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19F. MARX

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19371. KARL MARX AND FREDERICK DOUGLASS: TWO VIEWS ON RACE, CLASS, OPPRESSION, AND RESISTANCE This essay explains, compares and contrasts Douglass’s and Marx’s views on race, class, oppression and resistance through an examination of each author’s understanding and expression of two critical keywords related to their texts: slavery and race as expressed by Douglass in his Narrative and labor and class as expressed by Marx in his Communist Manifesto. MLA Style. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources, 1,289 words.
TAGS: race, class, oppression, Karl Marx, Frederick Douglass, African Americans, resistance.
  $35
 
17382. INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY (IPE) AND GLOBALIZATION. As a discipline, IPE encompasses several theories derived from three main conceptualizations or ideologies: mercantilism, liberalism, and Marxism. This paper compares and contrasts the three main conceptions of IPE. Following the general comparative overview of the three conceptions, the analysis considers how advocates of each view would assess the phenomenon of globalization. A final section of the analysis uses the IPE lens (and hegemonic stability theory in particular) to consider the merits and dangers of “hegemonic stability” in international trade. Turabian Style. 25 pages, 48 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 6,192 words.
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TAGS: international political theory political ideology political theory mercantilism liberalism marxism hegemonic stability globalization.

  $133
 
17005. CHINA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. This paper argues that the 20th century was a “century of revolution” for China. Emphasis is placed on the role of Chinese Communism in creating this reality. It is noted that the Communist revolution ultimately had a negative impact on peasants, women, and others. Keywords: China Communism revolution. 6 pages; 18 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15787. THE COLD WAR: HISTORY AND EVOLUTION. This essay traces the history of the Cold War between the United States (and its allies) and the Soviet Union (and its allies), noting its World War II antecedents and focusing on its initial development in the post-war years and its early history through the 1950's. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
15700. A COMPARISON OF THE AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS. This paper compares and contrasts the American Revolution and the Russian Revolution in terms of their causes, course, and impact. The analysis draws on Crane Brinton's Anatomy of Revolution as a guide for comparing the two revolutions. Specifically, the analysis considers the extent to which each revolution fits within Brinton's stages of a revolution and examines the differences between the two revolutions using Brinton's framework. In addition to Brinton's work, information on each revolution is drawn from scholarly monographs and journal articles. KEYWORDS: american revolution russian revolution comparative analysis revolutionary theory brinton. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes. 13 pages, 32 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,644 words.   $91
 
15615. WHY THE GERMAN INVASION OF RUSSIA FAILED. This essay in military history surveys the historical literature for the reasons behind the failure of the German invasion of Russia. It is argued that the primary reasons behind the failure of the invasion (1941-1944) were poor planning and the lack of resources (winter clothing, food, troop and equipment replacements, antifreeze) during the first six months of the invasion, and over the longer terms, the ability of Germany's enemies to stick together; the Soviet's ability to re-supply their troops; Stalin's success at stirring up Russian patriotism and sparking resistance against the Germans; and not only Germany's failure to cultivate support amongst the Soviet peoples, but the horrible power of the German attacks to inspire the Russian military and public to hateful resistance. 13 pages, 24 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15198. NICOS POULANTZAS AND HEIDI HARTMANN ON CLASS STRUCTURING IN CONTEMPORARY CAPITALIST SOCIETY. Both theorists follow a Marxist orientation, but they differ from one another because of Poulantzas' structuralism and Hartmann's feminism. Poulantzas expanded and clarified Marxist class theory by adding new categories and definitions; Hartmann argues that the patriarchial exploitation of women goes beyond class distinctions and that it has its locus in the family and housework. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $42
 
15152. MARX, FREUD AND MEMMI ON ALIENATION. Discusses the views of these three men on the causes of alienation and its resolution. Marx and Freud had contrasting views on the matter; Memmi more or less merges their views by claiming that alienation is caused by colonial exploitation, but also has an internal (psychological) aspect. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $56
 
