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  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
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19402. POLICE BODY CAMERAS: TRENDS AND OUTLOOK. This paper draws on recent research and market data to provide an analysis and overview of current trends, implications, and outlook for the implementation of body cameras in police agencies. While the primary focus of this analysis is on US-based police agencies, the analysis has implications for the use of body cameras and other video technologies in public law enforcement agencies around the world. The paper traces the factors behind the explosive growth in the use of police body cameras, including high-profile police shootings and associated protests, calls for increased police accountability and transparency, the availability of funding to purchase cameras, and research supporting body camera effectiveness. The analysis provides an overview of current and ongoing research on body cameras, including the well-known “Rialto Study”, the first random controlled trial of police body camera implementation, as well as research examining police officer perceptions of body cameras. The paper discusses current use and implementation patterns and the major body camera competitors. Major legal, ethical/privacy, physical, practical, and cost limitations and concerns related to body cameras are also discussed. APA Style. 14 pages, 85 footnotes, 43 bibliographic sources, 4,090 words. KEYWORDS: body cameras, body-worn camera, police video technology, police shootings, police-community relations, racial discrimination, African Americans, Michael Brown, Freddie Gray, Walter Scott, Tamir Rice, Black lives matter, police accountability, police transparency.   $98
19361. DOPAMINE AND ITS ROLE IN ADDICTION NEW, WINTER-SPRING 2017. This paper provides a discussion and analysis of the chemistry of the neurotransmitter dopamine, focusing on the role of dopamine in drug addiction and other addictive behaviors. Following an overview of the structure, properties and actions of dopamine and its associated neurochemicals, this analysis takes a chemistry perspective on the role of dopamine in addiction, with a particular focus on the role of dopamine in cocaine, methamphetamine and related stimulants addiction. MLA Style. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. Includes images/illustrations. 2,939 words.
TAGS: dopamine, neurotransmitter, drug addiction, addictive drugs, biological basis addiction, cocaine, methamphetamine, opioid, stimulants.
19358. IMPOSSIBLY THIN: FASHION, BODY DISSATISFACTION AND EATING DISORDERS. NEW, WINTER-SPRING 2017. This paper presents an overview and analysis of the links between fashion magazines’ depiction of thinness as the ideal female form and distortions in girls’ and women’s body image, leading to body dissatisfaction and contributing to the development of eating disorders among women who internalize these standards. Drawing on examples from fashion magazines and a review of scholarly literature on the topic, the analysis explores the process by which women may come to internalize the impossible standards of the fashion magazines and grow dissatisfied with their own forms as well as the evidence linking fashion magazine depictions with increased body dissatisfaction and the development of eating disorders. Includes illustrations. APA Style, 13 pages, 42 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 3,404 words.
TAGS: women, body image, anorexia, models, high fashion, thinness, weight, obesity, self-image, feminine ideal, body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, contemporary social problems.
19328. POLICE BRUTALITY: NOT JUST A FIGMENT OF THE MEDIA’S IMAGINATION. New, Winter/Spring 2017Arguing that police brutality is a real problem (not a media fiction) in American policing, this paper defines police brutality, explores the different types of brutality and the frequency with which they occur, and considers how police agencies might reduce or eliminate police brutality. APA Style. 7 pages, 24 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: police brutality, police reform, race relations, policing

19306. THE LEGAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL FIGHT AGAINST SEX TRAFFICKING IN THE UNITED STATES New, Winter/Spring 2017. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of sex trafficking in the United States, focusing on the efforts taken by the U.S. government and its agencies as well as various nongovernmental organizations to address the problem of sex slavery and trafficking. Following a definition and overview of the essential components of human trafficking in general and sex trafficking in particular, the analysis presents an overview of the sex trafficking problem in the United States. The next section looks at U.S. government law, policy and practice regarding sex trafficking and considers the role played by key non-governmental organizations. Concluding sections present an analysis of the primary obstacles to solving the problem of sex trafficking in the United States. MLA Style. 19 pages, 67 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources, 5,440 words.

TAGS: sex trafficking, prostitution, Trafficking Victims Protection Act, TVPA, Palermo Protocol, immigration, social attitudes, politics and sex, sex crimes, women and children, sex exploitation, sex slavery

19299. NEW MEDIA AND EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATION. Focusing especially on social networking media (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube), this essay examines the expansion of interactivity and user participation in media creation, information dissemination, and the globalization of communication as well as considering the broader impact and importance of these new media communication forms on real world activities and relations. The essay includes an overview of new media and a discussion of theories of how social media disseminates information. The examination of the impact of new social media on private citizen participation in the public forum and in playing an active role in political and/or social activism suggests that the new social media have become important tools of political/social communication and information dissemination and political/social activism. APA Style. 16 pages, 105 footnotes, 36 bibliographic sources. 4,650 words.

TAGS: new media, Web 2.0, social networks, social networking, Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, communication theory, social media theory, citizen action, politics and media, social activism.

