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21B. OTHER RELIGIONS

How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
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  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
 
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18849. REYNOLDS V. UNITED STATES 98 U.S. 145 (1878): SUPREME COURT ON POLYGAMY. SUPREME COURT ON POLYGAMY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of social and legal responses to 19th century polygamy practices of members of the Church of Ladder Day Saints (Mormons). Following an overview of plural marriages among Mormons and the link between polygamy and the rise of anti-Mormonism, the analysis focuses on the 1878 Supreme Court case of Reynolds v. United States which addressed the issue of whether or not religious belief can excuse a criminal act and concluded it could not. TAGS: polygamy, landmark case, supreme court, religious freedom, Mormons, anti-Mormonism, church of ladder day saints. APA Style. 7 pages, 35 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources. 1,734 words.   $49
 
18776. THE “MUHAMMAD CARTOONS.” This paper discusses the controversy that arose when the Danish newspaper, Jyllands-Posten, published twelve cartoons depicting Muhammad in 2005. The cartoons resulted in Muslim protests around the world and self-censorship among Danish journalists. Analysis of the case includes use of the Potter Box, with its four dimensions: definition, values, principles and loyalties. It is concluded that the newspaper’s editor, Flemming Rose, made the right decision in publishing the cartoons because of the importance of seeking tolerance and open debate in society. TAGS: journalism, censorship, Potter Box, Islam, Muhammad cartoons, blasphemy. APA Style. 16 pages, 44 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,802 words.   $112
 
18774. RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES AND THE BRAIN. This paper discusses the theories and research studies regarding religious experiences and brain activity. Some scientists regard religious experiences as pathological and others see it as a normal aspect of evolution. It is noted that it has not yet been proven if religious experiences are “only in the brain” or if they are “real.” TAGS: religion, religious experience, brain activity, neurology. MLA Style. 6 pages, 20 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,470 words.   $42
 
18765. STYLE AND CONTENT IN THE QUR’AN(KORAN) AND THE BIBLE. This paper compares the ideas and literary styles of two religious texts: the Bible of Christianity and the Qur’an of Islam. It is argued that the texts help to explain the different cultural viewpoints that exist between Christians and Muslims in the contemporary world. TAGS: Christian culture, Muslim culture, scriptures, Bible, Koran, religious texts. MLA Style. 7 pages, 26 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,772 words.   $49
 
18556. THE “SELF” AND “OTHERS” IN CONFUCIUS’ ANALECTS. This paper comments on a passage in the Analects of Confucius (Book VI, chapter 28 in the Arthur Waley translation), which is concerned with the attainment of “goodness,” or jen (“virtue”). The passage can be interpreted as saying that being true to one’s self (i.e., attaining the best that one can for one’s self) is found in how one acts towards others. In this way, the passage expresses the idea that the self is connected with others; when society as a whole prospers, the individuals within society also prosper. KEYWORDS: religion philosophy Confucius China. MLA Style. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 1,487 words   $42
 
18552. THE BUDDHIST CONCEPT OF NIRVANA. This paper examines the theoretical positions in Buddhism regarding the meaning of the term “nirvana.” Basically, to attain nirvana means to extinguish desire. When this occurs, the practitioner overcomes dualistic thought and attains enlightenment. The paper argues in favor of a Mahayana view on the subject as opposed to a Theravada view (i.e., the goal is to attain nirvana for all beings, not merely one’s self). It is concluded that nirvana is something a practitioner can attain in the present life. KEYWORDS: religion nirvana enlightenment Buddhism Mahayana Theravada. APA Style. 10 pages, 30 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,384 words.   $70
 
18319. THE THREE “ABRAHAMIC” RELIGIONS: JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, AND ISLAM. This paper provides historical background on Judaism, Christianity and Islam, and compares and contrasts them in terms of their beliefs and practices. There are similarities to be found because all three are monotheistic and emphasize the importance of a covenant with God, and also because Christianity and Islam were built on the foundations of Judaism. Although there are also notable differences to be found, it is argued that these differences are superficial and that practitioners of the three religions should be more tolerant and accepting of one another. KEYWORDS: religion Judaism Christianity Islam. MLA Style. 14 pages, 33 footnotes in text, 4 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
18316. HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM. This paper provides an overview of Hinduism and Buddhism, and compares and contrasts them in terms of their beliefs and practices. Both religions originated in India, both are concerned with karma and reincarnation, both emphasize the use of rituals and ceremonies, and both contain a wide diversity of practices within them. Notable differences include the greater emphasis on deities in Hinduism (although there are exceptions to be found in Buddhism) and the differing ways of interpreting the idea of liberation from rebirth. Hinduism sees liberation in terms of the soul’s identification with Brahman (the universal spirit) and Buddhism sees it in terms of putting an end to desire and suffering. KEYWORDS: religion Hinduism Buddhism. MLA Style. 12 pages, 37 footnotes in text, 8 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
18081. TWO VIEWS ON RELIGION AND RITUAL: TALAL ASAD & ROBERT H. SHARF. This paper compares the views of Talal Asad ("The Construction of Religion as an Anthropological Category") and Robert H. Sharf ("Ritual"), and the efforts of the two writers to arrive at non-"universalist" definitions of religion and/or ritual. Asad writes from a Western perspective and is concerned with the role of power in religion; Sharf looks at ritual from an Eastern (Buddhist) perspective and uses "performative theory," which metaphorically equates ritual to music or childhood play. It is argued that Asad is overly theoretical and that Sharf does a better job of explaining ritual performance and the practical benefits of ritual experience. KEYWORDS: comparative analysis essay religion ritual buddhism. MLA Style. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
17607. SEVEN THEORIES OF RELIGION BY DANIEL L. PALS. This paper provides a summary and review of Pals’ book. The analysis begins with a synopsis of each of the book’s eight chapters. This is followed by reflection on how Pals’ book as a whole and each of its eight chapters are relevant to an understanding of contemporary religion. Concludes that Seven Theories of Religion is a useful book for the student of modern-day theories of religion: it is well written and does a good job of explaining the views of the major religious theorists from the late 19th century through the late 20th century. KEYWORDS: theories religion book review non fiction. MLA Style. 10 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,366 words.   $70
 