13998. CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND THE VELVET REVOLUTION OF 1989. This termpaper provides an overview and analysis of the socio-political impact of Czechoslovakia’s 1989 ‘Velvet Revolution’ on the transition states (including Czechoslovakia itself which split into two independent nations, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, in 1993) of eastern-central Europe and the former Soviet Union. In particular, the essay analyzes the Czechoslovakian revolution and its aftermath and argues that the situation in Czech/Slovakia provides a metaphor for the difficulty all the states of Eastern European and the former Soviet Union have encountered in forming a new civil society in the aftermath of communism. KEYWORDS: post-soviet states czech velvet revolution civil society term paper. APA Style. 12 pages, 39 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references. 3,629 words.   $84
 
13996. EASTERN EUROPE AND EU EXPANSION. This termpaper examines the challenges, opportunities and issues related to integrating Eastern European countries into the European Union. The essay considers both the perspective of the EU (in terms of admission criteria, impact on existing members and institutions, etc.) and the perspective of the Eastern European countries seeking admission (in terms of expectations, readiness, etc.). The paper examines major areas of friction in the integration process. KEYWORDS: european union eastern europe eu expansion research paper. APA Style. 13 pages, 41 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3,668 words.   $91
 
13953. ORGANIZED CRIME IN ALBANIA. Argues that organized crime has increased as a result of the nation’s poverty and the failure of the government to take effective action. Included in the discussion are such activities as drug trafficking, stolen car rings, the smuggling of refugees, and pyramid schemes. 12 pages, 38 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $84
 
13896. SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM IN AMERICA. Traces the historical roots and rise of the American Socialist and Communist parties in the early 20th Century through the McCarthy era. Examines the parties' links with labor unions and radical politics. Traces the political and legal campaign against the parties, citing the influence of seminal cases such as Whitney v. California and Keyishian v. Board of Regents. 14 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $98
 
