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20B. PERSONALITY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY

How to interpret the catalog entries:
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18976. OVERVIEW OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY: ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR & PSYCHOPATHOLOGY. This paper analyzes the historical and contemporary views of abnormal behavior and psychopathology and describes how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. The paper also assesses the views and interpretations of the three major models (biological, sociocultural, psychosocial) of abnormal psychology. Explains how the discipline of abnormal psychology has become increasingly scientific in its approaches and methodologies over time. TAGS: psychopathology, abnormal psychology, Freud, Rush, biological model, sociocultural model, psychosocial. APA Style. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,706 words.   $49
 
18975. MASLOW’S HUMANISTIC THEORY OF PERSONALITY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the humanistic theory of personality as developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. The analysis considers concepts related to motivation, self-actualization, and hierarchy of needs. Concludes with a personal perspective that favorably apprises the theory, considering its application for self-improvement and self-actualization. TAGS: Maslow, Rogers, personality theory, humanistic theory, self-actualization, hierarchy of needs, ideal self, organismic experiencing. APA Style. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,701 words.   $49
 
18973. PERSONALITY TESTS: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESS. This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses in three commonly used personality assessments: the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Rorschach inkblot test, and a self-administered test that has been published in Psychology Today as well as other popular magazines. The tests are evaluated in terms of their validity, comprehensiveness, applicability and cultural utility. All three tests are found to have limited reliability and major weaknesses. Concludes that the Myers-Brigg Type Indicator is the strongest of the three tests evaluated, and that the Psychology Today is the weakest among the three. TAGS: personality tests, psychological assessment, reliability, validity, Rorschach, Myers-Briggs. APA Style. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,022 words.   $63
 
18894. THE STANFORD BINET INTELLIGENCE TEST: HISTORY, PROS AND CONS. This term paper describes the historical development and psychometric qualities of the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition. The research paper also addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the test and the ethical and legal issues that might arise from its use. The test can be useful in clinical, research and educational settings, as long as certain precautions are followed in interpreting the results. TAGS: Stanford Binet IQ test, psychological assessment, essay, psychometrics, education, cultural bias, intelligence testing. APA Style. 15 pages, 37 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,554 words.   $105
 
18890. CAUSES AND TREATMENT OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER. This term paper is concerned with the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the adult population. The research paper covers the causes of OCD, cormorbidity of the disorder with other conditions, and the major approaches to treatment (cognitive-behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgical approaches). TAGS: OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder term paper, mental illness, etiology, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy. APA Style. 16 pages, 60 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,710 words.   $112
 
18854. BEREAVEMENT AND PASTORAL COUNSELING. This research paper concerns the role of pastoral counseling in helping people cope with bereavement and overcome feelings of grief. The essay describes evidence on how people cope with grief and seeks to provide insights for counselors to develop theological norms for bereavement care. TAGS: pastoral counseling term paper, psychology religion, grief counseling, death, bereavement, Bible. MLA Style. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,425 words.   $42
 
18794. ADOLESCENTS AND THE MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY. This essay is concerned with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), a self-report assessment tool that is often used to identify personality disorders. Emphasis is placed on the use of the MMPI to measure personality traits in adolescents, and it is argued that the inventory is not fully appropriate for use with this population. TAGS: psychological assessment research paper, personality testing, psychometrics, MMPI, adolescents. APA Style. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,691 words.   $49
 
18758. FAMILY THERAPY. This paper reviews the literature on psychoanalytic approaches to family therapy. The individualistic approach of psychoanalysis must be adapted somewhat in the treatment of families. Nonetheless, the evidence shows that a psychoanalytic approach to the counseling of families can be helpful. KEYWORDS: psychoanalysis psychoanalytic approach family therapy families counseling bowen systems theory. APA Style. 11 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,552 words.   $77
 
18757. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY. This paper critically reviews the development of the theory and practice of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The first wave of CBT involved a purely behavioral approach to the treatment of psychological problems. The second wave enhanced the behavioral approach by adding concepts pertaining to the role of cognition in mental health. The third wave is found in such specific approaches as schema therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). It is argued that the inclusion of mindfulness and acceptance in third-wave CBT has improved the overall effectiveness and practicality of the therapy. KEYWORDS: psychology cognitive behavioral therapy theory. APA Style. 14 pages, 44 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3,292 words.   $98
 
18721. WILHELM REICH, CALDWELL AND KEPNER ON SOMATIC PSYCHOLOGY. This paper discusses the practices of somatic psychology, with an emphasis on how the practices are applied to the development and evolution of the self. Somatic psychology is based on the principle that working with the body helps clients relieve their stress and increase their awareness so they can attain personal and spiritual growth. The paper includes references to the views of Christine Caldwell, Wilhelm Reich, James I. Kepner, and Ron Kurtz (inventor of the Hakomi method). TAGS: somatic psychology bodywork Reich development self. APA Style. 7 pages, 23 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,654 words.   $49
 
18717. ASSAGIOLI, JUNG AND MASLOW ON CREATIVITY AND PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL TRANSFORMATION. This paper is concerned with the view in humanistic psychology that creativity contributes to psychological and spiritual transformation. The paper especially focuses on the arguments of Roberto Assagioli, the founder of psychosynthesis, whose work was grounded in the earlier work of Jung and Maslow. The paper includes a personal response to Assagioli’s perspective and the ways it can be used to improve psychological development. KEYWORDS: psychology creativity transformation psychosynthesis Assagioli Jung Maslow. APA Style. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,615 words.   $49
 
18703. GEORGE A. KELLY’S PERSONAL CONSTRUCT THEORY. This paper critically reviews the personal construct theory of George A. Kelly, in which it is claimed that people create mental constructions in response to events in their lives. The paper describes the strengths and weaknesses of the theory and makes recommendations for how the theory might be improved. It is argued that the theory is especially important for introducing the repertory interview technique, which is widely used today by engineers and human resources personnel as well as psychotherapists. KEYWORDS: psychology personality theory Kelly constructive alternativism personal construct theory. APA Style. 10 pages, 35 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,638 words.   $70
 
18698. HARRY STACK SULLIVAN’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the personality theory of Harry Stack Sullivan, which emphasizes the role of interpersonal interactions in personality development. The paper includes a discussion of the major constructs of the theory, as well as a discussion of the evidence from empirical studies that have provided support for the theory. KEYWORDS: psychology personality theory research Sullivan interpersonal psychiatry child development friendships peer interactions. APA Style. 12 pages, 22 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,884 words.   $84
 