17223. THE DECLINE OF TANTRIC BUDDHISM IN INDIA. This paper considers the reasons why Tantric Buddhism virtually disappeared in the country where it originated (India). Tantric Buddhism involved controversial practices relating to sexuality and other taboo behaviors, but its decline in India was not related to these controversies but rather to a decline of Buddhism in general. Keywords: Tantric Buddhism India sexuality taboos decline. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
17022. BUDDHISM AND JUDAISM. This paper addresses the reasons why many Jews are turning to the use of Buddhist meditation techniques. Although Judaism is sufficient in itself as a spiritual practice, Buddhism has played a role in the rediscovery of traditional Jewish meditation practices and in strengthening appreciation for traditional Jewish beliefs. Parallels between Buddhism and Judaism are also discussed. Keywords: meditation Jews Buddhists comparative religion. 11 pages; 36 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 2,823 words.   $77
 
15932. VISIT TO A THERAVADA BUDDHIST TEMPLE. This paper provides a description and analysis of a visit to a Theravada Buddhist temple. Some background on Buddhist practices is provided. Following this, a description is given of a visit to a Theravada temple, including the witnesses of a chanting ritual and brief interview with the temple’s head monk. 10 pages; 18 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15817. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NICHIREN BUDDHISM. This paper discusses the rise of Nichiren Buddhism in 13th century Japan, with an emphasis on how the religion arose in response to the social, economic and political conditions of the time. 20 pages; 76 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 4,850 words.   $133
 
15791. MUSLIMS IN AMERICA. Traces the history and contemporary development and spread of the Islamic faith in the U.S. Describes the total population size, racial/ethnic background, geographical dispersion, and SES of America's Muslim population. Includes a section of the history and current status of Black Muslims (adherents to Nation of Islam), including a discussion of Louis Farrakhan and relations between Black Christian church members and Black Muslims. 9 pages, 24 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15761. THE SPREAD OF ISLAM TO EAST AFRICA. This paper presents a brief overview and analysis of the expansion of Islam in East Africa. Examines how Islam spread to the region, its impact on the people and the region, and its differences from Islam in North and West Africa. TAGS: islamic religion east africa muslims africa. APA Style. 9 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2,351 words.   $63
 
15738. CHANGE AND CONTINUITY IN BUDDHISM AND CHRISTIANITY. Using the texts of "Questions of King Milinda" and "Sermon on the Mount" as examples, this paper discusses the ways in which Buddhism and Christianity caused changes in religious and cultural traditions and the ways in which they helped to preserve traditions. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15727. TANTRIC BUDDHISM. The perspective of max Weber is used to examine the development of Tantric Buddhism and to explain how the influence of tantrism became marginalized and/or moderated over time. For example, the "magical" aspects of tantrism appealed to the masses, but orthodox religious leaders sought to sublimate those elements and make them more "contemplative" than "orgiastic." 9 pages, 34 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15678. MARYAM (MARY) IN THE QUR'AN AND IN ISLAMIC TRADITION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the significance and depiction of Maryam (Mary) in the Qur'an and in Islamic doctrine, and its comparison with Mary in Christian doctrine. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the role and importance of the Virgin Mary in Christian doctrine. Following this, the analysis traces the story of Mary (Maryam) as it appears in the Qur'an, comparing and contrasting the presentation of the major events and focal points (e.g., Mary's own birth, Mary's childhood and adolescence, Mary's immaculate conception, the birth of Jesus, Mary's purity, Mary's relationship with Joseph, and Mary's assumption into Heaven) with their presentation in Christian doctrine. The concluding sections examine the uniquely Islamic aspects of the Maryam theology and summarize the overall significance of Maryam in Islamism, including a consideration of the relative importance of Maryam versus other important women in Islam (e.g., Fatima, Khadija, and Asiya). 17 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
15673. WESTERN MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF ARABS AND MUSLIMS DURING THE GULF WAR CRISIS OF 1990/91. This paper examines the media-filtered American interpretations of the Arab world through an analysis of Western (mainly U.S.) media portrayals and interpretations of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab women (especially Saudi, but also Kuwaiti, and other women of the Gulf) during the Gulf War and surrounding period of Gulf Crisis (a period defined as extending from August 1990 through the spring of 1991 and the withdrawal of U.S. forces following the end of the Gulf War). The investigation begins with a brief overview of the historical problems and distortions involved in media coverage of wars or other military conflicts, and the specific position of the media in the Gulf War. Also considered is the U.S. media's tradition of foreign news coverage. Following this, the analysis examines U.S. newspaper coverage and post-war published analyses of media (broadcast and print) coverage of the Gulf War and crisis in an effort to present a profile of U.S. media portrayals of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab/Muslim women in particular, with a special focus on media images and interpretations of Saudi men and women. KEYWORDS: newspaper coverage arab gulf war western media portrayal arabs muslims. 25 pages, 55 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources. 7,291 words.   $133
 