13889. SOVIET IMMIGRANTS: A U.S. POLICY PERSPECTIVE. Reviews and analyzes U.S. policy towards immigrants from the Soviet Union during the 45-year Cold War and through the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Discusses U.S. political pressures on the Soviet Union to allow emigration of Jews and other religious dissidents as well as U.S. policies giving preference to Soviet immigrants over immigrants from some other countries. Reviews numerous legal cases involving Soviet immigrants. Discusses the changing policies in the wake of the collapse of the USSR and the implications of the loss of refugee status for many of these immigrants. 14 pages, 15 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13887. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES TOWARDS ALCOHOLISM: THE U.S. AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. Compares and contrasts the public perception and social policies towards alcoholism in the United States and the former Soviet Union. Argues that the Soviets' traditional approach to alcoholism was that it was a "social problem" amenable to treatment with social/political policies such as taxes, restrictions in production, and education. Attempts in the 1980's to limit production proved fruitless because of the Soviet public's attitude towards drinking as a "right." Notes that the Soviets began moving towards a U.S.-style medical model of alcoholism in the late 1980's. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13862. THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR AND ITS IMPACT ON FOUR RUSSIAN CITIES. Examines the macroeconomic implications of the Soviet breakup for four Russian cities: the capital Moscow, the European port of St. Petersburg, the eastern outpost of Vladivostok, and nearby Nakhodka. Reviews each city's people, history, customs, infrastructure, natural resources and position with regard to foreign investment. Considers the economic strengths and weaknesses of each city in terms of foreign trade and investment, technology transfer, and the development of a market economy. 11 pages, 20 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13775. PROPERTY RIGHTS: VIEWS FROM JOHN LOCKE AND KARL MARX. Compares and contrasts Locke's theory of private property rights with Marx's rejection of private property and adaptation of Hegelian theory to hold that all property and means of production belonged to the state as a collective expression of social existence. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
13591. NEO-CLASSICISM AND MARXISM IN ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY. Examines the merits and limitations of these two theoretical approaches. In the conclusion, it is suggested that the best way to analyze the economics of differing cultures is through merging the ideas of both approaches. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13582. WOMEN AND WORK IN RUSSIA SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET. This paper provides an overview and analysis of working women in contemporary Russia and in the former Soviet Union. Following a brief background on the status of women in pre-Revolutionary Russia, the analysis profiles women's entry into the work force under the Communist system and women's working conditions and occupational/wage status throughout the Soviet period. Following this, the analysis considers the impact of the fall of Communism and the disintegration of the Soviet Union on working women in Russia. 34 pages, 41 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13525. CHINA POLITICS IN THE 20TH CENTURY: MAO'S LEGACY AND DENG'S REFORMS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Mao's and Deng's economic policies and their impact on Chinese economic development and domestic politics during the period. The analysis begins with an assessment of Mao's economic policies (1950s-1975) and the problems these policies left for the Deng era of economic reform. The second part of the paper profiles ad analyzes the Deng reforms (post 1978) in terms of their impact on central-regional politics and with references to the impact of Mao's legacy. KEYWORDS: PRC China economy politics mao tse tung deng economic reform communism economic development research paper. APA Style. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13424. BORIS YELTSIN: RISE TO POWER. Drawing on three biographies, traces the political career and rise to power of Boris Yeltsin. Provides background on Yeltsin’s early life, education and engineering career and then details his first failed career of 1985-1987 and his second, successful political career after 1989. 