18653. JUNG’S MODEL OF THE PSYCHE. This paper notes that the psychological theorist Carl Jung was influenced by Sigmund Freud, but developed a model of the psyche that was somewhat different from Freud’s. According to Jung, the psyche includes such components as ego, self, persona, anima/animus, and the shadow. A major goal of Jungian therapy is to attain wholeness of self (or “integration”) by accessing the unconscious mind and interpreting its messages. The methods recommended by Jung include dream work, analysis of symbols, art therapy and movement therapy. KEYWORDS: psychology Jung Freud. Psychotherapy psychoanalysis Jungian. APA Style. 12 pages, 33 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,914 words.   $84
 
18313. GROUP COUNSELING FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA USING COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY. This paper proposes a ten-session group counseling program, using a cognitive behavioral approach, for persons suffering with social phobia. The paper describes the group’s objectives, criteria for selecting group members, and methods for evaluating the group’s success. In addition, the proposed sessions are outlined, covering such activities as cognitive restructuring, exposure exercises, relaxation training, and social skills training. KEYWORDS: psychology counseling social phobia cognitive behaviorism. APA Style. 12 pages, 34 footnotes in text, 10 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
18303. GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER. This paper provides an overview and analysis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a persistent and common psychological disorder characterized by pathological worry. The central features and symptoms of GAD are discussed in the context of DSM-IV TR diagnostic criteria. The paper considers possible causes of general anxiety disorder and discusses theoretical explanatory models, including the metacognitive model and biological/genetic factors. Prevalence, demographic features, associated illnesses (including depression), and both pharmacological (antidepressants, tranquilizers) and psychotherapeutic (cognitive behavioral therapy) treatment options are discussed. KEYWORDS: generalized anxiety disorder gad pathological worry depression antidepressants cbt. APA Style. 6 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 1863 words.   $42
 
18302. THE DUTY TO PROTECT SUICIDAL CLIENTS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the mental health professional’s duty to protect clients from suicide or attempted suicide. The analysis describes the current scope of the mental health professional’s duty to protect suicidal clients within the context of professional ethics and applicable case law. The therapist’s duty to protect suicidal clients is analyzed in the context of patient confidentiality issues and patient-therapist privileged communications. Included in this analysis is a discussion of confidentiality issues that may arise in the aftermath of a completed patient suicide. KEYWORDS: patient suicide risk therapist duty to protect. Strict APA Style. 10 pages, 35 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources plus legal references. 3,589 words.   $70
 
18301. DUTY TO WARN AND PROTECT IN MENTAL HEALTH CARE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the mental health care professional’s duty to warn and protect someone else from any imminent dangerous actions of the client. The legal and ethical scope of the professional’s duty to warn and protect is described with reference to Tarasoff and other relevant case law. The professional’s duty to warn and protect is analyzed in terms of its impact on issues of patient confidentiality and the privileged communications between therapist and patient. KEYWORDS: tarasoff psychiatric patients duty to warn. Strict APA Style. 12 pages, 46 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources plus legal references. 4,417 words.   $84
 
18090. AUTISTIC CHILDREN & FAMILIES. This paper discusses the unique challenges faced by families in which there is a child with autism. These challenges include behavioral problems, the blocking of family member needs, and social stigma. It is noted that there are different ways (both negative and positive) that family members might react to the presence of an autistic child. The paper also refers to views on the types of strategies and skills that can help families cope with the challenges. KEYWORDS: autism families coping autistic children family dynamics. APA Style. 14 pages, 37 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,301 words.   $98
 
18054. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER & CRIME. This term paper examines the evidence on the number of criminal offenders (in correctional settings) that have been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (APD). The findings have been highly variable and, furthermore, few studies have focused on APD specifically (as opposed to more general categories, such as "mental illness"). Despite this, the evidence appears to show a link between APD and criminal behaviors. It is concluded that there is a need for more and better studies so that effective treatment and education programs can be developed. KEYWORDS: sociopath criminals psychology antisocial personality disorder. APA Style. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,423 words.   $42
 
17745. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SPOUSE ABUSE: CONTEXTUAL FACTORS IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SUFFERING OF VICTIMS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the psychological effects of spouse abuse, considering in particular the contextual factors which may serve to exacerbate, mitigate or protect against psychological harm. A review of recent studies provides support for the working hypotheses that the chronic nature and severity of abuse is associated with more extensive psychological impact and that a variety of contextual factors influence victims’ psychological responses to spouse abuse. Type of abuse, history of abuse, social support, socioeconomic factors, gender, and coping skills are among the factors influencing the psychological impact of spouse abuse. KEYWORDS: spouse abuse interpersonal partner violence battered women psychological effects depression ptsd trauma behavior. 12 pages, 45 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,473 words.   $84
 
17739. HELPING CHILDREN FOLLOWING A TERRORIST ATTACK: A CRISIS INTERVENTION PLAN. This paper outlines a crisis intervention response following a hypothetical multiple-target terrorist attack affecting several U.S. cities. The crisis intervention program is designed to alleviate psychological suffering and address traumatic reaction among children aged 4 to 11 years. The plan focuses on children manifesting post-traumatic stress reactions and those considered to be at high risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Following a discussion of children’s likely responses and abreactions to the attacks, a plan for assessment and intervention is outlined. Talk, play and art therapy techniques are recommended for use with the children. Counseling interventions are planned for parents and school personnel. KEYWORDS: terrorism ptsd children crisis intervention child psychology play therapy. APA Style throughout. 8 pages, 21 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,246 words.   $56
 
17738. THE WORK OF THE PROFESSIONAL COUNSELOR: EXPANDING FUNCTIONS AND ROLE INCONGRUITY. . Drawing on an analytical review of scholarly and professional literature, this paper examines the functions of the professional counselor, considering both the proscribed roles and the actual practice of the working professional counselor. The hypothesis that the work and day-to-day functions of professional counselors is congruent with the proscribed roles of counselors within various counseling specialties is only partially supported. Overall, the findings suggest that even in the face of theoretical consensus on appropriate roles for professional counselors, counselors’ roles and functions vary widely. It is argued that the role and function of the counselor adapts and responds to the needs of clients, environmental pressures, and changing theoretical perspectives. KEYWORDS: counseling roles functions work counselor counseling psychologist school counselor career counselor guidance counselor. 15 pages, 61 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources. 5241 Words   $105
 
17728. EFFECTIVE LISTENING STRATEGIES IN INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of effective listening strategies, a vital element of interpersonal communication. “Listening” is defined and distinguished from mere “hearing” and key concepts in effective listening such as “dialogue”, “empathizing” and the use of open-ended questions are defined and discussed. Following a discussion of theories of listening (particularly those related to psychologist Carl Rogers), the paper discusses the elements of effective listening, providing specific examples. A concluding section takes a personal viewpoint on how an individual might improve his or her own listening style. KEYWORDS: interpersonal communications listening carl rogers. APA Style. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,890 words.   $56
 