15652. A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE ISLAMIC FAITH. This investigation provides a multi-dimensional, blended perspective on the Islamic faith drawing on elements from the three major sociological paradigms of structural-functionalism (functionalism), social conflict, and symbolic interaction. The investigation begins with a brief overview of the major tenets and structures of Islamism and a comparison of how Islamism versus Christianity or Judaism fits within a sociology of religions framework. The analysis then examines the structures and functions of Islamism and Islamic society. 13 pages, 24 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15638. TRENDS IN ISLAMIC MARRIAGE IN THE U.S. This paper provides an overview and analysis of trends in Islamic marriage in the United States (with reference to current trends in Europe as well). Following a brief profile of the Muslim population in the U.S., and traditional views on Islamic marriage, the analysis considers trends arranged marriages, marriages to relatives, marital contracts, divorce, and relations within marriage. KEYWORDS: muslim americans married islamic marriage. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3,367 words.   $84
 
15577. THE POWER OF MEDITATION. Using a variety of sources, including websites, books and articles, this paper argues that meditation has real power. For example, it increases relaxation, stimulates alertness, promotes spiritual growth, and has healing benefits. Western as well as Eastern traditions are discussed, and findings from empirical studies are cited to support the argument. 10 pages, 30 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15567. THE THREE MAJOR FORMS OF BUDDHISM. An overview of the branches of Buddhism known as the Thervada, Chinese-type Mahayana, and Tibetan-type Mahayana (or Vajrayana). After a brief background of Buddha's teachings, the history, doctrines, texts and practices of each major branch are discussed. There are also references to individual schools (such as Japanese Zen) and to the unique role played by the Dalai Lama in Tibetan Buddhism. 22 pages, 60 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15564. OATHS IN THE QUR'AN. The oaths have been interpreted in different ways; for example, they provide a sense of solemnity, they evoke reverence and awe for the spiritual in nature, and they draw attention to certain phrases and ideas in order to give moral lessons. It is also noted that the oaths appear to have roots in pre-Islamic utterances of soothsayers; however, they are also different because Muhammad was a Prophet, not a soothsayer. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
15563. MARRIAGE IN ISLAM AND THE WEST. Both cultures view marriage as important to the social order, forbid marriage between blood relations, and advocate similar sex roles for husbands and wives. However, Islam places more emphasis on spirituality and the control of sexuality in marriage than is found among the often-secularized views of the West. It is also argued that many of the elements of Islamic marriage regarded as "bad" by Westerners are due to patriarchal traditions, not to Islamic beliefs themselves. 11 pages, 25 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15503. SOURCES OF FIGURAL IMAGERY IN ISLAMIC ART. Three examples of Islamic art depicting figures are discussed: Samarra art, Fatimid luster pottery and the city walls of Konya. It is shown that classical culture and location traditions influenced the use of figural representation. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15502. ISLAMIC CALLIGRAPHY. Discusses the reasons for the importance of Arabic letters and Qur'anic phrases in Islamic art and culture, including the view that such writing represents the visual expression of the Word of God. The styles of Islamic calligraphy are also discussed, as well as the concepts of the Divine Pen and the Guarded Tablet. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15488. SAUDI ARABIA AND ISLAMIC LAW. Discusses the development of Islamic law in the country, and the dominance of the relatively strict views of Wahhabism and the Hanbali school. Also addresses the criticisms of Western observers, arguing that the country's legal system is not as inflexible as many have assumed it to be. 16 pages, 54 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.   $112
 