11 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13399. COMPARISON OF ON A FIELD OF RED (BROWN AND MACDONALD) AND TWILIGHT OF THE COMINTERN (CARR). Although both books are on the Comintern, they emphasize different things and they are both flawed in their research methods. The reader is advised to study and compare both books in order to get a more complete picture of the organization's history. 11 pages, 21 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13397. HUNGARY AND THE END OF COMMUNISM. Examines the political, social and economic events in Hungary during and after the 1989 overthrow of communist rule. Peaceful political change and successful adaptation to market economics are noted. Hungary's institutional and regional framework for integration into the new Europe is described; the 1989 revolution is described as a success. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13360. THE COMMUNIST INTERNATIONAL (COMINTERN). Emphasizes the influence of the Russian Communist Party on the organization. Includes a discussion of the party's leadership and control, its theories, goals, and structure, and how it provided a model for the policies and views of the Comintern's member nations. 10 pages, 38 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13325. THE GLOBAL APPEAL OF COMMUNISM. Examines factors contributing to communism's appeal in the twentieth century: social idealism, anti-imperialism, post-colonial politics and the atmosphere of the cold war. The collapse of the Soviet state is seen as marking the demise of communism's appeal worldwide. 9 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13305. KHRUSHCHEV AND THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS. This term paper examines one aspect of the aftermath of the Cuban missile crisis. Specifically, the analysis considers the main impact/effect Khrushchev had on international relations as a consequence of the Cuban missile crisis. The principal focus of the essay is on how the Cuban missile crisis and its settlement impacted Soviet foreign policy and Soviet relations in the international arena, particularly relations with the United States and, to a lesser extent, China. KEYWORDS: soviet leaders chrushchev cuban missile crisis us-ussr relations soviet foreign policy term paper. APA Style. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13251. THE ASIATIC MODE OF PRODUCTION. Examines Marx's concept of a stagnant system of primitive mass production in Asian cultures, focusing on modern Chinese historiography and debate over the validity of this theory. Marx's theory, and recent rejection of the unilinear model of history East and West, are summarized. 15 pages, 16 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13058. DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM. Analyzes how Marx (in association with Engels) developed this philosophical viewpoint. Includes such topics as the selective influence of Hegel and Feuerbach and Marx's rejection of idealism in favor of a scientific approach to historical analysis. Also discusses how this theory led to Marx's criticism of capitalism and his prediction of a proletariat revolution. In addition, the paper notes that elements of both determinism and free choice are included in the perspective. 23 pages, 64 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12548. IMPERIALISM VERSUS IMPERIALISM: THE SINO-SOVIET CONFLICT AND POLITICAL SCIENCE THEORY. Complete, well-written survey of this crucial yet often overlooked aspect of late 20th Century world history. Covers from 1949 to 1981, including early signals of conflict, and the slow evolution from "esoteric" arguments couched in abstract Marxist theory (after 1956) to name-calling behind closed doors (after 1960) to public name-calling and border clashes of regular troops and solicitation of America's support (after 1969), the complications of the Vietnam war and Kissinger's diplomacy, and finally the all-out "proxy war" involving Cambodia, Vietnam, and China's invasion of Vietnam 1979-81. conclusion emphasizes the lack of popular participation, the small rewards gained by both sides, Mao's lack of cunning and vision in his strategies and tactics, the inabilities of classic theories of imperialism to explain this history, and how this sorry tale of useless imperial greed can be reconciled with realist and environmentalist political science theories. 25p. 15b. 70f. SEE ALSO SECTION 19D.   $133
 