17714. PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN CHARACTER IN GIRL INTERRUPTED BY SUSANNA KAYSEN. This paper provides a psychological/psychiatric assessment of the main character and narrator of Kaysen’s memoir of her two years in McLean Psychiatric Hospital in the late 1960s. Following a summary of the book, the paper provides a diagnosis of Kaysen according to the five axes of the DSM-IV; identifies and provides examples of defense mechanisms used by the character; describes the main character’s behavior according to the biological and behavioral perspectives; and comments on the treatment approach. KEYWORDS: psychiatric hospitals mental illness psychological analysis depression dissociative disorder personality defense mechanisms psychology case study. APA Style. 13 pages, 27 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 3,102 words.   $91
 
17506. LEISURE THEORY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the philosophical, sociological, and psychological views of leisure, and considers how the three different areas of concern of the theorists affect their conceptions of leisure. Aristotle provides the philosophical perspective, Georg Simmel the sociological perspective, and John R. Kelly the psychological perspective. Argues that regardless of the conclusion that the theorists come to, all three threorists clearly view leisure as a significant aspect of the individual’s life. KEYWORDS: leisure theory leisure philosophy leisure sociology leisure psychology simmel Aristotle john r Kelly. MLA Style. 10 pages, 20 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,518 words.f   $70
 
17412. A PERSONAL APPROACH TO ADLERIAN SCHOOL COUNSELING. Writing from the first person, this paper describes how a school counselor would apply Alfred Adler’s theory of individual psychology and associated counseling techniques in a school setting. Provides examples of Adlerian techniques and discusses what type of personality a counselor would need in order to be comfortable in taking the Adlerian approach. KEYWORDS: school counselor personal approach Adler. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 1,584 words.   $42
 
17411. AN ADLERIAN APPROACH TO SCHOOL COUNSELING. This paper presents a discussion and analysis of the application of an Adlerian theoretical orientation to school counseling. The paper discusses how Alfred Adler’s individual psychology (and its related philosophies and techniques) fits with the roles, therapeutic goals, and techniques of the contemporary school counselor. It is argued that the Adlerian approach is well-suited to meeting the developmental needs of students and well-positioned to address contemporary challenges related to changing student and societal needs. Keywords: counseling education Adler individual psychology. 12 pages, 51 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 2,873 words.   $84
 
17392. FAMILY THERAPY CASE ANALYSIS: A SYSTEMS VIEW OF THE JONES FAMILY. Taking the perspective of a family therapist adhering to systemic family therapy principles, this paper analyzes the existing problems in the Jones family. The analysis identifies three major areas of inquiry and the rationale for their selection, identifies three systemic issues with which the Jones family is struggling, and describes the relationship system between Mr. and Mrs. Jones. KEYWORDS: systemic family therapy case study marital problems psychology therapeutic techniques case analysis. 12 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 3,229 words.   $84
 
17385. ANGER MANAGEMENT: SCOPE & EFFECTIVENESS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of anger management programs as they are currently used with adults and youth in the justice system (juvenile and adult), private practice (e.g., substance abuse treatment, in conjunction with psychiatric treatment), and the schools. The objective of the study is to identify the successes and problems with these groups and programs. The first part of the paper provides a survey of anger management programs across the country, divided into sections on anger management for adults and anger management for youth. The second part of the paper reviews the limited number of evaluative studies which have examined the actual effectiveness of various anger management programs. The concluding section enumerates the concerns and limitations with anger management programs and recommends suspending or scaling back use of these programs based on lack of evidence of their effectiveness. KEYWORDS: anger management alternative sentencing substance abuse criminal justice juvenile justice program evaluation. APA Style. 25 pages, 69 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources. 6,424 words.   $133
 
17339. BOOK REVIEW: “PROCESS OF CHANGE” BY PEGGY PAPP. This paper provides a review of family therapist Peggy Papp’s book concerned with family therapy and the “paradoxical approach” to bringing about positive change in family systems. The paper provides a summary and critique of each chapter. The reviewer finds the book to be well-written and informative and argues that it can provide a practical guideline for teaching students how to conduct family therapy. One of the best things about the book is its demonstration of the fact that each family is unique; because of this, the therapist needs to be able to sometimes adapt a unique approach to meet a particular family’s needs. KEYWORDS: family therapy positive change family systems paradoxical approach Papp book review. 9 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,118 words.   $63
 
17296. EXPERIENTIAL FAMILY THERAPY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the experiential approach to family therapy which holds that the lives of both individuals and families are enhanced through the ability to share emotional experiences. Defines the experiential approach; profiles the leading figures in this method, including Carl Whitaker and Virginia Satir; outlines the theoretical foundations; discusses the concept of family dysfunction; describes the goals and objectives of therapy; and describes therapeutic techniques. Concludes with an evaluation of this type of family therapy. KEYWORDS: family therapy experiential approach Satir Whitaker humanism existentialism. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 2,790 words.   $84
 
17295. FAITH-BASED FAMILY COUNSELING AND FAMILY THERAPY. This paper takes a personal perspective on attempts to integrate faith and family counseling. An emphasis is placed on the concepts and techniques for integrating elements of the Christian faith into individual practice. Argues in favor of drawing on a “faith-based” approach to counseling Christian individuals and families, which holds that “beliefs are the primary source of our attitudes, responses, feelings, and actions,” and “people do what they do because they believe what they believe.” KEYWORDS: faith-based counseling Christianity therapy. 12 pages, 33 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources. 2,769 words.   $84
 
17241. BIOSOCIAL THEORIES OF CRIME. This paper discusses how biological factors, personality traits, and social (or environmental) factors interact to contribute to crime. The paper includes a discussion of “biological harms,” twin and adoption studies, and studies on the personality traits and body types of delinquents. Keywords: crime theory biology anatomy personality heredity. 6 pages; 8 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,353 words.   $42
 
17206. THE IMPACT OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of parents’ divorce on children. The paper first provides a summary overview of the literature examining the general impact of parental divorce on children. Next, the investigation looks at some of the factors which seem to mitigate or exacerbate the impact of parental divorce on children’s well-being. Finally, the literature on post-divorce intervention programs (aimed at helping children of divorce) is briefly considered. Keywords: divorce psychological impact children broken homes parents. 12 pages; 39 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources. 3,386 words.   $84
 