15217. THE ULTIMATE GOALS OF LIFE IN TAOISM AND HINDUISM. Compares the goals of Chinese Taoism (to attain union with nature and balance the forces of yin and yang) with the goals of Indian Hinduism (to attain union with Brahman, or God, and to acquire good karma and thus avoid future rebirths). In both religions, it is claimed that unity (with nature or God) already exists, and that the practitioner's goal is to become aware of this fact. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
 
15216. POLITICAL ISLAM IN TURKEY. This paper looks at the role of the nation's military leaders in maintaining a secular government over the years. Although Islam-based political parties have competed for power since the 1950s (such as the Welfare Party and the Virtue Party), the military has consistently undermined the efforts of these parties and has caused them to be banned. As such, it is argued that Turkey has failed to establish a true representative democracy. 12 pages, 43 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15190. MAHAYANA BUDDHISM. This paper discusses how the Mahayana is similar to earlier Buddhism, as well as how it is different. The differences include such things as seeking more mass appeal, incorporating mythical elements, developing the ideal of the bodhisattva, and teaching the "emptiness" of reality. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $56
 
15188. RUMI'S VIEWS ON WOMEN. This paper looks at the life and work of the Persian mystic and poet, and finds that his views on women are ambiguous. Some passages in his work reflect the sexist attitudes of the time; however, there are other passages that treat women as equal in the spiritual quest, and even equate the qualities of women to those of God Himself. 14 pages, 42 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $98
 
15170. WOMEN IN ISLAM. Argues for the need to view the situation from the perspective of Islamic women rather than from a Western feminist point of view. As such, it can be seen that it is not Islam, but rather traditions of patriarchy, that causes women to be treated poorly in certain societies. Among other things, female genital cutting, the veil, the Qur'anic passages are discussed. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
 
15169. THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAMIC CULTURE ON THE WEST. Argues that Western culture has borrowed more from Islamic culture over the centuries than the other way around. The West has borrowed medical, scientific, mathematical and philosophical ideas; by contrast, Islamic culture has mostly rejected Western ideas, with the exception of those relating to technological developments. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
 
15165. WORLDVIEWS: CROSS-CULTURAL EXPLORATIONS OF HUMAN BELIEFS (NINIAN SMART). A review of Smart's book on the six dimensions of religion, and how they can be found to one extent or another in all of the major religions. Smart's book also considers how different worldviews have an impact on the religious beliefs of different cultures. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $49
 
15164. REVIEW OF THE MUSLIMS OF AMERICA (EDITED BY YVONNE YAZBECK HADDAD). This collection of essays, with its variety of perspectives, provides a well-rounded treatment of the challenges and opportunities faced by Muslims in America. The essays deal with various aspects of life for American Muslims, and thus show that the Muslims are a diverse population. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $42
 
15131. WILLIAM JAMES' VARIETIES OF RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE: Examines the main religious types and personalities defined by the American psychologist in his classic work on comparative religion. Considers James' own pragmatic and pluralistic philosophy as opposed to formal theology or organized religious practice, but not personal transcendence. 10 pages, 17 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $70
 
15036. RASTAFARIANS, REGGAE MUSIC AND JAMAICAN POLITICS. Covers the history of the Rastafarian movement, the elements of its lifestyle, and its struggle for the rights of the poor and oppressed. Also discusses the influence of reggae in popularizing the movement, and the efforts of Jamaican politicians to exploit the music's popularity for their own gain. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $77
 
15013. WITCHCRAFT IN EUROPE. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the development and practice of witchcraft in Europe. Following a definition of witchcraft and witches, the paper discusses the development of witchcraft and the links between healers, traditional religions, and witchcraft. Focusing on Europe, the paper then discusses witchcraft from Classical to modern times. KEYWORDS: wicca witches witchcraft europe. Scientific Notation Style. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
14800. ANTOINETTE AND ROCHESTER IN JEAN RHYS’ WIDE SARGASSO SEA. This paper compares and contrasts the religious and spiritual views of Antoinette and Rochester. Contrasts the Anglican, realistic Rochester with the Jamaican, Catholic, superstitious heroine of the novel whose beliefs and perceptions are shaped by native religion (Obeah), childhood tragedy and trauma, and an inherited insanity. KEYWORDS: book review religion characters jean rhys wide Sargasso sea obeah book review. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,270 words.   $35
 
14046. MAGIC RITUAL IN THREE CULTURES. This term paper examines and compares magical practices and beliefs in three cultures: 1) the Nuer of Sudan, the Dobuans of the South Pacific, and the Afro-Caribbean followers of Vodou. The paper concludes that while the basic ideas behind magic are similar in the three cultures, the exact practices of magic reflect different views on the supernatural and how the world functions. KEYWORDS: supernatural comparative religion folk beliefs magic superstition nuer dobuan vodou voodoo. MLA Style. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
14008. THE WORLDVIEW OF HINDUISM AS PRESENTED IN THE BHAGAVAD GITA. According to this sacred text, the phenomenal world is an illusion, and the soul reincarnates until it is eventually reunited with Brahman (or “God”). The paper discusses the pathways of karma yoga and bhakti yoga, and also refers to Hinduism’s caste system and the idea that all things consist of mixtures of three qualities known as gunas. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 4 bibliographic references.   $42
 
