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21A. JUDEO-CHRISTIAN RELIGION

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19294. STEM CELL RESEARCH ETHICS: A JEWISH LAW PERSPECTIVE. NEW, WINTER-SPRING 2017. This essay considers the ethics of stem cell research from the perspective of people holding strong religious convictions in their adherence to the Jewish faith. The paper considers whether or not stem cell research is contrary to Jewish law (halacha). After examining evidence from the Torah, Talmud, and Jewish scholars, it is argued that stem cell research might be justifiable as long as it is carried out within reasonable limits. MLA Style. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources, 1,608 words. TAGS: stem cell research ethics, Judaism, Jewish law, halacha.   $42
 
18891. EXEGESIS OF JOHN 13:1-17. This term paper analyzes the New Testament passage, John 13:1-17, in which Jesus cleans the feet of his disciples. It is noted that the passage provides messages to today’s Christians regarding spiritual cleansing and serving others with a spirit of humility. TAGS: John 13:1, New Testament, Bible, essay, spirituality, service, spiritual cleansing. Turabian Style with Footnotes. 12 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,815 words   $84
 
18886. AFRICANS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT BIBLE. This term paper reviews a chapter by Randall C. Bailey entitled “Beyond Identification: The Use of Africans in Old Testament Poetry and Narratives” (from the anthology Stony the Road We Trod). Bailey argues that the Old Testament writers had positive views about the people and nations of Africa. Although certain aspects of Bailey’s argument are criticized, it is concluded that he succeeds in providing fresh insights into the meaning of the Old Testament texts. TAGS: religion, book review, Old Testament, Africans, Africa, essay, Bible. MLA Style. 4 pages, 8 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 989 words.   $28
 
18854. BEREAVEMENT AND PASTORAL COUNSELING. This research paper concerns the role of pastoral counseling in helping people cope with bereavement and overcome feelings of grief. The essay describes evidence on how people cope with grief and seeks to provide insights for counselors to develop theological norms for bereavement care. TAGS: pastoral counseling term paper, psychology religion, grief counseling, death, bereavement, Bible. MLA Style. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,425 words.   $42
 
18796. WALKING ON WATER: MATTHEW 14:23-36. This term paper analyzes the text of the New Testament passage Matthew 14:23-36, in which the disciples see Jesus walking on water during a storm on the Sea of Galilee. An important Christian message is provided by Peter joining Jesus on the water and Jesus saving Peter when his fear causes him to start to sink. It is further noted that, in contrast to the similar passage in the Gospel of Mark, this passage includes the disciples proclaiming Jesus to be the Son of God. TAGS: religion, Christianity, Matthew 14:23, walking on water, Bible essay, faith. MLA Style. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,510 words.   $42
 
18779. SAINT PAUL’S VIEWS ON DIVORCE. This paper discusses the Christian view of divorce as expressed by Paul in his letters in the New Testament. Paul agrees with traditional Jewish law and the teachings of Jesus, which claim that married couples should never be divorced, but adds that an exception might be made when a believer is married to an unbeliever and the unbeliever initiates the divorce. TAGS: religion, Christianity, Judaism, Paul, Bible, marriage, divorce. MLA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,395 words.   $42
 
18778. THE BAPTISM OF JESUS. This paper is concerned with the baptism of Jesus Christ, as described in the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke). The baptism started Jesus’ ministry, established him as the Son of God, and provided a model for later Christians to follow. It is noted that there are similarities in the three accounts as well as differences, which are due to the different theologies and audiences of the Gospel writers. TAGS: religion, Christianity, Bible, baptism, Gospel Matthew Gospel Mark, Gospel Luke. MLA Style. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,476 words.   $42
 
18765. STYLE AND CONTENT IN THE QUR’AN(KORAN) AND THE BIBLE. This paper compares the ideas and literary styles of two religious texts: the Bible of Christianity and the Qur’an of Islam. It is argued that the texts help to explain the different cultural viewpoints that exist between Christians and Muslims in the contemporary world. TAGS: Christian culture, Muslim culture, scriptures, Bible, Koran, religious texts. MLA Style. 7 pages, 26 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,772 words.   $49
 
18750. MIRACLES OF THE ANGLO-SAXON SAINTS. This paper is concerned with the stories of miracles among the Christian saints of Anglo-Saxon England, including St. Cuthbert, St. Edmund, and St. John of Beverly. It is argued that various factors must be considered in explaining the reasons for the stories’ popularity, including the prevailing worldview of the time, the revenue and prestige associated with saints’ shrines, and political developments. Above all, the stories were regarded as important because they provided lessons about the ideals of Christian life. TAGS: religion Christianity saints Anglo-Saxon England saint Cuthbert St Edmund. Harvard Style. 14 pages, 25 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,198 words.   $70
 
18664. THE HISTORIC MOSES. This paper centers on the information in an essay entitled “In Search of Moses,” by Van Biema & Mitchell, which appeared in Time magazine in 1998. The essay is concerned with the evidence and speculations of historians and archaeologists regarding the historical existence of Moses. The events of Moses’ life are discussed, as well as his role as a leader of the Hebrews and a developer of monotheism. It is noted that the evidence about Moses is limited because it is drawn almost entirely from scriptures. KEYWORDS: history religion Judaism Moses. MLA Style. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,368 words.   $35
 