17182. RESEARCH ON THE CAUSES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA. This paper provides an overview of research on the causes of schizophrenia, reviewing studies which hypothesize genetic, viral, biological, social, and other environmental causative factors. The analysis emphasizes the methods used in the various research studies, rather than their specific outcomes and implications. Rather than attempting to provide a comprehensive review of the extensive literature on schizophrenia, the paper focuses on a review of a representative sample of the research literature covering the range of major current hypotheses about the causes of schizophrenia and focuses further on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology used in those studies. Keywords: schizophrenia etiology research methodology. 21 pages; 61 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources. 5,003 words.   $133
 
17181. EXISTENTIAL VERSUS FREUDIAN VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE. This paper provides a contrast and comparison of the existential and Freudian view of human nature. Specifically, the essay explores similarities and differences in the existential and Freudian perspectives on freedom and determinism, the basis of anxiety, and the nature of human conflict. A concluding section considers which outlook is more comfortable and examines the implications of the existential viewpoint for the quality of the therapist’s engagement. Keywords: existentialism Freud human society psychology. 12 pages; 32 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 3,380 words.   $84
 
17180. GESTALT THERAPY. This paper provides a brief overview of the background, central principles, and distinctive features of Gestalt therapy. In looking at the background of Gestalt therapy, the analysis considers the extent to which Gestalt therapy emerged as a response to perceived problems or shortcomings in classical (Freudian) psychoanalysis. The analysis also considers the strengths and weaknesses of Gestalt therapy and looks at how the Gestalt approach to psychotherapy has changed and evolved in the decades since the death of its founder, Fritz Perls. Keywords: Gestalt psychotherapy psychoanalysis Perls. 11 pages; 23 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 2,565 words.   $77
 
17177. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of research methods in psychology. Following an overview of the scientific method and its application within psychological research, the processes of creating and testing hypotheses, evaluating a study, and creating a reliable and valid experiment are considered. The analysis also considers ethical issues in research, including the appropriate and inappropriate use of risk and deception. The statistical analysis of results and the application of descriptive and inferential statistics are also discussed. The concluding section provides a summary analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of research in psychology. Keywords: psychology research methodology experiments design. 21 pages; 42 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 5,293 words.   $133
 
17171. THREE APPROACHES TO FAMILY THERAPY: MADANES' STRATEGIC THERAPY, MINUCHIN'S STRUCTURAL THERAPY & PAPP'S SYSTEMIC PERSPECTIVE. This paper provides a comparative analysis of three different approaches to family therapy: 1) the structural approach, as outlined by Minuchin & Fishman (1981); 2) Papp’s (1983) systemic perspective which is closely aligned with the Milan school; and 3) Madanes’ (1981) strategic family therapy. The general perspectives, assumptions, assessment procedures, time orientation and framework, goals for treatment, therapeutic process, therapeutic interventions, and position of the therapist for each approach are explicated and compared. 17 pages; 31 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources. 4,446 words.   $119
 
17170. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES TO DREAM INTERPRETATION: FREUD AND BEYOND. Using Freud’s approach as a starting point, this paper provides an overview and analysis of dream interpretation. The basic principles of Freud’s approach are discussed and explained. The analysis provides an outline of other major psychoanalytic approaches (e.g., Jung, Boss, Perls) to dream interpretation and a discussion of some more recent psychodynamic approaches (e.g., Kramer, Greenberg & Pearlman, Hobson, Hartmann). The concluding section considers the advantages and disadvantages of using dream interpretation in individual psychotherapy. Keywords: dreams Freud psychotherapy . 12 pages; 31 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources. 3,760 words.   $84
 
17168. STORIES IN COUPLES & COUPLES THERAPY: USING JANINE ROBERTS' APPROACH TO FAMILY THERAPY IN A COUPLE. Techniques and perspectives from Janine Roberts’ (1994) model of family therapy (which draws on the power of stories) are used to assess and design interventions for a couple. Following a brief overview of the presenting situation and background scenario, a framework for therapy based on Roberts’ model is presented and discussed with reference to Roberts’ theoretical perspective. Roberts’ perspective is compared and contrasted with White & Epston’s model of narrative therapy. These approaches are then briefly compared with the problem-solving and solutions-focused perspectives of Haley and DeShazer. 12 pages; 18 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 3,173 words.   $84
 
17163. THE PATHOLOGY OF A HOMICIDAL CHILD: MARY BELL. This paper profiles the English child criminal Mary Bell, who, in 1968 at age eleven, killed a 4-year-old and a 3-year-old boy in her hometown of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England. Drawing in Gitta Sereny’s (1972,1999) books on the case and Bowlby’s (1969, 1973, 1980) attachment theory and other supporting works, the paper presents an explanation of why she killed her two young victims. In keeping with the findings of the court appointed psychiatrists in the case, it is argued that Mary could rightly be classified as a child psychopath at the time of the killings and that this psychopathology explained her behavior . It is argued that Mary Bell’s psychopathology developed as a result of her insecure attachment to her mother. 14 pages; 19 footnotes; 15 bibliographic sources. 3,898 words.   $98
 
17154. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROFESSIONAL COUNSELOR. This paper considers the essential characteristics of the professional counselor. Proceeding from the assumption that the characteristics of the ideal counselor must match the roles, responsibilities and identity of the counseling profession, the analysis begins with a definition and overview of the counseling profession. Following this, the analysis considers the characteristics of the professional counselor, with specific reference to communication skills, empathy, cognitive abilities, professional knowledge base, ethics, and a social-cultural understanding. 12 pages; 39 footnotes; 21 bibliographic sources. 3,678 words.   $84
 
17104. THE EXPERIENTIAL FAMILY THERAPY OF CARL WHITAKER. This paper presents an overview and analysis of Carl Whitaker’s symbolic-experiential family therapy. The analysis considers the theoretical foundations and goals of the therapy; describes the assessment process and overall structure of the therapy; outlines the role of the therapist and co-therapist; and considers the major techniques of the therapy. The analysis also considers the applicability of this type of therapy and the situations under which (or families for which) symbolic-experiential therapy may be contraindicated or inappropriate. 12 pages; 19 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 3,177 words.   $84
 
15974. THE IMPACT OF CROWDING ON AGGRESSION. Describes aggression as a learned behavior, and looks at the theoretical views and research studies pertaining to the effects of crowding on aggression. It is noted that some people are more prone to psychological stress when crowded, and that people of different cultures tend to react differently to conditions of crowding. It is concluded that there is a need for more research on this subject. 12 pages; 22 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 3,192 words.   $84
 
15957. "ANGEL BABY" (1995, MICHAEL RYMER, DIRECTOR). This paper discusses the challenges faced by the main characters in the Australian film, “Angel Baby” which focuses on two schizophrenics who fall in love and try to live a “normal” life. Also considers what the film shows regarding institutional practices, as well as some theoretical interpretations of the events that occur in the film. 7 pages; 12 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,719 words.   $49
 