19294. STEM CELL RESEARCH ETHICS: A JEWISH LAW PERSPECTIVE. NEW, WINTER-SPRING 2017. This essay considers the ethics of stem cell research from the perspective of people holding strong religious convictions in their adherence to the Jewish faith. The paper considers whether or not stem cell research is contrary to Jewish law (halacha). After examining evidence from the Torah, Talmud, and Jewish scholars, it is argued that stem cell research might be justifiable as long as it is carried out within reasonable limits. MLA Style. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources, 1,608 words. TAGS: stem cell research ethics, Judaism, Jewish law, halacha.   $42
19097. ROLE OF MENTAL ILLNESS IN HOMELESSNESS & POVERTY. Noting that the persons with serious mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, other disabling mental illness) comprise more than 25% the homeless population, this paper explores the role of mental illness in homelessness and poverty. Focusing on the United States, and taking the problem of homelessness as a starting point, the analysis considers the complex interactive relationships between mental illness and the social problems of homelessness and poverty. The analysis draws on recent scholarly sources, primarily articles from peer-reviewed scholarly journals. The paper concludes that while mental illness does not cause homelessness, it makes those who suffer from it more vulnerable to both homelessness and to the poverty which confers risk of homelessness. The mentally ill are over-represented in the homeless population, comprising about one-fourth of the homeless population. Once homeless, the mentally ill are more likely to encounter poverty-related barriers if they try to escape homelessness, APA Style. 7 pages, 27 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: homelessness, poverty, mental illness, mentally ill homeless, schizophrenia, risk of homelessness, homelessness causes, homeless people vulnerability.