18654. UNITY AND LOVE IN KABBALAH AND PSYCHOLOGY. This paper argues that psychological insights can be obtained from certain concepts in the system of mystical Jewish teachings known as the Kabbalah. Although there are differences between psychology and Kabbalah, there are also certain ways in which they overlap. For example, one of the goals of Kabbalah is to attain unity with God and experience love for God as well as for one’s fellow human beings. This is similar to the goals in holistic psychology of experiencing wholeness of self, a “psychological transformation,” and healthy relationships with others. KEYWORDS: Jewish psychology Judaism mysticism holism Kabbalah. APA Style. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,854 words.   $56
 
18540. THE EPISTLES OF JOHN. This paper provides background material on the three letters of John in the New Testament and addresses various issues raised by them. The issues include authorship, date and location of writing, and the purpose of the letters. It is noted that the letters contain messages regarding true versus false teachings, the importance of God’s love, Jesus’ human as well as divine nature, Christian hospitality, and authority in the church. It is argued that these messages were applicable at the time they were written, and they also provide lessons for Christians in the present day. KEYWORDS: religion Christianity New Testament epistles John. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 11 pages, 34 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,901 words.   $77
 
18510. THE BOOK OF JEREMIAH. This paper is concerned with the prophet Jeremiah and the message of his book in the Old Testament. Through Jeremiah, God expressed his anger to the people of Judah and warned them to repent from sin. The paper concludes with a personal view about how Jeremiah’s message applies to the faith journey of Christians in the present day. KEYWORDS: religion Christianity Old Testament prophets Jeremiah. APA Style. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,398 words.   $35
 
18332. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF EAST EUROPEAN JEWRY (1648-1918). This paper discusses the progress and setbacks of East European Jews from the 17th Century (the time of the “Deluge” pogroms), through the 18th Century (the time of the Enlightenment and emphasis on equal rights), the early 19th Century (the time of Emancipation and renewed persecutions), the late 19th Century (a time of increased anti-Semitic attitudes), to the end of World War I (which resulted in the Jews being dispersed and vulnerable to further anti-Semitic persecutions). KEYWORDS: history Judaism East Europe. APA Style. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
18328. JEWISH FAMILIES IN ISRAEL AND THE UNITED STATES. This paper compares Jewish families in Israel and the U.S. in terms of demographic factors, marriage and divorce patterns, family structure, and relationships within the family. There are similarities because of common religious background, as well as differences due to unique traits in the laws, cultures, and societies of the two nations. In particular, family matters in Israel are influenced by religious-based laws while Jewish families in America are influenced by secularism, multiculturalism, and the “Americanization” of values. KEYWORDS: religion sociology culture Judaism Israel United States. APA Style. 11 pages, 40 footnotes in text, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
18319. THE THREE “ABRAHAMIC” RELIGIONS: JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, AND ISLAM. This paper provides historical background on Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and compares and contrasts them in terms of their beliefs and practices. There are similarities to be found because all three are monotheistic and emphasize the importance of a covenant with God, and also because Christianity and Islam were built on the foundations of Judaism. Although there are also notable differences to be found, it is argued that these differences are superficial and that practitioners of the three religions should be more tolerant and accepting of one another. KEYWORDS: religion Judaism Christianity Islam. MLA Style. 14 pages, 33 footnotes in text, 4 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
18206. “AUTHORITY” AND “POWER” IN RELIGION. As discussed in this paper, “authority” refers to a reliable source of divine knowledge (scripture, tradition, religious leaders, personal experience) and “power” refers to the ability to do certain things (magic power, a state of consciousness, self-control, an attribute of God). It is noted that these terms have different specific meanings in the context of different religious beliefs. KEYWORDS: religion, authority, power. MLA Style. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
18205. THE PIANIST BY WLADYSLAW SZPILMAN. This paper is concerned with The Pianist, an autobiographical account of a Polish Jew’s experiences during the Holocaust and World War II. Topics include the psychological reactions of the author, his emotionally detached tone, lessons about the good and bad of human nature, and the plausibility of a Nazi officer helping the author while he was hiding in bombed-out Warsaw near the end of the war. KEYWORDS: book review literature autobiography Judaism Holocaust World War II Poland. MLA Style. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
18086. THOMAS BERRY’S “NATURAL CAPITALISM”. This term paper discusses the concept of "natural capitalism," which is seen as a way to reconcile economic progress with the need to protect the environment and its resources. The paper agrees with Thomas Berry's view that there is a need for a certain kind of spiritual attitude in order for this attempt to be effective. Although he is a Catholic priest, Berry doesn't insist on a religious framework; rather, he argues for a "cosmological viewpoint," which merges scientific knowledge with a sense of awe. KEYWORDS: natural capitalism thomas berry cosmological viewpoint. MLA Style. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,673 words.   $77
 
18068. CHRISTIAN COUNSELING AND HYPERTENSION AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS. This paper discusses the role of the Christian counselor in helping African Americans deal with the problems associated with hypertension (high blood pressure). The first part of the paper discusses the causes of the problem (such as stress, unhealthy diets, lack of exercise and lifestyle choices), as well as the personality traits that enable some individuals to cope with stress better than others. Then the paper describes various ways that pastoral counselors can help African American clients overcome the negative consequences of hypertension, with an emphasis on the importance of having a strong sense of spirituality in this effort. KEYWORDS: christian counseling african americans hypertension stress. APA Style. 13 pages, 29 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources. 3,206 words.   $91
 