13979. PARADOX IN MAHAYANA BUDDHISM. This paper addresses the paradox of the teaching that separate selves are unreal; yet one should strive to eliminate the suffering of others. It is noted that there are inconsistencies in the arguments that are meant to support this doctrine. However, the paper concludes that the paradox helps the practitioner to attain the “Middle Way” and thus perceive a truth that transcends rationality. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $70
 
13944. HINDU MARRIAGE RITUALS. This paper discusses the various rituals that occur before and during a typical Hindu wedding ceremony. Included are references to the rituals’ religious significance, and how they symbolically join the bride and groom into a “single body.” 11 pages, 54 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $77
 
13832. JUDAISM AND ISLAM ON POLYGAMY. Explores the history and meaning of polygamy in Judaism and Islam, comparing and contrasting its legal and social acceptance in the two faiths. Argues that while polygamy remains more tolerated among some modern Muslim groups than among modern Jews, the two religions share a common biblical heritage with regard to marriage and polygamy. 15 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13807. NUMEROLOGY. An overview and explication of the "science" of numerology. Traces the history and development of numerology and its popularity into the modern era. Explains the central tenets of the numerology belief system, citing some of its principal architects and adherents. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13724. THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION AND ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM. Looks at the impact of the Iranian Revolution on Islamic fundamentalist movements around the world, examining the rise of Shia fundamentalism in Iraq, Syria and Lebanon as well as in Sunni-dominated states such as Egypt, Sudan, Algeria, Saudi Arabia and Southeast Asia. Argues that the Iranian Revolution demonstrated the political possibility of a theocratic Islamic state and thus emboldened the radical fundamentalist elements throughout the Islamic world. 7 pages, 7 footnotes, 39 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
13598. JATAKA'S (BIRTH STORIES) OF THE BUDDHA. Discusses the stories of the Buddha's previous lives, during which he attained the ten perfections that prepared him for Buddahood. Emphasis is on how the stories relate to Tibetan beliefs. Also covers the role of the stories in popularizing Buddhism and in providing a model for escaping the suffering of the "wheel of life." 11 pages, 44 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13524. RELIGION AND IDEOLOGY IN CONTEMPORARY CHINA: This paper explores the current state of religion and ideology in contemporary China. The first section looks at the prevalence and significance of "popular" Chinese religious practices and beliefs in the context of traditional Chinese religious beliefs and contemporary events. The second section explores the scope and prevalence of political-economic ideologies in contemporary China, examining the relative importance of conservatism, radicalism, socialism, nationalism and capitalism in the post-reform era. A concluding section comments on the dominant political-economic ideology of the day - capitalism. KEYWORDS: PRC China religion political economic ideology Chinese nationalism socialism capitalism term paper. APA Style. 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13467. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOTEM POLES AND SHAMANISM. Discusses how the totem poles of the Pacific Northwest Indians were derived from a shamanic worldview, as well as the ways in which shamans were depicted on poles or involved in making them. Also draws parallels between shamanic initiations and the ceremonies relating to totem animals. 12 pages, 44 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
13440. NORMS OF DRESS IN MOROCCO. Discusses how the various styles of clothing and adornments reflect the cultural heritage of the people. In the course of this discussion, the paper covers Islamic, European and traditional influences. 7 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
13396. PREDESTINATION IN ISLAM. Discusses views on destiny contained in the Qur'an, Hadith, and other sources. Notes that there are also views on free will in Islam, but argues in favor of the deterministic view. Also discusses how this means that God's believers must accept evil as well as good as part of His plan. 11 pages, 34 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13383. ISLAMIC METALWARE. Examines the origins, development and techniques of Islamic metalworking, focusing on the Blacas Ewer in the British Museum. Regional schools and styles are compared, and the importance of the inlays, engravings and inscriptions of Islamic metalware are highlighted in the detailed analysis of the Blacas Ewer. Scenes and images from Persian court life are described, and unique aspects ofthe Blacas Ewer are compared with those of less pieces. 21 pages, 29 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13215. ALIENATION AND MODERNIZATION IN ARAB SOCIETY: SHE HAS NO PLACE IN PARADISE BY NAWAL EL SAADAWI. This paper explores the theme of alienation in Arab society through a discussion and analysis of Nawal El Saadawi’s (1987) work, "She Has No Place in Paradise." In this novel, Saadawi (1987), an Egyptian feminist writer and physician, focuses on the private realm of gender relations (e.g., relations between friends, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and husband-wife relations) and illustrates how the process of modernization and the conflict between traditional and modern values creates a sense of alienation in both women and men. 18 pages, 51 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
13067. THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE (632-1258 C.E.). The reigns of the caliphs, reasons for success of early conquests, and the economic, religious and social changes that took place during the time. Also describes the "golden age" of the Abbasid Dynasty and the reasons for the decline of this dynasty. 7 pages, 31 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
13056. COOPERATION AND CONFLICT: HINDU AND MUSLIM IN THE INDIAN NATIONALIST MOVEMENT, 1914-1925. Very detailed political history of Hindu-Muslim relations in Indian politics, extending well before the years mentioned in title. Basically, 1916-20 were the high point of Hindu-Muslim cooperation, which gradually but relentlessly eroded to the separatism of later decades. Thorough coverage of historical attitudes toward British Raj in the two communities, major issues and sources of tension, voting rights issues before 1914, the Lucknow Pact establishing common goals, rise of Ghandi and his use of Caliphate Movement 1919-21, Muslim criticisms of Ghandi, lasting sources of communal tensions. Concludes that no new sense of identity transcended the ancient religious divide. 12 pages, 37 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
12733. MUSLIM WOMEN: THE STRUGGLE FOR ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION. Following an overview of Islamic doctrine on gender and its implications for women's rights, the analysis profiles and investigates women's role in the economic sector of Muslim societies of the Middle East. Women's roles in this sector are considered within the framework of modernization, national political frameworks, and the recent upsurge in Islamic fundamentalism. The analysis draws on specific examples from Egypt, Iran, Sudan, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. 26 pages, 41 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12730. ANCESTOR WORSHIP IN ANCIENT CHINA. Focuses on the Shang and Chou dynasties (c. 1500-221 B.C.) Discusses archaeological evidence, the importance of the family, rituals to keep ancestral spirits appeased, and the role of Confucianism in making this type of worship a state religion. 5 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
12579. ISLAM AND GENDER: STRUGGLES IN THE POST-MODERNIST WORLD. This paper provides a survey overview and analysis of Muslim nations' struggle to deal with the "women question" in a post-modernist world where Islamic ideology and traditionalism confronts economic, social, and political imperatives demanding re-definition of women's rights and roles in Muslim society. Following a general overview of women and Islamism, the analysis draws on examples from Muslim countries to consider women's current and future position is post-modernist Muslim society. Following a general overview of women and Islamism, the analysis draws on examples from Muslim countries to consider women's current and future position in post-modernist Mulsim society. 12 pages, 32 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
12578. THE ISLAMIC THREAT: MYTH OR REALITY? BY JOHN ESPOSITO. Actually, a summary of a small portion of this book, comparing the "first generation" of Islamic modernists (Al-Afghani, M. Abduh and M. Igbal) who became prominent after the 1880's. with a later group that may be called "Islamic neorevivalists" (H.al-Banna, m.A.A. Mawdudi, and S. Qutb). Afghani was the first to say that Muslims should study the science of the West, in order to further Islamic causes, while al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Mawdudi founded the Jamaat-i-Islami in Pakistan, movements that started with personal and social transformation and became political. Study covers the similarities and differences of these two groups, finds militancy of second group explained by the lack of Muslim power and progress in the second half of the 20th Century. 9p., 17 notes in text, 1b.   $63
 