18798. “WHAT SHOULD A BILLIONAIRE GIVE?” (PETER SINGER) This paper provides a summary and critique of an article by the ethical philosopher Peter Singer entitled “What Should a Billionaire Give – and What Should You?” In the article, Singer argues that America’s wealthiest individuals could bring about an end to global poverty by donating a fair share of their wealth. The paper criticizes certain aspects of Singer’s argument, even though it is agreed that the elimination of poverty is a worthy goal. TAGS: critical essay, poverty solutions, ethics, wealth redistribution, Pete Singer, article review. MLA Style. 2 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 598 words.   $14
18790. THE “NIGERIAN SCAM.” AND CONFIDENCE SCHEMES. This term paper is concerned with e-mails and letters, originating in Nigeria, that invite people to participate in corrupt practices for their personal benefit but are actually designed to con them out of their money through the payment of “advance fees.” The paper addresses the causes of the problem and the efforts that have been made to resolve it. It is argued that the problem should be handled by strengthening law enforcement within Nigeria rather than through outside intervention. TAGS: criminology research paper, international relations, internet, Nigerian scam essay. APA Style. 10 pages, 38 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,366 words.   $70
18772. SEX TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN. This paper addresses sex trafficking, a problem that affects women and girls around the world. The paper discusses the causes, consequences and prevalence rates of sex trafficking and considers the ways that a human rights perspective might be helpful in eliminating the problem. TAGS: crime, sex trafficking, sexual abuse, women, globalization, human rights, sex slave trade, organized prostitution, poverty. APA Style. 8 pages, 31 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,914 words.   $56
18767. CULTURAL ASPECTS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN. This paper is concerned with the problem of violence against women around the world. The cross-cultural aspects of the problem are considered, and it is argued that a human rights perspective is useful for understanding the problem as well as for finding potential solutions. TAGS: violence against women, culture and violence, gender roles and society, human rights, intimate partner violence, feminism. APA Style. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,657 words.   $49
18720. SUSAN HAACK ON THE VALUE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY. This paper is concerned with the view of Susan Haack in Defending Science – Within Reason, in which she argues that science is important in contemporary times, yet its value should not be overemphasized. The paper concludes by agreeing with Haack’s viewpoint and noting that scientists need to avoid being influenced by political and/or financial considerations. TAGS: science politics bias in research intrinsic value of scientific inquiry. APA Style. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,886 words.   $56
18702. THE DEVIL IS IN THE DETAILS (GANDHI, ET AL.). This paper reviews an article by Gandhi, et al. (2007), regarding a study that was concerned with the use of evidence-based practices in the development of programs. Specifically, the study evaluated the evidence used to support five school-based drug abuse prevention programs as found on seven prominent best-practices lists. According to the study’s findings, there is need for improvement in how school leaders select the drug abuse prevention programs that they intend to implement. KEYWORDS: article review evaluation school-based drug abuse prevention education. APA Style. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,407 words.   $70
18701. EVALUATION OF THE “COMMUNITY WORKS” PROGRAM. This paper reviews an evaluation study by Melde, et al. (2006) of the Community Works program, which is designed to help youth at risk of antisocial and illegal behaviors. The study focused on “program fidelity,” or the extent to which instructors have implemented the program as intended by the program’s developers. The review concludes that the study makes an important contribution to the research literature and that the authors provide some useful recommendations for improving the program’s effectiveness. KEYWORDS: article review program evaluation at-risk youth. APA Style. 10 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,355 words.   $70
18679. IDENTITY THEFT. This paper discusses the problem of identity theft, including its prevalence rates and costs. The problem has grown as a result of computer hackers; however, various low-tech methods can also be used to steal personal information and put it to fraudulent use. Law enforcement and legislators are challenged with finding effective ways to deal with the problem. The paper concludes with some policy recommendations. KEYWORDS: identity theft crime fraud computer hackers. APA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,600 words.   $42
18665. THE EVOLUTION OF THE GAY RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN NEW YORK CITY.. Based on reports in the New York Times, this paper discusses how the gay rights movement evolved from the Stonewall riots in Greenwich Village in 1969 and then on through 1989. Over the years, activists were able to change the city’s laws regarding discrimination against homosexuals. However, with the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, there was increased discrimination and violence against gays and lesbians. The paper also notes how the coverage of gay rights changed in the New York Times over the years. At first, the coverage was minimal and negative in tone; later, it was more in-depth and sympathetic. KEYWORDS: history journalism gay rights discrimination AIDS stonewall. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 2,693 words.   $77
18558. HEPATITIS B. This paper defines hepatitis B and describes the risk factors in its spread from one person to another. Because of the risk factors, people who contract hepatitis B might become infected with the HIV/AIDS virus. The paper includes a discussion of testing, approaches to treatment, and methods of prevention (including education, caution among those at risk, and use of a vaccine). KEYWORDS: medicine healthcare hepatitis treatment prevention. APA Style. 5 pages, 38 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,360 words.   $35
18544. CESAR CHAVEZ’S CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE CHICANO MOVEMENT. This paper profiles Cesar Chavez (1927-1993), a political activist and leader of the United Farm Workers who was known for his use of nonviolent tactics in the effort to improve conditions for farm workers. The paper focuses on how Chavez was an inspiring influence for the Chicano movement that arose during the 1960s. Also known as el movimiento, the Chicano movement sought to increase cultural pride and equal rights for Mexican Americans. KEYWORDS: history labor politics Chicano Latino Mexican american latino Cesar Chavez. MLA Style. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,045 words.   $91
18311. THREE BOOKS ON IMMIGRANT EXPERIENCES IN U.S. HISTORY. This paper compares and contrasts From the Other Side (Donna Gabaccia), Rebirth (Douglas Monroy), and Reinventing Free Labor (Gunther Peck). The first book concerns immigrant women, the second is about Mexican immigrants in Los Angeles, and the third discusses the “padrone” labor system and its impact on migratory patterns in the West. It is argued that all three books are scholarly and contain valuable information, but Monroy’s book is the most successful in bringing its topic to life for the reader. KEYWORDS: book review American history immigration. MLA Style. 10 pages, 28 footnotes in text, 3 bibliographic sources.   $70
18306. DECLINING NEWSPAPER READERSHIP: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the scope, causes and consequences of declining newspaper readership in the United States. Following a profile of the phenomenon of declining readership, including a discussion of demographic differences in readership levels, the paper looks into the likely causes of the decline as well as considering the consequences and collateral effects of readership decline, including declining circulation, shrinking advertising revenues and increased layoffs of newspaper employees. In examining the consequences of declining readership levels, the paper also considers newspapers’ responses to the problem (moving to online newspapers, free newspapers, new formats, citizen journalists and reader input, greater emphasis on entertainment, etc.). The conclusion speculates on the future of the newspaper and argues that the traditional print newspaper as we know it today is doomed to extinction within the next few decades. KEYWORDS: newspapers readership circulation alternative media young readers Internet blogsphere. MLA Style. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. Includes an annotated bibliography. 3,284 words (exclusive of annotated bibliography).   $84
18225. AGRICULTURE AND THE THREAT OF TERRORISM. This paper is concerned with the problem of “agro-terrorism” (the use of terrorism to disrupt the nation’s food supply). This threat is complicated by the openness and interconnectedness of the “food chain”(the various steps in moving food from farm to table). It is argued that the government needs to do more to protect the security of the food supply and the nation’s people. Some recommendations are provided to help accomplish this goal. KEYWORDS: agriculture terrorism government policy. APA Style. 18 pages, 43 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $126