17708. A QUANTITATIVE-QUALITATIVE STUDY OF RELIGIOSITY & DELINQUENCY. This paper presents a research proposal for a quantitative-qualitative study of religiosity and delinquency. The purpose of the study is to confirm and clarify previous findings concerning the religiosity-delinquency relationship and to explore facets of religiosity and potential relationships between religiosity and delinquency among current delinquents and gang members. A meta-analysis of previous quantitative studies of the impact of religiosity on delinquency will test the hypothesis that religiosity is inversely related to delinquency as well as hypotheses related to contexual aspects of the religiosity-delinquency relationship. Religiosity and its association with delinquency among current juvenile delinquents and members or affiliates of youth gangs will be explored through semi-structured interviews with delinquents, gang members and adults connected with delinquent youth. Strict APA Style throughout. 17 pages, 48 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 4,285 words.
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17706. THE AZUSA STREET REVIVAL. This paper considers the role, importance and lasting legacy of the Azusa Street Revival within American Christianity. The paper provides an overview and analysis of the Azusa Street Revival and its placement at the origins of the American – and one could argue, global – Pentecostal movement. The analysis considers the history of the movement, profiles William J. Seymour and other prominent leaders of the Azusa Street Revival, outlines the doctrine of Azusa, discusses the revival’s position on racial, class, and gender equality, and examines in detail Azusa’s legacy within pentecostalism in particular, and American Christianity in general. KEYWORDS: pentecostal azusa street seymour revival speaking tongues. APA Style. 16 pages, 34 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources. 4,020 words.   $112
 
17607. SEVEN THEORIES OF RELIGION BY DANIEL L. PALS. This paper provides a summary and review of Pals’ book. The analysis begins with a synopsis of each of the book’s eight chapters. This is followed by reflection on how Pals’ book as a whole and each of its eight chapters are relevant to an understanding of contemporary religion. Concludes that Seven Theories of Religion is a useful book for the student of modern-day theories of religion: it is well written and does a good job of explaining the views of the major religious theorists from the late 19th century through the late 20th century. KEYWORDS: theories religion book review non fiction. MLA Style. 10 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,366 words.   $70
 
17597. TRANSGRESSIONS AGAINST AUTHORITY AND SOCIAL ORDER IN THE ANCIENT WORLD: THE THEME OF PUNISHMENT IN GENESIS AND THE ODYSSEY. This paper explores the theme of punishment in the ancient Hebrew and Greek texts. Concludes that all punishments were in response to people defying or disobeying authority figures. Moreover, most transgressions occurred as a result of people having uncontrolled desires. KEYWORDS: punishment bible greek literature. MLA Style. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,417 words.   $42
 
17571. THE LETTER OF ARISTEAS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of “The Letter of Aristeas”, a document from Hellenistic times in which the author supposedly tells the story of the translation of Jewish scripture (the Torah) from Hebrew into Greek. Argues that although the Letter is unreliable as factual history, it nonetheless has importance for modern historians and other scholars, especially in that it provides information and insights into the views of the Alexandrian Jews as well as into their relationships with other groups of that era. Includes FREE fully annotated 15-item bibliography. KEYWORDS: letter aristeas torah scripture jews Christians ancient Greeks. Turabian/Chicago Style with bottom-of-page footnotes and separate annotated bibliography. 13 pages, 23 footnotes, 15 annotated bibliographic sources. 4,899 words.   $91
 
17570. JEWISH PROCESS THEOLOGY AND THE COSMOLOGY THEORIES OF THOMAS BERRY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Jewish process theology and considers its view of the cosmology theories of Catholic priest Thomas Berry. After describing Jewish process theology and then considering Berry’s cosmological worldviews and his believe in the importance of protecting the natural environment, the paper discusses the ways in which Jewish process theology agrees with the claims and arguments made by Berry. Concludes that process theology is compatible with Berry’s worldview. KEYWORDS: Jewish process theology interconnectedness cosmology catholic priest thomas berry. MLA Style. 12 pages, 47 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,840 words.   $84
 
17380. ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN IN THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH: A LITERATURE REVIEW. This paper provides a summary review of representative literature on the expanding role of women in mainstream Protestant churches in America and England. The large American literature and small but growing British literature on women clergy encompasses multiple perspectives, including theological, sociological and feminist, and utilizes a variety of methodological approaches, including surveys, case studies, and various forms of quantitative and qualitative analysis. KEYWORDS: women clergy women ministers protestant churches Christian women women’s role church. APA Style. 13 pages, 54 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources. 3,355 words.   $91
 
17345. SUICIDE: PASTORAL COUNSELING RESPONSES. This paper discusses suicide as a pastoral issue and provides an overview of what one needs to know to handle suicide cases in the course of pastoral counseling. The paper includes information on assessing the risk of suicide, intervention techniques in the crisis and post-crisis phases, helping the family of friends of attempted and completed suicides, and the impact that suicide has on counselors. KEYWORDS: pastoral counseling suicide suicidality suicide prevention counselors church pastors. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 2,625 words.   $77
 
17337. A BIOGRAPHY OF THE APOSTLE PAUL. This paper provides a brief biography of the apostle Paul. Discusses Paul’s early life, his conversion to faith in Jesus, his early years in Christ, and his later missionary journeys. Argues that Paul had a significant impact on the early development of Christianity because he preached a gospel that had widespread appeal at the time. In particular, he was able to win over a large number of Gentiles because he emphasized faith as the basis for salvation, and he did not insist on the need for them to change their lifestyles in accordance with Jewish traditions. KEYWORDS: Apostle Paul salvation. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,506 words.   $42
 
17330. FINANCING THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME. This paper discusses the views of historians regarding the manner in which the building of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame was financed. The analysis shows that the financial sources included contributions from the King, church funds, collection tours, and donations from rich and poor alike. No evidence is found that construction costs were ever cut through the use of volunteer laborers. Discusses the controversy over the question of whether or not the sale of indulgences played a major role in the construction of the cathedral. KEYWORDS: cathedral construction financing Notre Dame. 8 pages, 29 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,970 words.   $56
 