12577. HOMOSEXUALITY: A COMPARISON OF WESTERN AND EASTERN VIEWPOINTS. Whereas the Christian view tends to condemn homosexuality, the Eastern (especially Buddhist) view is more tolerant and accepting. The paper also argues that Western persecution is due to social and political reasons rather than religious reasons. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
12573. THE ISLAMIC DISCOURSE ON GENDER: VIEWS FROM CONTEMPORARY ARAB FEMINISTS. Drawing upon a representative sample of Arab feminist writers, this paper considers Arab women's views of the contemporary Islamic discourse on gender. The authors selected are all respected scholars and self-identified Arab feminists who have published widely in both Arabic and English. the analysis compares, contrasts and evaluates the authors' views on: 1) the history of Arab feminism; 2) issues of veiling and seclusion; and 3) the issue of whether or not Islam is anti-woman. 16 pages, 31 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
12572. THE STORY OF JOSEPH IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AND THE KORAN. How the two versions of the story reveal similarities and the differences in the Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions. Argues that the Islamic version is more concerned with predestination than free will. 7 pages, 17 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
12205. HORUS: THE FALCON DEITY. The paper relates the details of the myth of Horus and explains the connections between the myth and ancient Egyptian religious belief. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
12087. ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN NORTH AND EAST AFRICA. Analyzes recent conflicts in the region caused by the rise of Islamic movements in Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and Chad, and by the rise of an Islamist government in Sudan. Also discusses warfare among various Islamists and proposes that the solution to the problem lies not in violence but in the establishment of new democratic systems. 17 pages, 50 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
12086. SUNNI AND SHIITE APPROACHES TO ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM. Discusses how the basic differences between the two sects arose because of a dispute over leadership. Also discusses the various reasons why Sunni Islamists are more moderate in their approach whereas Shi'ites are more extreme and radical. 7 pages, 27 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
12085. ISLAMIC DEMOCRACY. This paper examines the proposition that there are several principles or institutions built into the traditions of Islam that provide a basis for an Islamic form of democracy. Considers the ideas of Islamic poet and philosopher, Muhammad Iqbal, his son, Javid, and Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Turabi who all argued that democratic principles could be found in the Islamic principle of tawhid, the emphasis on the consensus (ijma) of the community, and in the way that the caliphs (leaders) were chosen in the early years of the faith. Draws on the work of other Islamic and Western scholars to compare and contrast the Islamic ideas of democracy with those of Western-style liberal democracy. Keywords: Islamic doctrine democratic principles comparative political philosophy. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
12076. ROLE OF THE URBAN LOWER MIDDLE CLASS IN THE ISLAMIC MOVEMENTS OF THE MIDDLE EAST. Discusses the two main arguments that explain why the urban lower middle class is the social basis for Islamic movements: the culturalist perspective (behavior is caused by cultural beliefs) and the political economy perspective (behavior is caused by socio-economic factors). Argues that both of these factors have contributed to the rise of Islamic movements. 9 pages, 33 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
12002. THE NATION OF ISLAM. Provides a history of the movement and discusses the contributions of Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X and Louis Farrakhan. Also considers the controversies surrounding the organization, but concludes that it serves a beneficial role by giving a sense of pride and purpose to many young African Americans. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
11978. CHRISTIAN INFLUENCES ON VOODOO. Discusses the syncretic mixing of beliefs caused by the forced conversion of African slaves to Christianity. Includes a discussion of the controversies surrounding voodoo as it is practiced in America today. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11958. ETHNICITY AND RELIGION IN SERBIA AND BOSNIA. This paper provides a sophisticated discussion of the ethnic forces, Islamic, Christian and otherwise, that combined to create the devisive nationalist ideologies that led to war in the former Yugoslavia. 25 pages, 57 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11953. THE ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY OF JAMAL AD-DIN AL-AFGHANI. Discusses a variety of interpretations about Afghani's beliefs about Western Philosophy and Islamic religion. 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
11913. CONCEPTS OF THE SELF IN ORIENTAL PHILOSOPHY. Compares Hindu, Confucian, Buddhist, and Taoists beliefs about the self. Explores these philosophies from secular, transcendental and religious perspectives. 13 pages, 42 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
11862. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN RELIGION. Explores Egyptian mythology, history, and rites for the dead. Includes comparison with modern Christianity. 10 pages, 17 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11802. ISLAMIC CALLIGRAPHY AT ALHAMBRA AND TOPKAPI SARAI. Examines the principles, methods, and appearance of Islamic calligraphy. Frequent icons in Islamic calligraphy are explored. Includes the history of the building of the Alhambra and Topkapi Sarai temples. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11616. SIGMUND FREUD'S THEORY OF THE ORIGINS OF SACRIFICE. Knowledgeable discussion of Freud's theories of the ideal origins of sacrifice as a central rite in religion, based on Freud's reliance on anthropologist Robertson-Smith, and later writers Henninger, Hubert & Mauss, and Maccoby. 16 pages, 31 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
11451. ISLAMIC CALLIGRAPHY. Exhaustive survey of Islamic calligraphy, both as an art form, and as a religious devotion. Covers pre-Islamic status of Arabic writing, association of writing with the Qur'an, various cultural changes in calligraphy in early Islamic centuries, complete coverage of types of script and schools of calligraphy, Eastern & Western Kufic, Magribi schools, etc., and an appreciation of the role of calligraphy as a flagship art in Islamic culture. 30 pages, 72 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11237. ISLAM IN CHINA. History of Islam in central Asia, Sinkiang Province, and other parts of China. Begins with the arrival of Islam in China in the middle ages and its spread to various ethnic groups in Central Asia and the subsequent evolution of the faith. Closes with treatment of religion, ethnicity, and minority status in People's Republic of China today. 21 pages, 45 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11233. SABRES OF PARADISE BY LESLEY BLANCH. Critical analysis of biography of Iman Shamyl, 19th c. Islamic Caucasian leader of the fight against the expansion of the Russian Empire into Central Asia. 15 pages, 21 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $105
 