15954. "AS GOOD AS IT GETS" (1997, JAMES L. BROOKS, DIRECTOR). This paper draws on examples from the film to show how the character Marvin Udall exhibits obsessive-compulsive disorder, according to the Freudian definition. Also discusses how some of Udall’s behavior’s are contrary to the Freudian description, and how his road to recovery seems to be based on a romantic notion of ‘love,’ rather than the use of psychotherapy. 6 pages; 7 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources. 1,464 words.   $42
 
15948. PSYCHOLOGY OF DREAMS. This paper discusses three major theories of dreams (psychodynamic, physiological, and cognitive). Each of the three dream theories is described and compared. The concluding section suggests that the true meaning of dreams might be found in a combination of these three theories. 12 pages; 38 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 2,577 words.   $84
 
15931. TRAUMATIC INCIDENT REDUCTION (TIR) TECHNIQUES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR) method and its associated techniques. TIR is a method developed by Frank Gerbode to help trauma victims, including victims of domestic violence, by getting them to recall the traumatic event and thereby assimilate it. The paper looks at the influences of Freud and Carl Rogers on the method and considers the research indications of TIR’s effectiveness. 12 pages; 39 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 2,727 words.   $84
 
15924. "BASIC INSTINCT" (1992, DIRECTED BY PAUL VERHOEVEN) (FILM REVIEW). This paper presents a psychological analysis of the main characters (Catherine Tramell and Nick Curran) in the 1992 film, “Basic Instinct”. Describes their signs of anti-social personality disorder, and includes a discussion of Nick’s aggressiveness and how he “mirrors” Catherine. 9 pages; 6 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15922. CONTEMPORARY YOUTH PATTERNS IN LEISURE. This paper reviews the literature on factors influencing leisure choices in youth (including constraints, social class, gender, etc.). It is noted that leisure patterns tend to change over the course of time (as the young person grows older). The role of leisure in personal and social development is also considered. KEYWORDS: leisure studies youth. 13 pages; 33 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15921. THE IMPACT OF LEISURE ON IDENTITY FORMATION IN ADOLESCENTS. This paper discusses studies regarding the role of structured activities, the impact of gender on leisure choices, and the role of leisure in the development of work-related identities. The conclusion includes reference to some of the policy suggestions that have been made in regard to the topic. 12 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15918. "FAMILY HEALING" BY SALVADOR MINUCHIN (BOOK REVIEW). This paper provides a summary review and analysis of Minuchin’s book. After first describing his own family background, Minuchin presents several case studies that illustrate his method of conducting family therapy. Keywords: psychotherapy families therapist theory. 5 pages; 15 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
15917. "GENOGRAMS IN FAMILY ASSESSMENT" BY MCGOLDRICK & GERSON (BOOK REVIEW). A genogram is a “map” of information regarding the relationships among family members. This book is designed to provide a handbook and reference guide for use of genograms in family therapy. Keywords: family tree history psychotherapy. 5 pages; 14 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
15916. THE INFLUENCE OF LEISURE ON PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AND IDENTITY. Emphasizing the findings of three scholarly studies, this paper discusses three major themes relating to leisure and identity formation. These are: 1) gender differences exist in leisure choices; 2) leisure activities facilitate identity formation by providing a way to explore options, and 3) structured activities have a more positive impact than unstructured activities. 11 pages; 22 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15906. "THE FAMILY CRUCIBLE" BY AUGUSTUS NAPIER AND CARL WHITAKER (BOOK REVIEW). This book is described as an interesting and useful tool for leaning a particular approach to family therapy. Napier and Whitaker describe their work with a particular family (actually a composite of families that they worked with over the years). In this way, they are able to capture the feel of a family therapy session as it progresses. Keywords: families psychotherapy techniques group therapy. 6 pages; 12 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
15899. THE USE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD). This paper addressed the problem of mis-diagnosing ADHD and thereby unnecessary placing children on drug therapies. It is argued that psychological testing can be helpful, even if it is not always accurate, as long as it is part of a comprehensive approach to testing for the disorder. 11 pages; 27 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15853. CHILDHOOD AUTISM. This paper describes the characteristics childhood autism and its rate of prevalence. Also discusses the potential causes of autism and the various approaches to treatment, including medication, behavior modification, and other strategies. 11 pages; 33 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15852. BIPOLAR DISORDER (MANIC DEPRESSION). This paper provides an overview and analysis of Bipolar Disorder, also known as manic depressive illness. Discusses the clinical features of the illness, its incidence, its possible genetic cause, and treatment options including medication and psychological counseling. 11 pages; 39 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15842. ALFRED ADLER. This paper discusses Adlerian theory and therapy, including the importance of life goals, treating each client as an individual, the steps and objectives in Adlerian therapy, Adler's views on gender, and the usefulness of Adler's approach in psychotherapy and counseling. 6 pages; 25 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15841. "SIGMUND FREUD'S CHRISTIAN UNCONSCIOUS" BY PAUL C. VITZ. This paper provides a review and analysis of this book in which Vitz argues that despite Freud's claims of atheism, he was in fact strongly influenced by Christian ideas. The paper includes a discussion of how the views in Vitz's book relate to the views expressed in other words, as well as how they relate to the practice of counseling in Christian ministry. 14 pages; 17 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 3,135 words.   $98
 
15806. ACTION PLAN FOR INTRODUCING A QUALITY IMPROVEMENT MEASURE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. This paper provides a plan for adopting a guideline (contained in the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) regarding the need to provide support and education to families and careers in cases involving schizophrenic patients. Issues discussed include: the need for training, the need for flexibility, the challenges that may be encountered; the management of change; and creating a desired organizational culture. 10 pages; 31 footnotes; 16 bibliographic sources. 2,566 words.   $70
 
15779. ANALYSIS OF AN ARTICLE ON BULIMIA. Analyzes an article by Sandra R. Yarock that first appeared in a 1993 issue of The American Journal of Psychoanalysis. The article fills a gap in the literature by focusing on four psychological approaches to the study and treatment of chronic bulimia. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
15763. THE MEDICAL MODE OF MENTAL ILLNESS: ETHICAL ISSUES FOR THE SOCIAL WORKER. Drawing on a review of the current psychiatric, psychological and social work literature, this paper provides a synthesis of the argument that the medical model as now construed is often an inappropriate and erroneous model for the treatment of emotional issues. While noting the likelihood of a biological bias or predisposition for some of the currently defined major mental illnesses, it is argued that the existing medical model of mental illness all too often functions as little more than an exercise in biological reductionism. Focusing especially on the "soft diagnoses," the analysis advances arguments concerning the questionable reliability and validity of DSM diagnostic categories as well as arguments concerning the extent to which the medical model serves to disempower clients (by removing their sense of control and focusing their attention on uncontrollable biological forces as the sole "cause" of their "illness"), and how clients would be better served through an alternative model. Following from this analysis, and drawing upon the ethic of informed consent as it is encompassed within the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) (1999) Code of Ethics, it is argued that it is morally incumbent upon social workers to inform clients of both the questionable validity of their psychiatric diagnosis and that the medical model is only a theoretical orientation which has not been scientifically proven. KEYWORDS: social workers ethics psychiatric diagnosis medical model mental illness. APA Style. 33 pages, 109 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources. 8,518 words.   $133
 
