBA (CASTRO). Similarities and differences in the authoritarian styles of Castro (Cuba) and Fujimori (Peru). Includes a discussion of how reform efforts in these countries have had mixed results. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
12559. JAPAN'S LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY. Concise fact-filled summary of various theories for the dominance of the Liberal democratic Party from the 1950's to the 1990's. Examines and discusses history and formation of this conservative "party of government," over-representation of rural areas, the LDP-farmer connection, the LDP-big business connection, weakness of the opponents, role of factions, and the theory that the LDP was really 3 different parties at different times, finds that all these contributed to LDP dominance. 6p., 15 notes in text, 3b.   $42
 
12438. THE U.S.-CANADIAN PACT OF 1965 - PRELUDE TO NAFTA. A review and analysis of the 1965 Canada-U.S. Agreement on Automobiles and Automotive Parts. Discusses and analyzes the importance of the Auto pact in the context of Canadian foreign policy during the 1960s and 1970s. the analysis begins with an overview of the history and background of the Auto Pact followed by a discussion of the basic terms and components of the agreement. the analysis then examines some of the major consequences of the Auto Pact, looks at the problems raised by the Agreement, and assesses its long-term impact. 16 pages, 35 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
12291. COMPARISONS IN DECLINE: THE MANCHU EMPIRE AND THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. This paper compares the internal and external factors in the decline of two great empires – the Manchu Empire of China and the Ottoman Empire of Anatolia. The paper argues that internal factors were the cause of the Manchu Empire’s decline (specifically, a revolt against an unpopular central government), while external factors were the cause of the Ottoman Empire’s decline (specifically, the unexpected collapse of the Bulgarian army on the Salonika front in the autumn of 1918. Keywords: Anatolia China comparative history. 11 pages; 16 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
12262. SAUDI ARABIA: A PRESCRIPTION FOR DEFENSE, 1997-2002. This paper seeks to address Saudi Arabia's future defense planning needs through a presentation of a mid-range defense "prescription" covering the period 1997 through 2002. The investigation begins with an analysis of Saudi Arabia's current and short-term future defense needs, looking first at the global, regional, and domestic forces and threats impacting on Saudi Arabia's defense strategy, and then considering the country's current defense strategy and position. the second section of the paper presents the general and specific recommendations for Saudi defense from 1997-2002 based on this analysis. 22 pages, 101 footnotes, 43 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12261. THE EGYPTIAN REVOLUTION OF 1952. This paper presents an analysis and assessment of the Egyptian Revolution, examining factors and forces leading to revolution; looking at the scope of the revolution itself, assessing the impact of the revolution on the Egyptian economy, military, society, political structure and foreign relations, and considering the legacy of the 1952 revolution from the perspective of Egypt in the 1990s. 26 pages, 62 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12260. CANADIAN IMMIGRATION DURING THE INTERWAR YEARS. This paper investigates Canadian immigration policy and its effect on external relations during the period between the two World Wars (1919-1939). The analysis begins with a summary overview of Canadian immigration policy and objectives during the interwar years and a discussion of some of the principal immigration regulations and restrictions as well as an analysis if the social, economic and political factors spurring anti-immigration sentiments and policies. The investigation then takes a closer look at particular aspects of immigration policy and its impact on external relations, including policies on refugees (Armenians and Jews). 15 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
12212. AUTOCRATIC TENDENCIES IN THE BALKANS. This paper explores autocratic tendencies among the four Balkan countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia from the years 1918 to 1970. Discusses similarities and differences in the political, social, economic structure of the four countries. Considers why the Balkans turned to communism and why they failed to establish multi-party democracies, with comparison to Turkey and Greece. 15 pages, 43 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
12210. THE HISTORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. This paper presents a political and historical profile of the Ottoman Empire, considering its scope and composition, focus on jihad, administration, obligations of subjects, economy, and position on religious tolerance. A concluding section considers the reasons behind the demise of the empire. Keywords: Ottomans Turks Anatolia. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
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