12537. ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR: VIEW FROM THE KENNAN AND NOVIKOV 'LONG TELEGRAMS.' Compares and contrasts the two telegrams as documents illuminating the origins of the Cold War. Considers the role played by ideological paradigms in shaping each author's analysis; the accuracy of each document's portrayal of the rival power's capabilities, vulnerabilities, motivations and intentions; the extent to which each author's sense of audience shaped the style and content of his message; and the policy implications and/or recommendations of each document. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
12250. WHY THE COLD WAR ENDED. This essay considers the major explanations for why the Cold War ended (e.g., Soviet economic collapse, U.S. military pressure, U.S. diplomatic efforts, Soviet diplomacy, etc.) and then argues that the end of the Cold War is best explained by an economically-motivated shift in Soviet ideology - a shift largely made possible by the leadership and diplomatic skills of a single international actor: Mikhail Gorbachev. 7p., 16f,. 9b.   $49
 
12213. "MEMOIRS" BY MIKHAIL GORBACHEV. A favorable critique of Gorbachev's autobiography, examining the former Soviet leader's role as a "cold warrior" and his importance in changing the course of the 40-year Cold War. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
 
11966. THE KENNAN AND NOVIKOV TELEGRAMS AND THE BEGINNING OF THE COLD WAR. Analyzes the Kennan and Novikov telegrams as key historical documents that helped initiate the Cold War. Written shortly after WWII, these messages analyze the opposition's economic and military capabilities and prepare possible strategies. 14 pages, 22 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
11850. PRIVATIZATION IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA. This paper provides an analysis of the privatization process in the formerly centrally planned economies of Europe and the present-day Russian Republic. Drawing on specific examples from Hungary, Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic, and Russia, the analysis identifies the key objectives, main methods, and basic issues of privatization in these countries. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
11689. THE FALL OF COMMUNISM IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. Considers political and social events in post-1989 Eastern Europe utilizing sociological-historical concepts presented in five works focusing on popular rebellion and revolution in pre-industrial Europe. 8 pages, 24 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
11556. THE FORMER SOVIET UNION: OBSTACLES TO POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM. Considers the major structural obstacles to political and economic reform in the former Soviet Union as it strives to move towards democracy and a market-based economy. Preconditions for stable democracy and successful free market economy are delineated from the perspective of the former republics. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11546. COMMUNISM'S EXIT: THE CASES OF THE SOVIET UNION AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA. Analyzes the reasons behind and contributing factors in the fall of communism. Considers first the strengths and weaknesses of communist systems in general, along with the pivotal reasons behind their demise, and then looks at the specific examples of the Soviet Union and one of its satellites, Czechoslovakia. The links between the fall of communism in the Soviet Union and its satellites are noted and analyzed. 14 pages, 42 footnotes in text, 20 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
11537. REFORMING POST-COMMUNIST ECONOMIES. Considers the problems and prospects for economic reform among the post-communist countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Discusses the reasons behind the apparent success of Chinese economic reforms versus post-communist country economic reform. Looks at the relationship between political and economic reform, and the current consensus on the conditions and requirements to move the former centrally-planned economies to market. 17 pages, 45 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
11532. PRIVATIZATION: THE FASTEST ROAD TO MARKET: THE RUSSIAN EXAMPLE. This paper argues that privatization is one of the most important factors in any country's move to free market. Examines the benefits and obstacles encountered thus far in what is to date the biggest privatization program ever -- Russia. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11487. NATIONAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY IN CENTRAL ASIA AS EXPRESSED THROUGH LITERATURE. A discussion and analysis of nationalism and ethnic identity in Central Asia in terms of its expression in indigenous literature. Traces the movement toward self-identification along ethnic, national, linguistic, and religious lines in the region throughout the period of Soviet dominion, from the Bolshevik Revolution through Stalinism and up to the 1980s. As background considers the influence of 18th century poets and 19th century novelists of the region on the work of their 20th century contemporaries. Cites a broad spectrum of work, with a strong focus on Uzbek writers. 27 pages, 51 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11411. THE TRANSITION FROM COMMUNISM IN ALBANIA. A political history of Albania, from ancient times to Hoxha -- one of the most bizarre and dictatorial Communist leaders of all time -- and through Albania's slow transition away from communism. Examines the Alia regime, the Berisha regime, economic conditions and reforms, attempts at market creation, foreign relations with Serbia and Greece, treatment of minorities and political opponents, and rejection of Berisha's constitution in 1994. 11 pages, 26 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11270. JOHN SCOTT'S BEHIND THE URALS: AN AMERICAN WORKER IN RUSSIA'S CITY OF STEEL. Review of American John Scott's account of his five years as a worker in a Soviet industrial city during the 1930s. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
11247. MIKHAIL GORBACHEV. See Section 10F. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
11247. MIKHAIL GORBACHEV. The life and work of the last soviet leader are placed in the context of Russian political history in the second half of the century; Gorbachev is credited with weakening the Soviet empire and bringing the end to Russian communism. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
11226. CHINGIZ AITMATOV. Discussion of Kirghiz/Russian novelist and themes of disappearance of traditional Central Asian cultures in USSR. Emphasis on White Steamer, Day Lasts More Than 100 Years, and others. 14 pages, 38 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
11217. JAMILA (OR DZHAMILA) BY CHINGHIZ AITMATOV. Kirghiz/Russian writer dealing with village life in Central Asia. Analysis of the novel's theme of disappearance of Central Asian cultural traditions under USSR, which is told through a painter's reminiscence about a love affair he witnessed. 15 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $105
 