17324. IMAGES OF MOTHERHOOD. This paper compares Julian of Norwich’s image of God as mother (as contained in chapters 59-61 of A Book of Showings) with Frances W. Harper’s image of mother in her poem “The Slave Mother.” Julian of Norwich, a fourteenth century Englishwoman and religious writer, claims that God is mother as well as father. Frances W. Harper, a nineteenth century African American woman, was an advocate for both civil rights and women’s rights. In her poem “The Slave Mother,” Harper, like Julian of Norwich, indicates that the primary quality of motherhood is all-encompassing love. KEYWORDS: motherhood maternal images. Written 2005 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,467 words.   $42
 
17307. GOSPEL OF JOHN VERSUS THE GOSPELS OF MATTHEW, MARK AND LUKE. This paper compares and contrasts the Gospel of John with the three synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke). This paper discusses the significance of four of these differences, in terms of how they help us to understand the life and mission of Jesus. Then, the theme of love, as presented in John’s gospel is examined, emphasizing how this theme contributes to the message of John’s gospel as a whole. KEYWORDS: gospels bible love. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,524 words.   $42
 
17295. FAITH-BASED FAMILY COUNSELING AND FAMILY THERAPY. This paper takes a personal perspective on attempts to integrate faith and family counseling. An emphasis is placed on the concepts and techniques for integrating elements of the Christian faith into individual practice. Argues in favor of drawing on a “faith-based” approach to counseling Christian individuals and families, which holds that “beliefs are the primary source of our attitudes, responses, feelings, and actions,” and “people do what they do because they believe what they believe.” KEYWORDS: faith-based counseling Christianity therapy. 12 pages, 33 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources. 2,769 words.   $84
 
17278. THE CANON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. This paper discusses how the New Testament canon came to be formed during the first centuries of the Christian Era. The internal and external factors that caused the canon to become necessary are described. The criteria used to determine which books would be included in the New Testament canon are examined. The paper concludes by considering the significance of the process of canonical formation, in terms of how that process aids in understanding the nature and purpose of the New Testament as a whole. KEYWORDS: bible studies new testament canon. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 2,635 words.   $84
 
17268. TWO TEXTS ON MEDIEVAL MONASTICISM. This paper compares and contrasts two primary sources pertaining to medieval monasticism. One of the sources, from August 1233, contains various testimonies to support the canonization of Saint Dominic. The other source, from approximately 1120, is the memoirs of a Benedictine abbot, Guibert of Nogent. The two texts are compared in terms of literary style, author’s point of view, historical value, and perspective on religion. KEYWORDS: medieval Christianity monasticism. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,470 words.   $42
 
17220. THE U.S. AS A "NATION BASED ON FAITH". This paper argues that the United States should become more clearly identified as a Christian country (while still accepting diverse religious beliefs). The discussion includes the role of Christian ethics in the development of the nation and its laws, and the need for moral values to overcome social problems and to strengthen the country as a whole. Keywords: morality Christianity national identity Americans Christian ethics US. 11 pages; 22 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 2,699 words.   $77
 
17155. ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN IN THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH: BREAKING THROUGH THE STAINED-GLASS CEILING OR FACING BACKLASH? RESEARCH DESIGN FOR AN EXPLORATORY STUDY. This paper presents a research design for an exploratory study of attitudes towards women’s changing role in Christian churches across the U.S. The study focuses on gender, denominational, and clergy/lay differences in attitudes towards women assuming leadership roles in the church. A sampling of the relevant literature is briefly reviewed. The proposed methodology uses a grounded theory framework and draws on both quantitative and qualitative methods. Proposed data collection methods include a survey questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. 11 pages; 45 footnotes; 41 bibliographic sources. 3,174 words.   $77
 
17116. SENATOR KERRY AND THE WORKPLACE RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ACT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history, development, and status (as of 2002) of the Workplace Religious Freedom Act (WRFA) of 2002 (S. 2572) and its sponsorship by Senator Kerry (D-MA). The analysis begins with a brief biographical sketch of Senator Kerry. The history and development of the WRFA and its sponsorship by Senator Kerry is traced. The analysis considers the factors which led to the development of this bill and examines the intended and possible effects it will have on public policy, employees and employers. Keywords: work religion John Kerry senate bill. 25 pages; 47 footnotes; 38 bibliographic sources. 6,721 words.   $133
 
17041. THE STORY OF JACOB IN GENESIS 32-33. This paper discusses how the biblical story of Jacob’s return to Canaan and reconciliation with his brother Esau relates to an understanding of Jacob’s relationship with God and his role as leader of the people of Israel. Keywords: Biblical figures Jacob. 4 pages; 23 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $28
 
17022. BUDDHISM AND JUDAISM. This paper addresses the reasons why many Jews are turning to the use of Buddhist meditation techniques. Although Judaism is sufficient in itself as a spiritual practice, Buddhism has played a role in the rediscovery of traditional Jewish meditation practices and in strengthening appreciation for traditional Jewish beliefs. Parallels between Buddhism and Judaism are also discussed. Keywords: meditation Jews Buddhists comparative religion. 11 pages; 36 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 2,823 words.   $77
 
15984. THE NOTION OF GOD'S COVENANT WITH A CHOSEN PEOPLE. This paper discusses the two kinds of covenant described in the Bible, and the views of scholars on their historical origins. Although the concept of God’s covenant grew out of ancient Near East culture, there are also unique elements to be found in the Jewish version. 5 pages; 16 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 1,246 words.   $35
 