18222. HEAVEN’S DOOR (GEORGE J. BORJAS). This paper reviews and critiques chapter 10 of Borjas’ book, which is concerned with the economic impact of America’s immigration policy. The author argues that the current policy, based on allocating visas to immigrants with family ties in the nation, displaces native-born workers and burdens the nation’s welfare system. Instead, there should be a policy based on accepting immigrants that have desirable skills. The reviewer agrees with Borjas’ basic argument that America’s immigration policy should provide more protection to native-born citizens. KEYWORDS: book review immigration policy economics. MLA Style. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
18216. THE ETHICAL ISSUE OF ADVERTISING TO CHILDREN. This paper discusses the arguments for and against the practice of advertising to children. Topics of special concern, such as food ads and health, gender stereotypes, and online advertising, are also addressed. Although there are ethical problems with children’s ads, this does not mean that they should be banned. Rather, it is argued that there is a need for more industry self-regulation and for more parental responsibility. KEYWORDS: advertising ethics children health gender Internet. MLA Style - footnotes in text. 16 pages, 44 footnotes, 14 bibliographic source.   $112
18136. TRIUMPH OF JUSTICE (DANIEL PETROCELLI) AND THE GOOD BLACK (BY PAUL M. BARRETT). This paper is concerned with two books on the issue of race in American society and justice. Petrocelli's book is about the wrongful death suit against O.J. Simpson and Barrett's book is about a black lawyer (Lawrence Mungin), who filed a racial discrimination suit against the firm where he worked. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each book, their messages and critical implications, and the extent to which their content is typical of American justice and society. KEYWORDS: race justice society legal system trials. MLA Style. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,991 words.   $56
18117. PRIVATE-SECTOR PRISONS. This paper describes a research project for evaluating the comparative merits of private-sector prisons and public-sector prisons. The trend to privatize prisons is controversial, with critics charging that private prisons do not cut costs and do not reduce recidivism rates and, furthermore, they encourage misbehavior among prisoners and guards. The paper reviews the literature on the topic and proposes a method for evaluating the evidence on cost-effectiveness, accountability, safety, and recidivism. Although the evidence on private prisons is inconclusive at this time, it is argued that they might nonetheless provide a viable way of dealing with the problems of high costs and a growing inmate population. One suggestion for improving the performance of private prisons is to include accountability requirements in the contracts made between corrections organizations and the government. KEYWORDS: criminal justice corrections private prisons research design. APA Style. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,712 words.   $77
18082. IMMIGRATION AND FUTURE RACE RELATIONS. This termpaper discusses the massive influx of immigrants to America and the potential future impact that this might have on national identity and ethnic/racial relations. The issue of assimilation (or lack thereof) is addressed, with special attention to the situation of Mexican immigrants in California. The growing trends of intermarriage and the adoption of multiracial identities are also discussed. It is predicted that racial/ethnic differences won't disappear in the upcoming future, but there will probably be a diminishing of the differences in life chances that currently exist. KEYWORDS: immigration race ethnicity national identity future. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes and Separate Bibliography. 14 pages, 22 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $98
18035. NEEDLE-EXCHANGE PROGRAMS. This paper argues that needle-exchange programs are effective in promoting safer practices among injection-drug users, and that they thereby help to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. The arguments against such programs are discussed and rebutted. For example, they do not increase drug use, neighborhood crime, or the disposal of needles on the street. By contrast, there is a growing body of research evidence in support of such programs. Needle-exchange programs help reduce HIV/AIDS rates by providing not only clean needles but also a place to receive referrals for treatment, counseling, and other health related services. KEYWORDS: needle exchange programs drug addiction HIV/AIDS. APA Style. 5 pages, 18 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,496 words.   $35
18010. PRO DEATH PENALTY ARGUMENT. This paper looks at the controversial issue of capital punishment and argues in favor of the practice. Based on expert opinions and study evidence, it is argued that the death penalty is an appropriate punishment for the crime of murder (retribution), it prevents an offender from murdering again (incapacitation), and it helps to prevent others from committing murders (deterrence). The paper also rebuts some of the arguments in opposition to the death penalty. KEYWORDS: death penalty capital punishment controversy argumentative essay. MLA Style. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,450 words.   $42
18009. HEREDITY AND ADDICTION. Although environmental factors also play a role in the development of addiction, this paper focuses on the role of genetic factors in causing various kinds of addiction. The research paper looks at the evidence from studies using animal and human subjects. In addition, the essay discusses the implications for treatment and prevention (such as the use of anti-craving medications and matching individual patients to the best possible treatment options). KEYWORDS: genetics heredity drug alcohol addiction. APA Style. 11 pages, 25 footnotes in text, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,619 words.   $77
17767. CHILDHOOD EXPOSURE TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence (spouse abuse, family violence). Following a brief overview of the problem of domestic violence and a discussion of the likely scope of the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence, the essay considers the symptoms and signs of children’s exposure to domestic violence, children’s methods of disclosing violence in the home as well as strategies to draw children out, and the short- and long-term consequences of children’s exposure to family violence and abuse. A concluding section looks at strategies that teachers, community leaders and counselors can take to address the problem. KEYWORDS: spouse abuse children child abuse domestic violence violent families term paper. APA Style. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,326 words.   $77
17745. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SPOUSE ABUSE: CONTEXTUAL FACTORS IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SUFFERING OF VICTIMS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the psychological effects of spouse abuse, considering in particular the contextual factors which may serve to exacerbate, mitigate or protect against psychological harm. A review of recent studies provides support for the working hypotheses that the chronic nature and severity of abuse is associated with more extensive psychological impact and that a variety of contextual factors influence victims’ psychological responses to spouse abuse. Type of abuse, history of abuse, social support, socioeconomic factors, gender, and coping skills are among the factors influencing the psychological impact of spouse abuse. KEYWORDS: spouse abuse interpersonal partner violence battered women psychological effects depression ptsd trauma behavior. 12 pages, 45 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,473 words.   $84
17737. COHABITATION AND MARRIAGE: TRENDS, INTERACTIONS & IMPLICATIONS. This paper explores the trends in nonmarital cohabitation and marriage among American heterosexual couples and considers the implications for the marital transition, marital stability, and family structure. Following a review of the demography of cohabitation and marriage, the analysis considers the process of entering into nonmarital cohabitation, the relationship between cohabitation and the transition to marriage, and the impact of cohabitation on marital stability and happiness. Despite significant racial and socioeconomic differences, rising cohabitation and declining marriage rates are found across all groups and are likely to continue, although marriage remains a highly valued institution. Research suggests that a combination of union duration and the Aexperience hypothesis@ provide the best explanation for the association between cohabitation and marital disruption. KEYWORDS: living together premarital cohabitation marriage. Strict APA Style throughout. 13 pages, 46 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 4,459 words.   $91
17708. A QUANTITATIVE-QUALITATIVE STUDY OF RELIGIOSITY & DELINQUENCY. This paper presents a research proposal for a quantitative-qualitative study of religiosity and delinquency. The purpose of the study is to confirm and clarify previous findings concerning the religiosity-delinquency relationship and to explore facets of religiosity and potential relationships between religiosity and delinquency among current delinquents and gang members. A meta-analysis of previous quantitative studies of the impact of religiosity on delinquency will test the hypothesis that religiosity is inversely related to delinquency as well as hypotheses related to contexual aspects of the religiosity-delinquency relationship. Religiosity and its association with delinquency among current juvenile delinquents and members or affiliates of youth gangs will be explored through semi-structured interviews with delinquents, gang members and adults connected with delinquent youth. Strict APA Style throughout. 17 pages, 48 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 4,285 words.