15757. DEVELOPMENT IN TWO ADOLESCENTS: THE "NORMAL" TURMOIL OF BEING FOURTEEN. This paper presents a comparative analysis of human growth and development in two fourteen-year-old adolescents. The two, one female and one male, are both ninth-graders who attend different junior high schools in the same metropolitan area. Based on extensive interviews with each subject as well as on a review of current literature on adolescent development, the analysis compares the two teens current level of development to the norm (for their age and gender) and to each other. Following a brief background sketch of each teen, the analysis considers the adolescents' physical , cognitive, and personality development. A concluding section considers the progress (or lack thereof) of each adolescent as they proceed through the tasks of development. KEYWORDS: developmental psychology adolescence teen psychology normal abnormal teenage behavior personality. APA Style. 26 pages, 43 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 6,548 words.   $133
 
15742. BEHAVIOR THERAPY AS APPLIED TO A PARTICULAR CASE. The paper includes a brief literature review describing the theory and techniques of behavior therapy, and a description of the client (a troubled adolescent male with aggression and substance abuse problems). Then, the techniques of behavior therapy (such as reinforcement, modeling and self-management) are used to describe ways that the client can be helped. 12 pages, 20 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15698. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: ARE THE CONSEQUENCES ALWAYS CATASTROPHIC? Based on a review of the academic literature, this investigation provides an overview and analysis of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse for the adult of survivors of that abuse. In addition to examining studies which point to particular areas of impact and studies which consider mitigating factors in the negative outcomes of CSA, the analysis reviews studies which challenge the common wisdom concerning CSA as a unilaterally harmful experience. 11 pages, 49 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15696. GAY TEENS: SEXUAL IDENTITY FORMATION IN THE HIGH SCHOOL YEARS. This paper explores gay and lesbian sexual identity formation during the high school years, looking at how high school youth come to their gay and lesbian sexual identities - the pressures, involved, the biases they encounter, their influences, how their friends and parents react, the process of "coming out," etc. The analysis draws on a review of the academic literature on gay sexual identity formation in the high school years as well as anecdotal and first-person accounts from gay and lesbian youth. KEYWORDS: adolescent sexuality gay teens homosexuals teenage sexual identity lesbians high school. APA Style. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 4,505 words.   $91
 
15663. ANOREXIA NERVOSA AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE. This paper presents an overview and analysis of the connection between substance abuse and one particular eating disorder - anorexia nervosa. Following an overview of the clinical syndrome of anorexia nervosa, the investigation reviews the literature examining the link between anorexia nervosa and substance abuse. Considers how anorexia differs from bulimia in its relation to substance abuse, differences in substance abuse prevalence by anorexia sub-type, whether substance abuse and anorexia arise simultaneously or whether one disorder precedes the other, and theories providing possible explanations for the link between these disorders. KEYWORDS: eating disorders anorexia anorexic bulimia substance abuse drug abuse comorbid disorders. APA Style. 14 pages, 44 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 3,711 words.   $98
 
15660. REVIEW OF FATAL FREEDOM BY THOMAS SZASZ. A favorable review and analysis of controversial psychiatrist Thomas Szasz's book on the ethics and politics of suicide. Summarizes Szasz's central thesis and major arguments favoring the treatment of suicide as a personal decision and individual choice to be made free from State or medical interference and opposing the sanctioning of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. Finds the book to be thought provoking, meticulously researched, and well written. Szasz's arguments are compelling and convincing, although his disdain of the medical profession and the psychiatric discipline in particular can be distracting. KEYWORDS: book review physician assisted suicide euthanasia thomas szasz fatal freedom self determination. 11 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,764 words.   $77
 
15657. PREVENTING AND RESPONDING TO VIOLENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: COUNSELING INTERVENTIONS AND COUNSELOR ROLES. This reesarch paper provides an overview and analysis of counselors' current and potential roles in addressing the problem of school violence in U.S. secondary (high schools) schools. The report looks at appropriate counselor roles and counseling interventions from the perspective of counseling theory and traditional counselor roles with adolescent populations. The essay begins with a brief overview of current thinking on the causes of school violence. The next section considers the traditional and evolving role of the school counselor. The next part of the paper focuses on appropriate roles and interventions for counselors attempting to address the problem of school violence in the secondary schools. KEYWORDS: school violence school counselors counseling interventions high school students term papers. APA Style. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources. 4,346 words.   $98
 
15656. THE BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY (BDI): REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF A PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TOOL. Following a brief overview of the clinical criteria used to diagnose depression and a discussion of the principle assessment techniques used to evaluate depressive disorders, this paper presents a critical review and evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), a 21-item self-report inventory designed to evaluate the level of depression in adolescents and adults. Argues that the BDI remains a useful and cost-effective tool for indicating potential depression in individuals; however, the BDI is unsuitable as a stand-alone method for diagnosing depression. KEYWORDS: psychological measurement bdi beck depression inventory term paper. APA Style. 16 pages, 23 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 4,132 words.   $112
 
15655. ETHNICITY AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION: CULTURAL AND PERSONALITY FACTORS IN DIFFERENCES. This research paper reviews the current psychological literature on the personality and cultural factors influencing attitudes and receptivity towards psychological/psychiatric intervention/treatment among various ethnic minority groups found in the U.S (including various Latino groups, Asian groups, Africa-Americans, and Native Americans). The analysis begins with an overview of the current thinking on culture and personality and the possible implications for this inquiry. Following this, the current psychological literature on ethnic/cultural differences in attitudes toward psychiatry/psychology and manifestations of mental health problems are reviewed and analyzed. KEYWORDS: mental health attitudes ethnic differences psychiatric treatment acceptance ethnicity culture term paper. APA Style. 15 pages; 45 footnotes; 28 bibliographic sources. 5,251 words.   $105
 