11163. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN CAIRO (641 THROUGH MIDDLE AGES). From the founding of the city by Arab invaders up to the Ottoman Empire. History of the four cities that were the basis for modern Cairo and of public architecture built by the foreign conquerors living in relative isolation among the indigenous population. Discusses the nature of an "Islamic" city as an expression of Islamic community and as characterized by related styles of architecture found in cities of North Africa and the Middle East. 19 pages, 52 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11153. THE TRICKSTER IN NATIVE AMERICAN MYTHOLOGY. Examines the origins, core myth, and numerous variants of the Trickster in the myths, tales and religion of Native American peoples. Stories of Coyote, Raven, Hare, First Man and other versions of the Trickster creator myth are examined in detail. 23 pages, 27 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11152. PEYOTE IN NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGION. Examines the origins, history and rituals of the peyote cult, distinguishing between the ancient peyote practices of the Mexican Indians and the modern-day revival of peyotism among the indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. Rituals, symbols and rules of the practice are described in detail. 20 pages, 31 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11151. ISLAMIC ART. Historical development and religious function of decoration (arabesque) in the art of Islamic cultures. Gives specific examples (in architectural decoration of the evolution of abstract arabesques from natural forms (leaves, flowers, animals) and addresses the question of the relative absence of human and animal figures in Islamic art. 15 pages, 32 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
11097. SHI'ISM AND IRANIAN NATIONALISM. Examines the origins and political ambitions of Shi'ism from the seventh century to the time of the 1979 revolution. Iranian nationalism's roots in the ancient Persian empire, and the more universal ambitions of Shi'ism within the Islamic world, are noted. 50 pages, 54 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11089. THE FALL OF SATAN IN THE KORAN. Discusses the episode in which Satan is sent from paradise by Allah; Satan's role in leading human beings into temptation and the punishments of hell is analyzed. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
11053. THE RIGHTS OF ISLAMIC WOMEN TO DIVORCE. Quotes relevant passages from Qur'an and compares the contemporary interpretations in Hanafi and Maliki law. Discusses origin of differences and offers examples of laws in practice. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
10620. THEOLOGY AND MYTHOLOGY IN JOSEPH CAMBELL'S THE MASKS OF GOD. Looks at Cambell's attempt to create a natural history of mythology, contrasting his approach with the traditional theology of orthodox religion. Cambell's historical treatment of myth's as universal means of understanding the world is noted. 13 pages, 22 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
10618. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BUDDHIST DOCTRINE OF REBIRTH AND OTHER BUDDHIST PRINCIPLES IN THE PATH TO BLISS BY THE DALAI LAMA. A review of the book by the Dalai Lama. He discusses ways to achieve a good life and favorable future existence, including altruism, accepting the doctrine of karma, realizing one's potential, and reflecting on death, impermanence, and the place of suffering. 6 pages, 23 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
10607. THE MAIMED FISHER KING IN JOSEPHS CAMPBELL'S CREATIVE MYTHOLOGY. Looks at the Grail legend story of the wounded Fisher King in terms of Hindu, Christian, and medieval mythology. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
 