Theories of Juvenile Delinquency Research Paper

The Causes of Crime Research Paper

Comparison of Four Criminological Theories Research Paper

TAGS: research design juvenile delinquency religiosity quantitative qualitative study delinquency theory.

17637. THE ‘N-WORD’. This paper explores the history of the use and meaning of the “n-word” (referring to “nigger” and its variants) from its long association with white racism through more contemporary uses of the term by young Black and African Americans. Argues that the term has an ingrained negativity and that Black and African Americans should avoid using this word to define themselves, and, furthermore, they should only use it when quoting historical texts or when referring to racism in its historical context. KEYWORDS: racism racist terms racist language n-word nigger nigga. MLA Style. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2,151 words.   $63
17612. GAY MARRIAGE AS AN AMERICAN RIGHT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the gay marriage controversy. The history of the gay marriage controversy (including recent federal and state legislative history) is traced and the arguments for and against same-sex marriage are presented. The arguments against gay marriage are dismissed as faulty and/or specious as well as un-American and discriminatory. The conclusion makes the case for legalizing gay marriage throughout the United States. KEYWORDS: gay marriage same-sex marriage pro gay marriage. MLA Style. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,641 words.   $77
17502. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTHY ADOLESCENT SEXUALITY IN AN ERA OF AIDS. This paper examines the obstacles that teens face in developing healthy and responsible sexual identities in an era of HIV and AIDS, as well as the ways in which society can support the development of healthy adolescent sexuality. Argues that much of the education that teens receive on sexuality is filtered through a moral lens and grounded in the often erroneous assumption that drastic measures are needed to reduce and subdue the supposed inherent hyper-sexuality of teens. KEYWORDS: Strict APA Style throughout. 13 Pages, 33 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,082 words.   $91
17486. BOOK REVIEW: NO PITY: PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES FORGING A NEW CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT BY JOSEPH P. SHAPIRO. This paper reviews Shapiro’s comprehensive and insightful look at the history of American society’s relations with its disabled members and the way in which attitudes towards disability has changed over the years as well as how the disabled community’s changing perception of itself have sparked a civil rights movement. While noting that the author seems to wander off course occasionally, concludes that this is an engaging book that will change readers’ perceptions about the disabled. KEYWORDS: disabled disability rights movement handicapped Americans with Disabilities book review nonfiction. MLA Style. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,265 words.   $35
17482. HOMELESSNESS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of homelessness in the United States. Defines the problem, estimates the total number of homeless people, and describes the characteristics of the homeless population. Discusses the underlying causative factors in homelessness and considers the relationship between homelessness and poverty, welfare reform, drug abuse, and rising housing costs. Considers some of the ways to address the problem, focusing in particular on shelters and making recommendations on specific components of shelter programs such as drug treatment facilities. KEYWORDS: homeless homelessness poverty shelters housing street people welfare reform. MLA Style. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,146 words.   $63
17477. SUBSTANCE ABUSE. This paper provides an overview of the problem of substance (drug) abuse in contemporary America. Following a definition of substance abuse and a discussion of its epidemiology, the paper considers some of the signs (physical, behavioral, etc.) that an individual is abusing drugs, explores the physical, psychological, social and economic reasons for substance abuse. After a discussion of appropriate treatment goals and modalities, an outline for how to establish an addiction treatment center is presented. KEYWORDS: drug abuse substance abuse epidemiology drug treatment addiction center. MLA Style. 9 pages, 17 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,253.   $63
17476. CHILD ABUSE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of child abuse. Defines child abuse and outlines the scope of the problem in the US today, explores some of known correlates and suspected underlying causes of child abuse, and considers some of the steps that professionals (physicians, social workers, etc.), the government, helping agencies, schools, and the community in general can take to address this problem. KEYWORDS: child abuse neglect MLA Style. 9 pages, 27 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,237 words.   $63
17456. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN THE UNITED STATES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problems of overweight and obesity in America from a public health and public policy setting perspective. Following an examination of the scope of the problem, including the related health concerns/risks and economic impact, the analysis looks at the major causes and possible solutions to the problem of obesity and overweight in America. Included among the primary causes identified are technological factors which have combined to reduce levels of physical activity and increase levels of food consumption; food industry policies and marketing activities; economic factors; and a decline in Americans’ physical activities. Ultimately, to win its “war on obesity,” the government may need to more closely regulate the food industry and its advertisers, as well as provide subsidies for producers and price incentives for consumers to consume healthier, less energy dense foods while exercising more regularly. KEYWORDS: obesity overweight obese weight reduction diet exercise public policy food. 15 pages, 56 footnotes; 29 bibliographic sources. 3,552 words.   $105
17450. PROTECTION OF CHILDREN FROM SEXUAL PREDATORS, P.L. 105-314 Following a summary of the main provisions of the 1998 Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act and a short discussion of some of the forces that led to the Act’s passage, this paper looks closely at the case precedence, constitutional basis and constitutional issues surrounding the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act. 11 pages, 63 footnotes; 31 bibliographic sources. 2590 words.   $77