11124. THE NEW RUSSIAN CABINET OF 1994. See Section 19E. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
11124. THE NEW RUSSIAN CABINET OF 1994. Analyzes the departure of liberal economic planner Gaidar, the rise of old guard communist and conservative elements, and the concerns raised in the West over the fate of reform and democracy in Russia. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
11107. MARX ON CAPITALISM. Marx's theory of the origins of capitalism and the reasons why it must inevitably be superseded by communism is explained. Volume One of Capital is examined for Marx's ideas on dialectical materialism and the "inherent contradictions of capitalism." 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
11092. ORIGIN AND DEMISE OF CAPITALISM IN MARXIST THEORY. This paper discusses elements necessary to the creation of the capitalist system, particularly codification of private property and the creation of two opposing classes. Discusses process by which capitalism will cause its own demise. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
11087A. SOCIALIST REALISM IN SOVIET LITERATURE. Critique of the impact of official Bolshevik propaganda and doctrine on the literature of the Soviet Union between 1917 and 1934. Superheroism, happy endings, and lack of irony or introspection are seen as major characteristics of the genre. 12 pages, 14 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11059. RICARDO AND RADICAL ECONOMICS. Elements of Ricardo's theory of capital accumulation, income distribution and growth are seen as contributing to later radical and Marxist economics. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
11056. SOVIET RUSSIA: POLITICS AND LITERATURE, 1917 - 1930. Politics and literature in the early Soviet Union of the period 1917-1930 are described. Looks at the Futurists and Imaginist movements, and focuses on the lives and deaths of the writes Yesenin, Babel, and Mayakovsky. 12 pages, 17 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11055. SURPLUS VALUE IN MARX'S ECONOMIC THEORY. Marx's theory of surplus value derived from labor as the origin of capital is analyzed; absolute and relative surplus value are contrasted. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
11038. KARL MARX "CAPITAL" ON COMMODITY. Marx's theory of commodity's use and exchange in relation to the development of money in Capital's Volume I is examined. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
11036. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LABOR AND LABOR POWER IN MARX'S CAPITAL. This paper discusses the definition of labor (produces commodities) and labor power (is a commodity). Explains how the value (price) of any worker's labor-power is determined, surplus value, and circumstances which limit capitalists' accumulation of surplus value (profit). 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
11035. THE ROOTS OF THE NEW SOCIETY: "CONTRADICTIONS" IN THE CAPITALIST SYSTEM. This paper discusses side-effects of industrial capitalism that Marxist proponents consider will lead to a socialist future, such as concentration of capital and increased worker density and interdependence. The importance of the objective conditions for revolution versus worker initiative is considered. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
10688. SUEZ AND KUWAIT: AMERICAN AND SOVIET POLICY IN TWO MIDDLE EAST CRISES. Discusses two international crises where the United States and the Soviet Union were on the same side. Describes U.S. and Soviet relations and their policies toward the Third World. 17 pages, 7 footnotes in text, 8 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
10640. THE SOVIET INDUSTRIALIZATION MODEL AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE USSR AND CHINA. Using books by Nove (on the Soviet economy) and Kemp (on industrialization in the non-Western world), this paper assesses the impact of Soviet model of industrialization on both the USSR and China, concluding that it has failed and discussing the reasons why. 7 pages, 33 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
10637. SENDERO LUMINOSO: PERU'S SHINING PATH. An investigation of the Peruvian Communist party's faction, Sendero Luminoso, or Shining Path, explains and analyzes its ideology, describes its main strategy and tactics, discusses the role of the Peruvian economy, politics, and society in the group's activities, and considers its future in the light of the recent capture of its chairman and leader, Presidente Gonzalo, Abimael Guzman. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10611. "REVOLUTIONARY DREAMS" BY RICHARD STITES. Review of a scholarly study of Utopian visions and experiments in the work and daily life of the period during and immediately after the Russian Revolution. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
10576. AFTER CASTRO: THE FUTURE PROSPECTS OF CUBAN COMMUNISM. This paper discusses Castro's rise to power and considers to what degree Cuba's government is dependent upon Castro. Given the eventual end of Castro's regime and the recent failure of the Soviet Union, the paper considers the ideological and economic pressures Cuban Communism will have to face. Includes an extensive bibliography. 30 pages, 35 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
10575. STATE ECONOMIC POLICY IN FASCIST ITALY AND THE USSR. Compares and contrasts these regimes' economic policies, showing how they differed in terms of state-industry relations and in other ways. Primary sources are Alex Nove's An Economic History of the USSR and Roland Sarti's Fascism and the Industrial Leadership in Italy 1919-1940. 15 pages, 52 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
10531. POLAND'S "SHOCK THERAPY" ECONOMIC REFORM AND EASTERN EUROPE. Examines the rapid and drastic market-oriented economic changes in Poland since the mid-1980s, contrasting them with the more gradual changes in other East European nations. Concludes that the Polish model could serve as a paradigm for the rest of the region and that such change was necessary for Poland. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
10515. THE COLLAPSE OF EUROPEAN COMMUNISM. Discusses the history of Communism's ideological appeal in Europe and the West. The paper makes a convincing argument comparing it as a belief system to religion, and then describes the events which shook Communism's appeal. 11 pages, 11 footnotes in text, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10506. THE MARXIST METHOD OF POLITICAL ANALYSIS. Begins with an overview of Marxist method and its critics, then discusses key Marxist issues: how to categorize time epoches, how to classify groups of people, how to define the units of social and economic change. Concludes with an excellent example of a Marxist analysis concerning the breakaway of Eastern European countries from the former USSR. 9 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
 