15983. THE RISE OF RABBINIC JUDAISM. Discusses the historical and social context in which Rabbinic Judaism arose. Topics include Jewish cultural identity, the Roman occupation of Palestine, the failed Jewish revolt, and competition between the Pharisees, Sadducees and other groups. 5 pages; 22 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
15982. MAIMONIDES ON THE COMMANDMENTS. This paper concerns the views of the Jewish philosopher Maimonides (1135-1204) regarding the biblical commandments. His Aristotelian perspective is contrasted with that of other Jewish thinkers, including the mystics known as the Kabbalists. 5 pages; 23 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
15981. JUDAISM IN THE MODERN PERIOD. This paper argues that after 1800, Judaism experienced “an upheaval equivalent to the destruction of the Second Temple.” This upheaval is described, along with the different responses of Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative Jews. 5 pages; 17 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,199 words.   $35
 
15894. THE STORY OF JOSEPH IN GENESIS 37:50. This paper discusses how different scholars have interpreted the Biblical story of Joseph. There is general agreement that the story is a work of literary art, but there is disagreement over the extent to which it is also historically accurate. After examining the evidence, this paper concludes that the story is more literary than historical and that it is a work of high literary standards. 16 pages; 33 footnotes; 15 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
15876. SILENCE AND THE "WORK OF GOD" IN ST. BENEDICT'S RULE. Benedictine monks must follow certain rules regarding silence and the conditions under which they are allowed to speak. This paper argues that the reason for these rules is to avoid distractions to thus enable the monks to concentrate on their primary task: the "work of God" (as expressed through prayer and contemplation). 6 pages; 15 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15841. "SIGMUND FREUD'S CHRISTIAN UNCONSCIOUS" BY PAUL C. VITZ. This paper provides a review and analysis of this book in which Vitz argues that despite Freud's claims of atheism, he was in fact strongly influenced by Christian ideas. The paper includes a discussion of how the views in Vitz's book relate to the views expressed in other words, as well as how they relate to the practice of counseling in Christian ministry. 14 pages; 17 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 3,135 words.   $98
 
15834. CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF WEBER'S MAIN THESIS IN "THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM". This paper examines Max Weber's thesis regarding the influence of Protestantism on the development of capitalism and its unique "spirit." It is argued that there is a lack of evidence to support this thesis. Furthermore, alternative explanations exist for the rise of modern capitalism and its "sprit." 12 pages; 30 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 2,681 words.   $84
 
15833. THE SACRED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JUDAISM AND NATURE. This paper addresses the misconception that Judaism is somehow responsible for the environmental problems that exist today. Demonstrates that despite the fact that rabbis once tried to distance the faith from the nature-based values of paganism, there is a tradition of reverence for nature and its cyclical processes to be found in Judaism. The paper further argues that there is a need today for the faith to 'reclaim the feminine' and restore emphasis on the sacredness of nature. 11 pages; 26 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15795. ROUSSEAU AND LUTHER ON HUMANISM. Drawing on Rousseau's Confessions and the collected works of Martin Luther, this paper traces the shift away from the sacred to the secular during the Reformation era, and the influence that each man had in shaping the basic ideals of humanist philosophy. Notes Rousseau's influence in politics, Luther's on religious thoughts of the era, and argues that both men saw the individual as having moral authority and as possessed of free will. 9 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15794. THE PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH. A profile and analysis of the minority group Pennsylvania Dutch, a population actually comprised of several communities including the Amish, Mennonites, Dunkers, Brethren and Hutterites. Traces the history of the Pennsylvania Dutch from their European roots to their religious, social and geographic divergence in America. Includes a close focus on the history, religion, and customs of the Amish and Mennonites. 9 pages, 26 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15783. THE VATICAN COUNCILS. An overview and analysis of the First (1869-1970) and Second (1962-65) Vatican Councils which considers the purpose and politics surrounding each Council and the scope of activities in each. The analysis focuses on the controversy generated by the pronouncement of the doctrine of infallibility in Vatican I and the extent to which Vatican II represented an effort by the Church to change in response to social forces. 7 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
15747. THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM (MAX WEBER). A summary of Chapters 2, 3, 4a and 5, covering Weber's perspective on such things as the connection between Protestant asceticism and the "spirit" of capitalism, the role of entrepreneurs, the Protestant "calling," and the influence of Calvinism. 14 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source.   $98
 
15738. CHANGE AND CONTINUITY IN BUDDHISM AND CHRISTIANITY. Using the texts of "Questions of King Milinda" and "Sermon on the Mount" as examples, this paper discusses the ways in which Buddhism and Christianity caused changes in religious and cultural traditions and the ways in which they helped to preserve traditions. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15714. THE NEW WORLD OF THE GOTHIC FOX (VÉLIZ) AND THE WEALTH AND POVERTY OF NATIONS (LANDES). Compares how these two books treat the role of religion on the development of Latin America (in contrast to "English America," or North America). Although Véliz discusses the role of Catholicism in Latin America, it is argued that Landes provides more information on how religion contributed to the psychological differences between Latin Americans and English Americans. 7 pages; 16 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
15613. THE CAUSES OF CRIME. This research paper provides an analytical review of scholarly literature on the causes of crime and criminal behavior among adults and juveniles. Looking at both classical and contemporary theories, the paper summarizes the major theories of criminal causation, beginning with early "spiritual" explanations for crime and extending through the classical school, the positivist school, and to contemporary environmentalist, individualist, and integrative theories on criminal behavior. Included among the specific theories considered are biological theory, strain theory, subcultural deviance theory, social learning theory, control theory, conflict theory, labeling theory, the theory of differential association, and biosocial theory. The essay places an emphasis on those theories which have been particularly influential in the United States and the American criminal justice system.APA Style. 26 pages, 115 footnotes, 44 bibliographic references. 9,428 words.
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TAGS: crime causes criminal behavior causation crime theories juvenile delinquency theory labeling differential association social learning.