17446. ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the closely linked problems of adolescent depression and suicide. The first section profiles the problem of teen depression: discussing the epidemiology and etiology; considering how depression in teenagers differs from that found in adults; discussing the impact; and examining the role of family and peer relations as well as self-identity issues in the course of adolescent depression. The next section profiles the closely associated problem of suicide in adolescence: discussing its prevalence across the adolescent population; scrutinizing the etiological role played by depression and other factors in adolescent depression; and examining the role of family and peer relations along with self-identity issues as both risk factors and protective factors in teen suicidality. KEYWORDS: teen suicide depression adolescent mental illness adolescence. APA Style. 12 pages, 62 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources. 3,815 words.   $84
17442. MEDIA REPORTING ON IMMIGRATION: CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 187 & ARIZONA PROPOSITION 200. Both Proposition 187 and its progeny, Proposition 200, generated considerable attention in the local and national press. Following a brief overview of terms and a short review of the literature on anti-immigrant discourse in the media, this paper examines how the media framed each proposition, in the period leading up to and immediately following the 1994 and 2004 elections. The investigation is carried out through a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles published three weeks prior to and three weeks after each election. Data for analysis were drawn from three media outlets, encompassing a local and a national outlet covering each proposition. For the 1994 Proposition 187 analysis, data were drawn from articles appearing three weeks prior to and three weeks after the November 7th election in either the San Francisco Chronicle (representing the “local” outlet) or the Los Angeles Times (representing the “national” media outlet for this proposition). For the 2004 Proposition 200 analysis, data were drawn from articles appearing three weeks prior to and three weeks after the November 2nd election in either the Phoenix-based Arizona Republic (representing the local outlet) or the Los Angeles Times (again representing the national outlet). KEYWORDS: media analysis framing immigration media bias. 21 pages, 74 footnotes, 62 bibliographic sources. 4740 words   $133
17439. THE IMMIGRATION BACKLASH: CALIFORNIA’S PROPOSITION 187 AND ARIZONA’S PROPOSITION 200. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Propositions 187 and 200 and the social movements and sentiments which underpin them. A particular focus of this analysis is the role that the media has played in creating, sustaining and expressing the anti-immigrant beliefs which form the basis for the creation of exclusionary laws. Prior to examining Propositions 187 and 200 in detail, the paper considers the current debate from the perspective of history, looking at America’s heritage as “a nation of immigrants” and examining past anti-immigrant movements, with a special focus on the Chinese Exclusion Acts of 1882. Argues that while the media has been guilty (both recently and in the past) of fanning the flames of anti-immigrant sentiment and of at times presenting a slanted view of immigration and its actual impact on citizens, neither the contemporary anti-immigration movement nor the anti-immigration movements of the past can realistically be viewed as creations of the media or even as primarily media-driven. The Chinese Exclusion Acts, Proposition 187 and Proposition 200 were all primarily driven by economic and political interests. KEYWORDS: immigration immigrants anti-immigration populist movements media. Written 2005; 24 pages, 94 footnotes, 33 bibliographic references. 6,011 words.   $133
17436. THE WAR ON DRUGS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of America’s “war on drugs”. Looking at both the domestic and foreign aspects, the paper profiles the history, goals, strategies, results and consequences of the decades-long drug war. The essential conflicts (e.g., criminalization versus medicalization, enforcement versus treatment, prohibition versus legalization, etc.) in the debate over what to do about the nation’s drug problem and the major controversies (e.g., hidden foreign policy objectives, environmental issues, racial aspects, impact on prison crowding, costs, overall effectiveness, etc.) in the war on drugs are considered and discussed. Recent trends in the drug war, including the federal government’s opposition to medical marijuana and the Bush Administration’s efforts to merge the war on drugs and the war on terror into a broad-based, far-reaching war on narco-terrorism are also explored. KEYWORDS: drug war mandatory minimums prison overcrowding foreign policy narco-terrorism drug abuse policy. 14 pages, 78 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 3,386 words.   $98
17426. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: SPOUSE ABUSE. Provides an overview and analysis of the problem of domestic violence within the context of the marital couple (former and current). The first part of the paper examines the theories explaining spouse abuse and considers the correlates of intimate partner violence, including alcohol/substance abuse, family abuse history, economic factors, and social factors. The second part of the paper discusses the extent and nature of the problem in U.S. society. The third section looks at existing and potential strategies (legal, social, practical, psychological) to address the problem. KEYWORDS: domestic violence causes spouse abuse theories correlates intimate partner violence. APA Style. 17 pages, 68 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources. 5,650 words.   $119
17421. WORKING TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF TERRORISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the definition(s) of terrorism. The controversies, contradictions and inherent difficulties in defining terrorism and terrorists are discussed. The history and scope of terrorism and terrorist acts and its relevance to a consensus definition are considered. Various definitions of terrorism formulated by academicians, governments, and terrorism experts are presented and analyzed. KEYWORDS: terrorism terror terrorist acts definitions suicide terrorism terrorist organizations. 15 pages, 57 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources. 4,021 words.