10482. LATVIA: THE QUESTIONS OF SOVEREIGNTY AND NATIONAL IDENTITY. Provides a history of foreign rule in Latvia, its contact with Western influences, an account of its nationalistic movements and a social profile of the country. TAGS: Latvia history, former USSR, sovereignty, independence. Chicago Style with Parenthetical Notes. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10469. ECONOMIC REFORM IN THE USSR: "SHOCK THERAPY" VS. THE PRAGMATISTS. See Section 7C. 11 pages, 17 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10469. ECONOMIC REFORM IN THE U.S.S.R.: "SHOCK THERAPY" VS. THE PRAGMATISTS. Discusses the principal economic strategies and their proponents and the state of the Soviet economy. Issues include hard currency, stabilization and foreign investment, interest rates, political considerations and corruption, and the appropriate role of the military-industrial complex. 11 pages, 17 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10452. ISAAC BABEL'S "LINE AND COLOR" AS BOLSHEVIK APOLOGY. The Soviet writer's tale of an imaginary meeting with Kerensky in 1916 Finland is viewed as an apology for the Bolsheviks. Babel is seen as exaggerating Kerensky's flaws in order to justify Trotsky and the communist revolution. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
 
10368. THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO OF MARX AND ENGELS. Marx and Engel's revolutionary tract is analyzed for its historical, political and social theory and tactics. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
10353. THE MASTER SPY: THE LIFE OF KIM PHILBY. Traces career of Philby, analyzes motives and impact of his actions. 9 pages, 26 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
10207. SMITH, HEDRICK, THE NEW RUSSIANS. NEW YORK: RANDOM HOUSE, 1990. Reviews the arguments and observations of the author concerning Soviet political, intellectual and social life under the Gorbachev regime. Argues that political reform cannot be completely reversed even if Gorbachev falls from power. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
 
10207. THE 1967 SIX DAY WAR AND THE 1991 GULF WAR. Examines the similarities and differences in these two major defeats and compares the effectiveness and the objectives of the leader within each conflict. Considers the major objectives, strategy and tactics, the role of the superpowers, the degree of Pan-Arab support, the relative importance of Israel and the Palestinian issue, and the relative scope of defeat in each conflict. 12 pages, 26 footnotes, 74 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
10157. THE BOLSHEVIK TAKEOVER DURING THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. Report describing how the Bolshevik Party seized control over the Russian Revolution in 1917-18 and the inevitability of this takeover. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
10145. STANDARDS OF LIVING IN THE SOVIET UNION. Examines the objective criteria of the Soviet standard of living (consumer goods, food, housing, health care, education, government benefits) and measures the actual availability of these material living requirements against the stated goals of the 12th Five-Year Plan. Study findings shows a considerable disparity. A continuing decline in the material standards of living are predicted in the upcoming years. 20 pages, 40 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
10091. THE BATTLE OF BAKU: ETHNIC CONFLICT, MILITARY REPRESSION AND NATIONALISM IN THE SOVIET UNION. This paper examines rising nationalism in the Soviet Union through a case analysis of the battle of Baku. Background on the Azerbaijani-Armenian conflict and events leading up to the violent eruptions of January 1990 are presented and analyzed. The varying roles of territorial claims, religious differences, and central government policies as causal factors in the conflict are considered. To the extent possible – given widespread censorship and propaganda efforts of both Soviet official news agencies and the Populist Front – the specific details of the military intervention are analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to the disparity between the central government’s stated objective of resolving ethnic conflict and its hidden agenda of suppressing nationalism. The causes, outcomes and ramifications of the battle are then considered within the broader context of Soviet ethnic conflicts and emergent nationalism in the late 1980s. Keywords: USSR Azerbaijan Armenia Baku 1990 ethnic conflict. 20 pages; 80 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
10012. TIANANMEN SQUARE AND THE MOVEMENT AGAINST COMMUNISM IN CHINA. This termpaper provides an account an analysis of the April 1989 student uprising in Tiananmen Square, China. The antecedents and consequences of the uprising and massacre are noted. KEYWORDS: china political repression student protest movement tiananmen 1989. 12 pages, 17 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
10011. THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO BY MARX AND ENGELS. An outline of the theories and political program of the Manifesto, including an analysis of Marx's concepts of proletarian, bourgeois and communist. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
10010. MILOVAN DJILAS' THE NEW CLASS. A summary review and analysis of Djilas' critique of the modern communist state as it has evolved in post-war Eastern Europe. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
09982. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF POLITICAL CHANGES IN EASTERN EUROPE. Considers the components and ramifications of Eastern Europe's transformation to a market economy after years of Communist domination and reliance on central planning. Argues that initially wages will drop, unemployment will rise, and businesses will fail but that in the long run, the natural forces of the open market will result in gains for the economy and the overall standard of living. 10 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
09981. THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA. 35 pages, 77 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources. See Section 10F.   $133
 
09981. THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA, 1944-1990: RELIGIOUS, ETHNIC AND TRIBAL DIVISIONS IN THE STALINIST STATE. A survey of the religious, ethnic and tribal divisions of the people of Albania, in the context of the social and political revolution sweeping Eastern Europe. Following a description of the land and government, the historical background of religious, ethnic and tribal groups is reviewed. The role of the Muslim majority, and the situation of the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox minorities, are examined. 35 pages, 77 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
09979. THE DEMISE OF COMMUNISM IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA. 10 pages, 25 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. See Section 10F. 09979 09979   $98
 