15645. TRAUMATIC BEREAVEMENT: CHILDREN'S RESPONSES TO THE SUDDEN DEATH OF A PARENT. Taking a child development perspective, this paper provides an overview and analysis of children's responses to the traumatic death of a parent. Questions under consideration include the following: How does a child's stage of development affect his or her grief response? Do children have the same "tasks of grieving" as adults? What are some of the mitigating factors affecting the child's negotiation of the grief process? To what degree are children exposed to the traumatic death of a parent at risk for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder? KEYWORDS: bereavement children grief grieving child traumatic parental death. 15 pages, 36 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 4,521 words.   $105
 
15569. MAN'S SEARCH FOR MEANING (VIKTOR FRANKL). Frankl's concept of "logotherapy" stemmed from his experiences as a concentration camp victim in World War II. In addition, his unique approach to psychotherapy was influenced by the philosophy of existentialism. This review concludes that Frankl's book, which emphasizes the need to find "meaning" in one's personal life, is both well written and practical. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
15481. INSANITY: LEGAL VERSUS PSYCHIATRIC VIEWPOINTS. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of legal versus psychiatric/medical views of insanity with a particular focus on the insanity defense and the legal approach to mental illness in the criminal courts. The essay begins with a historical background on the development of the insanity defense. Following this, we consider the use and components of the insanity defense in contemporary American jurisprudence, looking at the acceptance of the insanity defense as a valid legal strategy in various jurisdictions, the alternatives to the insanity defense, and the psychiatric and legal issues surrounding insanity defenses and the disposition of acquitted defendants. KEYWORDS: law psychiatry legal status mentally ill persons insanity defense term paper. APA Style. 13 pages, 48 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 5,502 words.   $91
 
15465. THERAPY IS LIKE A GOOD NIGHT'S SLEEP: A POSTMODERNIST VISION. This term paper presents an evolving theory/metaphor of therapy which states that therapy is like a good night's sleep. The essay explores the etiology of this metaphor and traces its roots to postmodernist psychology, explaining how the metaphor is in many ways clinically and/or intellectually satisfying, and yet in other ways also clinically and/or intellectually unsatisfying. The discussion and analysis is undertaken within the following framework: 1) an overview of postmodernism in psychology; 2) a synthesis of the metaphor within the postmodernist paradigm; and 3) a deconstruction of the metaphor, examining its fit with a) therapist/client relations and therapist's role, b) therapeutic goals/objectives, and c) therapeutic practices. KEYWORDS: postmodernism psychology psychotherapy benefits essay. APA Style. 15 pages, 39 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
15461. FOSTER CARE AND COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN. This term paper explores the impact of out-of-home placement (foster care) on the emotional and cognitive development of school-aged children, with a close focus on the impact of foster care on children's academic achievement and school behavior. The essay concludes that children in the foster care system are at much higher risk of cognitive and emotional development delays then children in the general community. The paper finds that placement disruptions and other factors in the foster care environment contribute to these problems. KEYWORDS: foster care psychological educational impact developmental delay foster families. APA Style. 18 pages, 62 footnotes, 30 bibliographic references.   $126
 
15459. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER & SERIAL KILLERS. This paper explores the personality of the serial killer, concentrating specifically on the role of one specific personality disorder – antisocial personality disorder – in serial murder. The analysis begins with a definition of terms, including a definition and outline of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder. The analysis reviews the literature on serial murder and personality, examining the link between antisocial personality disorder and the behavior of serial killers, briefly illustrating with examples of known serial killers such as Ted Bundy, John Wayne Gacy, Henry Lee Lucas and others. A concluding section briefly considers the appropriateness of incarceration for these individuals. Keywords: sociopath psychopath personality murder serial killing mental defect illness criminal justice. APA Style. 12 pages; 27 footnotes; 15 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15455. ALBERT ELLIS AND RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Because REBT philosophy and practice is integrally linked to its founder, Albert Ellis, the overview begins with an extended biographical profile of Ellis. Following this, the analysis provides an overview of the basic theory, assumptions, therapeutic goals, technique, and practice of REBT. In examining the practice of REBT, consideration is given to its application in various social, cultural, and psychological settings. KEYWORDS: albert ellis term paper psychology theorist rational emotive behavior therapy. APA Style. 15 pages, 23 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
15450. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DISABILITY. This paper looks at disability from a psycho-social context, examining in particular the psychology of people with disabilities. Drawing on established theory and recent research, the essay examines the components of individual disability and the interaction between the individual's psychology of disability and social and environmental mediators. The term paper includes a general overview of disability in America; a review of the literature on the psychology of disability, considering the "stages of acceptance" through which the disabled person is said to progress and considering factors involved in the disabled person's adjustment to disability; and a review of the major theories which seek to explain the psychology of people with disability. Another section presents a rebuttal to the common notions of the psychological difficulties of disability. KEYWORDS: disability disabled persons psychological factors term paper. APA Style. 22 pages, 80 footnotes, 35 bibliographic references.   $133
 
15438. EYE MOVEMENT DESENSITIZATION REPROCESSING (EMDR) THERAPY: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. This paper provides an introduction to EMDR therapy and a review of its effectiveness by way of a critical review and analysis of three journal articles focusing on this controversial therapy. Articles included in the review include a study on the use of EMDR for substance abuse authored by the "inventor" of the therapy; a review of seven controlled studies; and a review of 17 empirical studies evaluating EMDR treatment outcome. Concludes that there is scant evidence of EMDR effectiveness and ample evidence that EMDR supporters promise far more than the therapy can deliver. KEYWORDS: controversial therapies eye movement desentiization. 15 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $105
 
15437. GENETICS AND CRIME. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversial theory that criminal behavior has genetic roots, considering the reasons why biological and and genetic in particular and theories of crime causation are so controversial, examining the central tenets of the theory, and considering the evidence supporting the theory based on family, twin, adoption, and gene-environment interaction studies. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15433. ADHD ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSIS. This paper focuses on the assessment practices used with children identified as at risk for or suspected of having ADHD. The investigation provides a discussion and evaluation of three major assessment practices. The ADHD assessment practices evaluated are: 1) the clinical interview (specifically the structured DISC); 2) behavioral rating scales (including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the various Conners Rating Scales, and others); and 3) the most popular computer-based continuous performance test (CPT) and the Conner's CPT. Prior to the discussion, evaluation and comparison of these three major assessment practices, a brief review of the essential diagnostic tasks and challenges for establishing ADHD in children is presented. 13 pages, 30 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.   $91
 