Suicide Terrorism Research Paper

Suicide Terrorism in the Middle East Research Paper

Terrorism and the Foreign Policies of Libya, Turkey & Saudi Arabia Research Paper

Bioterrorism: Biological Terrorism, Anthrax, Smallpox, Botulism, Plague, Tularemia Research Paper
17420. OXYCONTIN: ABUSE, ADDICTION & TREATMENT. Since the late 1990s OxyContin, a prescription opioid painkiller, has emerged as a major drug of abuse. This paper provides an overview and analysis of OxyContin abuse and treatment. Following a brief history of the emergence of OxyContin as a drug of abuse, the analysis traces the physiological and psychological signs and symptoms of abuse as well as the familial, cultural and societal implications of OxyContin abuse. Treatment options are then considered, and two recommended interventions/approaches (inpatient/residential and detox/outpatient) are compared and contrasted. KEYWORDS: percodan percocet oxycontin oxycodeine pain pills addiction drug abuse treatment. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 3,360 words.   $98
17419. FRAUD IN PUBLIC-FUNDED HEALTH CARE (MEDICARE/MEDICAID) This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of the problem of fraud in publically-funded healthcare programs, focusing on the two largest and most important programs, Medicare and Medicaid. The investigation considers the scope of the fraud and provides an overview of the various types of fraud found in these programs; looks at the major victims of Medicare/Medicaid fraud and identifies the key stakeholders in the fraud problem; describes some of the efforts taken to address the problem; and makes recommendations on how to gather coalitions of stakeholders to better address this problem and preserve access to healthcare for our country’s most vulnerable and needy citizens. KEYWORDS: healthcare fraud Medicare Medicaid. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 2,642 words. 2,642 words.   $77
17394. FIST, STICK, KNIFE, GUN: VIOLENCE AND YOUTH IN AMERICA. Using Geoffrey Canada’s (1995) autobiographical case study in violence as a basis for further discussion and analysis, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the causes of violence and strategies for preventing and controlling violence. In keeping with the themes of Canada’s (1995) book, the analysis focuses on youth violence (causes and prevention and control, along with reasons behind the escalation in violence) and on community-based strategies for controlling and preventing such violence. KEYWORDS: book review violence causes youth gangs prevention Geoffrey Canada autobiography. APA Style. 13 pages, 29 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 4,201 words.   $91
17385. ANGER MANAGEMENT: SCOPE & EFFECTIVENESS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of anger management programs as they are currently used with adults and youth in the justice system (juvenile and adult), private practice (e.g., substance abuse treatment, in conjunction with psychiatric treatment), and the schools. The objective of the study is to identify the successes and problems with these groups and programs. The first part of the paper provides a survey of anger management programs across the country, divided into sections on anger management for adults and anger management for youth. The second part of the paper reviews the limited number of evaluative studies which have examined the actual effectiveness of various anger management programs. The concluding section enumerates the concerns and limitations with anger management programs and recommends suspending or scaling back use of these programs based on lack of evidence of their effectiveness. KEYWORDS: anger management alternative sentencing substance abuse criminal justice juvenile justice program evaluation. APA Style. 25 pages, 69 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources. 6,424 words.   $133
17350. “THE UNDERCLASS” BY KEN AULETTA (A BOOK REVIEW). This paper provides a review and critique of this book about the underclass in American society which the author, an investigative journalist, defines as the approximately one-third of the nation’s poor who are unable “to climb out of poverty after a generation or two.” Although Auletta uses numerous facts and statistics in his research, the most notable feature of the book is its inclusion of the personal viewpoints of people that he observed and interviewed during the years 1979-1980. While Auletta’s analysis of the underlying factors involved in poverty is perhaps weakened by the fact that he a journalist, not a sociologist or economist, Auletta nonethless presents a thorough, well-researched overview of the underclass problem, with useful insights for both the professional reader and the general reader alike. KEYWORDS: poverty causes lower class underclass race poor book review. 6 pages, 6 footnotes in text, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
17289. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING CHALLENGE: DIVERSITY IN LEISURE OPPORTUNITIES. This paper considers the challenges and opportunities environmental planners face in creating leisure opportunities for diverse communities. It is noted that diversity is an issue of importance in environmental planning and the provision of leisure opportunities because society as a whole is in the process of becoming increasingly diversified. Considers the issue from a social justice perspective, which holds that it is important to seek inclusion of all social groups in leisure opportunities as well as in other areas of social interaction. Notes the obstacles to inclusion and diversity, including stereotypes, institutional barriers, funding constraints and individual prejudice. KEYWORDS: urban planning environmental planning leisure diversity inclusion. 12 pages, 25 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,656 words.   $84
17285. COMPUTER GAMES AND SOCIETY. This paper provides an overview and critical analysis of the impact of computer games and video games and gaming (especially youth) on American society. Considers the major objections to gaming related to violent and sexist content as well as possible links between gaming and obesity, lowered self-esteem, violent behavior, and diminished ambition. Reviews the gaming industry’s responses to the criticisms including First Amendment claims and criticisms of study methodologies. Argues that computer and video games are, for the most part, less harmful than critics charge. Argues that there is no “smoking gun” evidence linking computer and video games with violent behavior, sexist behavior, obesity, or diminished self-esteem among gamers. KEYWORDS: gaming video games computer games violence sexism social impact. 14 pages, 35 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,201 words.   $98
17272. “THE ELECTRIC KOOL-AID ACID TEST” BY TOM WOLFE. . This paper provides a review of Wolfe’s 1968 book about Ken Kesey and his “Merry Pranksters” and their cross country bus trip and experiments with L.S.D. Notes that the book provides an interesting and insightful perspective on the 1960s counterculture. Dismisses criticisms suggesting that Wolfe’s unusual stylistic techniques makes the book unreadable, arguing instead that Wolfe’s style adds a great deal to the text, especially in terms of recreating what it must have been like to have been with the Pranksters while they were using LSD. KEYWORDS: 1960s counterculture LSD Kesey. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,476 words.   $42
17240. THE SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY OF CRIME. This paper considers the “Chicago School” of criminology and its view that crime is caused by a breakdown of social controls in certain types of communities. Topics include urban zones, the weakening of social institutions, racial prejudice, social isolation, and the concept of collective efficacy. Keywords: crime theory Sutherland Chicago social problems delinquency. 5 pages; 8 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,102 words.   $35
17238. WHITE COLLAR CRIME AND THE "ROUTINE ACTIVITY" PERSPECTIVE. This paper defines white collar crime (both occupational and corporate) and describes the types of offenses related to it. Following this the “routine activity” theory is used to explain the existence of white-collar crime. According to this theory, there are three necessary conditions for crime to occur (motivated offender, suitable target, and lack of capable guardians). Keywords: crime theory adults non-violent crimes fraud insider trading embezzlement. 5 pages; 7 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,188 words.   $35
17236. CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY. As noted in this paper, critical criminology argues that crime is caused by inequalities in capitalist societies. In addition, it is argued that the rich are often able to receive lighter sentences for crimes than are the poor. The paper also addresses the ongoing debate over the relative strengths and weaknesses of the critical approach to criminology. Keywords: crime theory neo-Marxist inequality. 5 pages; 10 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,246 words.   $35
17206. THE IMPACT OF DIVORCE ON CHILDREN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of parents’ divorce on children. The paper first provides a summary overview of the literature examining the general impact of parental divorce on children. Next, the investigation looks at some of the factors which seem to mitigate or exacerbate the impact of parental divorce on children’s well-being. Finally, the literature on post-divorce intervention programs (aimed at helping children of divorce) is briefly considered. Keywords: divorce psychological impact children broken homes parents. 12 pages; 39 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources. 3,386 words.   $84
17205. WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS IN DEATH PENALTY CASES. Focusing on wrongful convictions of innocent persons in death penalty cases, this paper provides a critical overview and analysis of the location and characteristics of micro and macro-level factors with the criminal justice system that seem to be the source of the errors leading to or contributing to the problem of wrongful convictions. Factors considered include problems with eyewitness identification, unreliable or duplicitous informants, prosecutorial misconduct, defense attorney incompetence, false and coerced confessions, forensic errors and fraud, judicial misconduct, systematic racism, problems with the adversarial system and the difficulties of balancing defendants’ right to due process with society’s need for crime control and the criminal justice system’s need for expediency. The concluding analysis looks at some of the steps that might be taken to remedy or reduce the error rate while still providing justice. TAGS: death penalty wrongful conviction prosecutorial misconduct eyewitness identification false confessions forensics judicial error racism crime control. 27 pages; 73 footnotes; 36 bibliographic sources. 7,134 words.