  $133
 
15578. LIFE AFTER DEATH. Although it can't be proven scientifically, the evidence indicates that the existence of life after death is at least plausible. The arguments for believing in life after death are discussed; in addition, near-death experiences and studies relating to the topic are considered. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15577. THE POWER OF MEDITATION. Using a variety of sources, including websites, books and articles, this paper argues that meditation has real power. For example, it increases relaxation, stimulates alertness, promotes spiritual growth, and has healing benefits. Western as well as Eastern traditions are discussed, and findings from empirical studies are cited to support the argument. 10 pages, 30 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15576. CONTROVERSIES OVER THE ORDINATION OF WOMEN IN THE JUDEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION. Orthodox Jews and Catholics prohibit women from being ordained, whereas the Protestant denominations and the Reform and Conservative branches of Judaism permit it. This paper argues that allowing women to be ordained has a positive impact on theory and practice; however, gender discrimination often persists in cases where women have become ordained. 12 pages, 42 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15570. ANALYSIS OF JOHN 21:15-17. A discussion of the debate among Biblical scholars over the meaning of the word "these" in the passage where Jesus asks Peter three times, "do you love me more than these?" The differing interpretations, and the parallels with Peter's earlier threefold denial and his boasts in comparison with the other disciples, are considered. It is generally agreed that the passage signifies Peter's renewed commitment to his apostolic mission. 12 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15531. SCHINDLER'S LIST (THOMAS KENEALLY). Discussion of the book about the German businessman whose actions helped rescue Jews from the Nazi Holocaust of World War II. Examines how the book covers Schindler's role and motivations, and argues that the book is made more readable by its combining of fictional elements with historical facts. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15483. RELIGION IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY (CHALFANT, BECKLEY AND PALMER). A chapter-by-chapter summary of the 1981 book, with its discussions of such things as the role of religion in group behavior and individual lives, religious pluralism in America, non-traditional religions, the role of ethnic and class factors, and more. 13 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $91
 
15223. CHILD ABUSE IN RELIGIOUS SETTINGS. Studies have shown that there is actually more child abuse among certain mainstream Christian religions than among Satanic worshippers. This paper discusses the three major types of abuse in religious settings (physical abuse, medical neglect, and sexual abuse by religious authorities), as well as how the religious community should respond to the problem. 8 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $56
 
15186. THE GALILEO AFFAIR. Discusses the conflict between the 17th century scientist and the Church, including the controversy over the Copernican theory, the charges of heresy, and the Inquisition trial. Also argues that the conflicts were due more to political reasons than to Galileo's beliefs. 19 pages, 50 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $126
 
15173. THE NATURE OF FAITH. Compares the views of religious philosophers such as Schleiermacher, Otto, and Tillich, who clam that faith is a "feeling," with the views of thinkers such as Augustine and Aquinas, who claim that it is more of a rational process. The conclusion argues that faith consists of both feeling and reason, although the feeling aspect is primary. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $98
 
15163. REVIEW OF BOOK: FEMINISM AND RELIGION (RITA GROSS). This paper reviews Gross's book on how feminism has changed both the practice of religion and the academic study of religion. It is argued that the author's use of survey evidence is convincing, and her views on the need for an open-minded perspective and on the "postpatriarchal future of religion" are also discussed. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $42
 
15139. IRISH-AMERICANS AND JEWISH-AMERICANS. A Comparison of Two American Ethnic Groups. This comparative analysis of one of the nation's biggest majority groups (Irish-Americans) and one of the country's smallest minorities (Jewish-Americans) considers the similarity and differences in their respective experiences in terms of the timing and context of arrival, cultural traditions, discrimination, society mobility, and ethnic identity. The first part of the analysis provides a summary of the general scope and pattern of each group's settlement in America. The second part of the analysis compares and contrasts the experiences of the two groups from the time of their arrival in America up until the present. 15 pages, 87 footnotes, 21 bibliographic reference.   $105
 
15131. WILLIAM JAMES' VARIETIES OF RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE: Examines the main religious types and personalities defined by the American psychologist in his classic work on comparative religion. Considers James' own pragmatic and pluralistic philosophy as opposed to formal theology or organized religious practice, but not personal transcendence. 10 pages, 17 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $70
 
15059. THE CAUSES OF CRIME. This research paper provides an analytical review of scholarly literature on the causes of crime and criminal behavior among adults and juveniles. Looking at both classical and contemporary theories, the paper summarizes the major theories of criminal causation, beginning with early "spiritual" explanations for crime and extending through the classical school, the positivist school, and to contemporary environmentalist, individualist, and integrative theories on criminal behavior. Included among the specific theories considered are biological theory, strain theory, subcultural deviance theory, social learning theory, control theory, conflict theory, labeling theory, the theory of differential association, and biosocial theory. The essay places an emphasis on those theories which have been particularly influential in the United States and the American criminal justice system.APA Style. 26 pages, 115 footnotes, 44 bibliographic references. 9,428 words.
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TAGS: crime causes criminal behavior causation crime theories juvenile delinquency theory labeling differential association social learning.