09978. THE AMERICAN INTERVENTION IN RUSSIA, 1918-1919. Examines the U.S. participation in the Allied intervention in Russia during and after World War I. American foreign policy factors, internationalist and isolationist, and are viewed as shaping Wilson's half-hearted consent to U.S. intervention, and long-term damage to U.S. relations with Japan and Russia is assessed. 17 pages, 38 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
09820. TWO METHODS OF MEDIA ANALYSIS. A comparison of Marxist and sociological techniques of media analysis, based on Asa Berger's Media Analysis Techniques. Marxist technique is applied with "wealthy family dynasty" television shows, and sociological technique to family situation comedies. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
 
09784. MARCUSE AND MARX. A comparison of the two philosophers on the subjects of alienation and alienated labor, liberation, and revolution. Marcuse is seen as developing a new utopian strain of revolutionary Marxism, with its roots in the early writings of the young Karl Marx. 20 pages, 37 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
09778. RURAL REFORM IN CHINA SINCE 1978. 9 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. See Section 25A.   $63
 
09778. RURAL REFORM IN CHINA SINCE 1978. Examines and analyzes the changes effected to China's stagnated rural economy following the 1978 Third Plenum of the Eleventh Party Congress. Considers the effects of the commidization of land, the shift in farm pricing policies and the new household responsibility system. 9 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
09777. MARXIST ECONOMISTS IN JAPAN. A broad outline of the development of Marxist economic theory in Japan, from the founding of the JCP to the post-war school of theoretical Marxian economics of Itoh, Uno and Okishio. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
09761. KARL MARX AND MARXIST PHILOSOPHY. An overview of the major tenets of Marxist theory. Examines the theory of surplus value, Marx's view on social inequality and his thoughts on class struggle. 10 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
 
09739. TRADE UNIONS AND THE POLITICAL CONTROL OF LABOR IN MARXISM. Considers Marx' view of trade unionism in terms of his theory of capitalist production and historical forces of the time. The concluding analysis argues that contemporary Marxists must incorporate the trade union system in the framework of the advanced socialist industrial state. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
09738. MARXISM AND THE FAMILY. A look at the Marxian theory of the family and its social function, with emphasis on recent critiques by Marcuse and conservative opponents. 5 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
09737. NEOCLASSICAL THEORY OF GROWTH AND MARXIAN EXTENDED REPRODUCTION. Discussion of Marx' theory that it is the production of surplus value through the exploitation of labor which leads to the creation of capital, which in turn leads to the "extended reproduction" and the possibility of sustained growth. 4 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $28
 
09736. MARX' ASIATIC MODE OF PRODUCTION. An examination of Marx' theory of an Asiatic economic order characterized by stagnation, community of property, and unification under a despot. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
09600. SOVIET FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST: ISRAEL. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources. See Section 25D.   $49
 
09600. SOVIET FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST: ISRAEL. Following a brief discussion of the history of Soviet-Israeli relations, this analysis considers how Soviet strategic interests in the Middle East, Soviet domestic economic pressures, Soviet-U.S. relations, the Soviet stance on Jewish emigration, and Israeli domestic politics impact present-day Soviet interests, goals and mechanisms in its foreign policies toward Israel. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
09491. RUSSIAN PEASANTRY. Examines the main features of Russian agrarian policy over the last three and one-half centuries. Questions whether Russian agriculture, under a decentralized, modified free market system can become a viable and efficient means of food production for the Soviet people. 11 pages, 19 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
09425. THE SOVIET UNION'S PERSPECTIVE ON THE GLOBAL ARENA. Presents a birds-eye look at the Soviet worldview. Argues that the Soviet perspective represents its self-perceived role as not only leader of the Socialist bloc, but as the inspiration, if not the source of world (socialist) revolution. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
09425. THE SOVIET UNION'S PERSPECTIVE ON THE GLOBAL ARENA. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. See Section 19E.   $42
 
09340. FRENCH COMMUNISM IN THE MAKING, 1914-1924 BY ROBERT WOHL. Summarizes, and then analyzes the strengths and weaknesses in Robert Wohl's book which describes the events surrounding the formation of the French Communist Party. 4 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $28
 
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