15432. ADOLESCENT HOMOSEXUALITY: THE ROLE FOR FAMILY THERAPISTS. This paper focuses on the much neglected topic of adolescent homosexuality from the perspective of the family therapist. The analysis examines the issues of gay adolescent sexual identity formation, "coming out" to parents and parents' reaction to the disclosure that their child is homosexual, family relations (particularly child-parent) through the gay life cycle and their impact on homosexual couples, and the appropriate role(s) for family therapists in conducting therapy with gays and their families. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15247. CONTROVERSIES IN ALCOHOLISM TREATMENT: ABSTINENCE VERSUS CONTROLLED DRINKING. Based on a review of the current literature on alcoholism treatment, this paper presents a comparative analysis of the two opposing models of alcohol treatment: 1) the traditional model, which views alcoholism as a disease and abstinence as the only acceptable treatment goal; and 2) newer approaches (e.g., moderation management, controlled drinking, rational recovery), which view alcoholism as a behavioral problem and sees controlled drinking or "moderate" drinking as an appropriate treatment goal. The analysis compares the philosophy of each model, discusses the differences in the two treatment approaches, considers empirical support for the efficacy of each model, and discusses the suitability of each model for different patient populations. KEYWORDS: alcoholism treatment controversies abstinence controlled drinking alcoholics. APA Style. 18 pages, 47 footnotes, 31 bibliographic references. 5,434 words.   $126
 
15231. THE MADNESS OF KING GEORGE (1995). A plot summary of the film is given, followed by a discussion of how the character King George III exhibits five signs of abnormal behavior (infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability and unexpected ness). Also discusses the incompetence of the doctors of the time in dealing with the King's problem, which is now believed to have been caused by the hereditary disease porphyria. 7 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.   $49
 
15230. ONE FLEW OVER THE CUCKOO'S NEST (1975). After a brief summary of the film's plot, the paper discussed the use of biological treatments as seen in the film (drug therapy, electric shock therapy and psychosurgery). These methods, used merely to control behavior rather than cure mental illness, show the insensitive and inhumane approaches used in earlier psychotherapeutic practice. 7 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $49
 
15229. THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY. Summarizes the study and treatment of mental illness from ancient times, and the belief in demonology, to modern times, when a variety of treatment methods have been developed. It is concluded that the trend has been toward increasingly humane treatment of mentally ill. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $42
 
15189. BULLYING. The scope of the problem is discussed, as well as the types of victims, the variables associated with bullying, the consequences of bullying, and suggestions for ways to work toward overcoming the problem. Also included is a discussion of gender differences in the behaviors of both bullies and victims. 14 pages, 49 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $98
 
15179. ERIK ERIKSON ON INFANTILE SEXUALITY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT. Discusses Erikson's Freudian perspective on the issue, and argues that his 8 Stages of Development is a useful model. However, also criticizes Erikson's speculations and assumptions and his use of gender stereotypes in interpreting data. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.   $49
 
14100. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY. This paper provides a profile and analysis of cognitive behavioral therapy from the perspective of a therapist-in-training. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is defined and its general approach and core techniques explicated. The essay includes a rationale for the use of this psychotherapeutic approach in various psychological and psychiatric illness and discusses its existing and potential application as an adjunctive therapy in serious mental illnesses. KEYWORDS: psychotherapy cognitive behavioral therapy CBT treatment mental illness psychiatry term paper. APA Style. 14 pages, 37 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references. 3,798 words.   $98
 
14089. DEATH OF A SPOUSE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the impact of the death of a spouse on the surviving marriage partner. Defines and explicates models of the grief process and grief reactions in spouses, considering cognitive, affective, behavioral and physiological manifestations. Discusses the variables influencing survivor grief resolution, focusing on variable related to the death circumstances (traumatic versus non-traumatic), personal factors (age, gender, personality, illness), and the quality of marital relationship. KEYWORDS: death spouse grief bereavement survivors widows. APA Style. 17 pages, 43 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 4,394 words.   $119
 
14039. BIRTH ORDER AND PERSONALITY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current literature on the influence of birth order on personality. The analysis begins with an overview of the theoretical framework which supports the argument that birth order influences individual personality. The second section focuses on empirical studies of the birth-order/personality link. A concluding section summarizes the findings and argues that the connection between birth order and personality is a tenuous one at best. KEYWORDS: birth order psychology personality term paper. APA Style. 17 pages, 43 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references. 4,313 words.   $119
 
14007. PARENTAL ATTACHMENT AND CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOR. This termpaper provides a review of the recent scholarly literature on parental-child attachment and children’s subsequent social development with a focus on the extent to which attachment style predicts children’s subsequent behavioral problems and/ or development of pro-social behaviors. The analysis includes a review of studies which provide a general overview of secure versus insecure attachment and social adjustment; studies which address mediating factors (in particular, maternal depression) on the attachment-social development association; and studies which examine the special role disorganized attachment styles and subsequent behavioral problems. KEYWORDS: parental attachment styles social development children term paper. APA Style. 20 pages, 34 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references. 5,307 words.   $133
 
14003. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DISORDERS. This essay provides a summary and critical evaluation of the research on the psychological effects of chronic disorders. The essay begins with an examination of the research with looks at the association between chronic disorders and psychological symptoms from a broad perspective, considering the direction of the relationship, and presenting models of the chronic disorder/psychological effects linkage. Following this, the essay presents a critical evaluation of several recent research studies on the psychological/psychiatric effects of chronic disorders. A summary section presents a synopsis of the major findings as presented in the essay. KEYWORDS: chronic illness psychological effects research paper. APA Style. 16 pages, 39 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 4,215 words.   $112
 
13947. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JUNG'S PERSONALITY TYPES AND ASTROLOGY. The paper discusses some of the evidence that supports astrology, and then examines Jung's interest in the topic and the ways his personality types correlate with astrological signs and symbols. The conclusion urges the reader to not use either system in a superficial or stereotypical way. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.   $77
 
13940. EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION. This paper reviews the scholarly literature on developmental research of expressed emotion. Discusses the hypothesis of the universality of expressed emotions, the facial feedback hypothesis, and the coherence of expressive modalities. The analysis considers whether or not it is possible to assume that the display of a certain emotional expression corresponds to experiencing that particular emotion. 14 pages, 25 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $98
 
13939. COGNITIVE AND PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES TO DEPRESSION. This essay critically discusses cognitive (particularly CBT) and psychodynamic approaches to the treatment of depression. Following an overview of the major goals and techniques of these approaches, the analysis considers how these approaches might be modified to improve their efficacy in the treatment of depression. It is argued that the current paradigm for the use of CBT in depression would benefit from the adoption of a more integrative and psychodynamic approach which takes into account the social and interpersonal aspects of depression. KEYWORDS: psychotherapeutic treatment depression cognitive behavioral therapy CBT efficacy term paper. APA Style. 10 pages, 21 footnotes, 14 bibliographic references.   $70
 
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