  $133
 
15050. POPE URBAN II AND THE FIRST CRUSADE (1095 CE). Discusses the role of the pope in starting the crusade to help protect the Byzantine Church from Muslim invaders. Also looks at the arguments regarding the extent to which the pope's actions were meant to increase the power and status of the Church of Rome in relation to the Byzantine Church and the Holy Roman Empire. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $70
 
15044. THE ROLE OF THE CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The early church was designed to provide a sense of unity among its members. Also, although the church was open to people of all social backgrounds, there were "tests" to uncover heretical "false teachers," so they could be removed from the community. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $42
 
15043. THE ROLE AND STATUS OF WOMEN IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY. The evidence of Paul's letters indicates that women at first had equal status in the church, similar to what they had in the Greco-Roman cults. However, this status declined by the time of the "deutero-Pauline" letters and the apocryphal text "Acts of Paul and Thecla." 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $42
 
15005. THE CAUSES OF CRIME. Looking at both classical and contemporary theories, the analysis summarizes the major theories of criminal causation, beginning with early "spiritual" explanations for crime and extending through the classical school, the positivist school, and to contemporary environmentalist, individualist, and integrative theories on criminal behavior. Included among the specific theories considered are biological theory, strain theory, subcultural deviance theory, social learning theory, control theory, conflict theory, labeling theory, the theory of differential association, and biosocial theory. An emphasis is placed upon those theories which have been particularly influential in the United States. 24 pages, 115 footnotes, 44 bibliographic references.   $133
 
15003. IRISH AMERICANS AS AN ETHNIC GROUP. This paper examines the controversy over whether Irish Americans are a unique ethnic group or have assimilated into American culture. Argues that they are a unique group, on the basis of self-definition and shared attitudes and beliefs. 15 pages, 44 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $105
 
14800. ANTOINETTE AND ROCHESTER IN JEAN RHYS’ WIDE SARGASSO SEA. This paper compares and contrasts the religious and spiritual views of Antoinette and Rochester. Contrasts the Anglican, realistic Rochester with the Jamaican, Catholic, superstitious heroine of the novel whose beliefs and perceptions are shaped by native religion (Obeah), childhood tragedy and trauma, and an inherited insanity. KEYWORDS: book review religion characters jean rhys wide Sargasso sea obeah book review. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,270 words.   $35
 
13986. THE HISTORICAL FIGURE OF JESUS BY E.P. SANDERS. Critique of book that seeks to separate the truth from the myth in regard to the life of Jesus. Describes the book’s methodology, and the challenges of interpreting the Gospels and other sources. Argues that Sanders is sometimes logical and other times speculative; overall, however, the book is an open-minded, sincere treatment of the subject. 13 pages, 41 footnotes, 1bibliography.   $91
 
13971. MODERN MORMONS: EXPANSION OF THE LDS CHURCH. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of modern Mormonism, a religion which one analyst notes is “in the late stages of a momentous transformations from a regional subculture to a major Christian denomination.” Taking a sociological viewpoint, the analysis considers the forces and strategies underlying this transformations and examines the current—and likely future—position of Mormonism in the society of world religions. Profiles church history, basic beliefs, organizational structure, attitudes towards minorities and women, and missionary activities. KEYWORDS: Church of Ladder-Day Saints mormons mormonism. APA Style. 15 pages, 54 footnotes, 28 bibliographic references. 5,307 words.   $105
 
13907. PLATONIC AND CHRISTIAN VIEWS ON THE HUMAN SOUL AND LOVE. Compares and contrasts the Platonic and Christian views of the human soul (considering views of reincarnation, mind/body dualism, etc.) and human love (looking at division of the sexes, spiritual versus moral forms, etc.). 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $42
 
13832. JUDAISM AND ISLAM ON POLYGAMY. Explores the history and meaning of polygamy in Judaism and Islam, comparing and contrasting its legal and social acceptance in the two faiths. Argues that while polygamy remains more tolerated among some modern Muslim groups than among modern Jews, the two religions share a common biblical heritage with regard to marriage and polygamy. 15 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13826. PLATONIC AND CHRISTIAN VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE. Concise and understandable explication of the similarities and differences in the Platonic and Christian views of human nature. Discusses Christian spirituality versus Aristotle's naturalism and describes St. Thomas Aquinas' view of man. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
13814. ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY. An overview of how organizational theory seeks to define the way different goals and strategies are implemented within a given organization in terms of its organizational design. The resource dependent model is examined as it related to technologically interdependent and service-based organizations. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.   $35
 
13786. THE THEOLOGICAL MEANING OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY. Considers the meaning, responsibilities, and implications of the marriage sacrament from the historical and contemporary perspectives of the Catholic Church. Discusses the duty to procreate and the prohibitions on infidelity and divorce. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $35
 
13778. FAITH, GOOD WORKS AND LUTHERAN TEACHING. Based on a review of the theological literature and the teachings of Martin Luther, this paper seeks to answer two questions: 1) can faith be taught according to Martin Luther or is it instinctive; and 2) should faith come before good works or vice versa? Answers that faith is not instinctive and that good works are meaningless in the absence of faith. 5 pages, 27 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
13748. MARTIN BUBER'S "I AND THOU" ON MARRIAGE. Examines the German Jewish theologian's views on marriage and the marital relationship as elucidated in Buber's I and Thou. Contrasts the I and Thou relationship with the I and It relationship within the context of contemporary society and non-marital relations. 6 pages, footnotes in text, 1 bibliographic reference.   $42
 
13725. POSITION PAPER: ERICH FROMM'S TO HAVE OR TO BE. Argues that while Fromm's broad criticism of modern society is useful in some respects, his social program's overwhelming dependence on the economic and psychological theories of Marx, Freud and a long line of religious philosophers ultimately renders it little more than a utopian fantasy. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliography.   $35
 