10598. BUDDHIST AND CHRISTIAN VIEWS ON EGOCENTRISM. Compares and contrasts the reasons these religions find egocentrism negative and outlines the solutions offered by Thomas Merton and the Dalai Lama. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
10581. THE GOVERNMENT OF GOD: THE EVOLUTION OF THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION. An extensive paper that includes the conditions in Iran prior to the revolution, the nature of the revolution itself, and the Ayatollah Khomeini and the Islamic republic. 35 pages, 41 footnotes, 14 bibliographic source.   $133
 
10562. THEOSOPHICAL SUFISM. A radical branch of Islam that focuses on the doctrine of illumination. Ibn 'Arabi's work is discussed and its heretical, mainstream, and Gnostic components are analyzed. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
10561. SYMBOLS AND METAPHORS OF THE SPIRITUAL QUEST IN ISLAM. The spiritual question in Islam is seen as a search for knowledge of, or unity with, the divine. This paper focuses on the gnostic strand Sufism, with its emphasis on lyrical poetry and symbolism as a metaphor for the inexpressible. Various symbols and their significance are discussed. Keywords: Sufism Muslim religion symbolism. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
10545. A REVIEW OF ARTHUR F. WRIGHT'S "BUDDHISM IN CHINESE HISTORY". Well-written paper covering Wright's views on the origin of Buddhism in China, the evolution of a uniquely Chinese Buddhism, and the lasting imprint of Buddhism on Chinese culture. 9 pages, 26 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
 
10534. AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION BY GEOFFREY PARRINDER. Review of a general survey of the main elements of African religion. Gods, rituals, and beliefs of major African tribes are compared. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
10532. PURIFICATION IN SHINTO. The mythical and symbolic significance of purification rituals in Shinto religion are described; the legend of Iza Nagi's cleansing, and its influence on temple ablutions in modern Shinto and modern Japanese customs such as bathing are noted. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
10520. ISLAMIC WOMEN IN SENEGAL. Provides an overview and assessment of women's social, cultural and economic status in Muslim Senegal. Concludes that despite progress in educational and economic realms, Senegalese women remain bound by Islamic social and cultural restraints. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
10473. A REVIEW OF "THE ROAD TO MECCA" BY MUHAMMAD ASAD. Summary and review of this autobiography which tells the story of a European's conversion to Islam and his integration into Muslim life. Includes a discussion of Islamic themes found in the book. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
10464. "THE ROAD TO MECCA" BY MUHAMMAD ASAD. A European discovers Islam and relates his experiences. The paper suggests Asad also wishes to correct misinformed and biased Western accounts of Islam. Asad is seen to emphasize the integration of spirituality into everyday life so lacking in Western culture. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
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