13715. THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION OF FASTING. A comprehensive study of fasting from the perspective of Scripture and Christian tradition, demonstrating how this ancient sacrificial practice developed into a Christian symbolic ritual for fulfillment of the divine precept and the performance of penance. Focusing on the historical development of fasting from the time of the Old Testament up through the modern era, examines how the role of fasting has transformed over the centuries. Concludes with an examination of the place and purpose of fasting in contemporary spiritual life. 47 pages, 103 footnotes, 35 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13667. ON FREE WILL BY ST. AUGUSTINE. Drawing in particular at the development of Augustine's arguments as found in Books II and III of the essay On Free Will, this paper examines Augustine's treatment of the problem of free will in the context of various related theological and philosophical problems, including the origin of sin and evil; God's omnipotence and benevolence; and whether humans have the capacity to avoid sin. 14 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13625. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IRISH STATE. A paper on how the "Protestant Ascendancy" (18th century) led to the Catholic Emancipation movement in Ireland. Also discusses the role of Daniel O'Connell and Catholic Association, and how the Catholic movement was an important step toward the attainment of statehood in 1922. 7 pages, 24 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
13622. PRESS REACTIONS TO THE NUREMBERG LAWS. Discusses how the world's press responded to the 1935 laws that took away the German Jews' civil rights. Argues that, although there were various reactions, the major press misinterpreted the significance of the laws. The paper also discusses some of the publications that reacted appropriately, as well as the way the press coverage changed with the start of World War II. 16 pages, 52 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
13505. SCHOOL PRAYER IN AMERICA. Examines the religious, pedagogical and constitutional issues involved in school prayer in 'America. The history of school prayer and religious expression is reviewed from colonial times to the modern period. Major court decisions and theories are described from the time of Jefferson through the decisive 1962 ban on school prayer in public schools. Arguments for and against school prayer are reviewed, with the conclusion arguing against prayer in U. S. schools for legal reasons. 25 pages, 32 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13404. THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. Each sacrament is discussed, with a bit more attention being given to Confirmation. Includes the meaning of the sacraments, scriptural support, views of Vatican II, and an emphasis on how each sacrament unites Christian believers with both Christ and the Church. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
13329. SOCIAL MOBILITY AND CLASS STRUCTURE IN MODERN BRITAIN BY JOHN GOLDTHORPE. A review and critique of Goldthorpe's modern sociological classic (published in 1980). Praises Goldthorpe for his detailed and comprehensive attention to the topic. While the first chapter is viewed as a "minor masterpiece," providing a precise historical summary of scientific interest questions of class structure and mobility from Marx through the present, subsequent chapters are faulted for their general inaccessibility and at times utter impenetrability to the average reader. 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliography.   $49
 
13283. THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN LATIN AMERICA. This paper examines the changing role of the Catholic Church in Latin America. The analysis considers how political, social and economic forces shaped the destiny of the Church over the past five centuries. Although the discussion is structured in chronological order (i.e., moving from the late 15th Century to the present era), the presentation is not that of a history but rather that of a representative interpretation based on an analysis of five monographs (Lery's History of the Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Burkholder's Politics of a Colonial Career, Hamnett's Juarez, Beezley's Judas at the Jockey Club, and Fraser's Evita) focusing on some of the key people and events shaping Latin American history. A concluding section summarizes the transformations in the role of the Church in Latin America during the past five centuries. KEYWORDS: catholic church latin america catholicism history religious reform research paper brazil argentina mexico colombia term paper. 22 pages, 45 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13151. THE AMISH. Discusses the origins of the sect in the sixteenth century, and its subsequent migration to America. Also discusses the unique beliefs and lifestyle of the Amish, as well as such controversies as the group's refusal to fight in wars, and its rejection of the public school education system. 11 pages, 38 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13129. DESCARTES' ONTOLOGICAL PROOF OF GOD. Examines in detail the French philosopher's proof of the existence of God; shows how Descartes' developed his proof from scholastic and Aristotelian principles of increasing orders of perfection and the reality of ideas. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
13036. PHARISEES, SADDUCEES, AND ESSENES. Compares and contrasts the characteristics and beliefs of these three Jewish sects at the start of the Christian Era. 8 pages, 40 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
12732. ST. NICHOLAS OF MYRA. A biographical sketch of this saint of children, prisoners, and sailors. Examines the facts of his life as they are known, and then traces the rise of his legend through the Middle Ages, his declining popularity during the Reformation, and his more modern connection with the Santa Claus myth. 6 pages, 24 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
12572. THE STORY OF JOSEPH IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE KORAN. How the two versions of the story reveal similarities and the differences in the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions. Argues that the Islamic version is more concerned with predestination than free will. 7 pages, 17 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
12571. THE SYMBOL OF WATER IN THE CATHOLIC RITE OF BAPTISM FOR CHILDREN. A step-by-step description of the rite and how water (and other elements, such as oil and white garments) are used to symbolize the three major purposes of baptism: to be cleansed of sin, to experience a new birth in the Holy Spirit, and to be welcomed into the community of believers. 12 pages, 43 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
12570. EXEGETICAL STUDY OF 2 SAMUEL 12:1-25. Analysis of Old Testament passage in which King David desires Bathsheba and thus arranges to have her husband killed in battle. The paper discusses David's philosophical attitude when he is punished by having his first son Bathsheba idea in infancy. In addition, the paper discusses how the couple's next son, Solomon, is destined to become a great and wise leader of God's chosen people. 5 pages, 27 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
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