The Ethics of Police Line-Ups

The (UN)Reliability of Eyewitness Identification

Children's Eyewitness Testimony

17189. MANAGING PRODUCT SAFETY: THE FORD PINTO HARVARD CASE STUDY 383129. Drawing primarily on information presented in Harvard Business (1984) case 383129, “Managing Product Safety: The Ford Pinto,” by Kenneth E. Goodpaster and Dekkers L. Davidson, along with supplementary data from business, legal, and news media sources, this paper presents a Berkeley Research legal and ethical analysis of the Ford Pinto product safety case. The focus of the analysis is on Ford’s management of the product safety issues presented in the Pinto case. The first part of the paper presents a legal analysis of the case. This part identifies the relevant facts, critical issues, and appropriate legal rules in the case. Conclusions related to the appropriate legal disposition of the case are delineated. Drawing on the facts presented in the first part of the paper, the second part of the paper explores and analyzes the key ethical issues in this case. Ethical alternatives are identified and the recommendations concerning appropriate ethical action made. Keywords: product safety ethics Ford Pinto automotive product recall case study case solution. 18 pages; 19 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 4,959 words.   $126
17185. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT RISK. Focusing on the secondary school level, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the growing problem of at-risk students – children who are at risk for fa8ilure in school and in life. Following a definition of terms and a discussion of the individual and social consequences of the problem, the individual, family, and school-level factors associated with risk are discussed. The inter-relationships among risk factors and the links between school failure and negative life outcomes are discussed. The analysis then turns to a discussion of approaches to addressing the problem. The essay identifies some of the factors which may protect against risk and considers the effectiveness of various strategies aimed at reducing risk among already identified at-risk students. A concluding section summarizes the main findings and makes suggestions on issues for future research on this problem. Keywords: teenagers risks school failure drugs parents. 12 pages; 49 footnotes; 26 bibliographic sources. 3,789 words.   $84
17184. LAW ENFORCEMENT AND MULTICULTURALISM. This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of multicultural issues in contemporary law enforcement and looks at how police departments are confronting the reality of an increasingly multicultural society. Multicultural issues in law enforcement employment, community policy and community relations, and custody are among the intersecting areas of law enforcement and multiculturalism considered in this essay. Keywords: police multicultural community relations ethnic diversity employment. 11 pages; 29 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 2,789 words.   $77
17160. WELFARE REFORM UNDER PRESIDENT CLINTON. Clinton’s welfare reform law, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, better known as the Welfare Reform Act (WRA) promised to “end welfare as we know it.” This paper examines Clinton’s welfare reform and looks at the results and the impact of the reform on recipients. It is argued that welfare reform should not be viewed as a success. In terms of decreasing poverty and meeting important social goals, welfare reform is a failure. 8 pages; 25 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 2,124 words.   $56
17158. THE HIGH COST OF PRESCRIPTION DRUGS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of prescription drug costs as well as consideration of the steps that might be taken to address the problem. Following an overview of the scope and components of the problem, the analysis looks at some fo the major reasons behind the high costs of prescription drugs, including the traditional reasons offered by the drug industry and the reasons suggested by consumer advocates and analysts outside of the pharmaceutical industry. Various ideas for controlling prescription drug costs and/or for solving the problem are considered and discussed. The concluding section makes recommendations on the adoption of specific measures aimed at addressing the problem. 11 pages; 34 footnotes; 28 bibliographic sources. 3,450 words.   $77
17145. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY & MODELING: AN EXPLANATION FOR THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF TV VIOLENCE. This paper begins with a brief review of the research findings on the link between exposure to TV violence and aggressive behavior in children. Following this, the paper discusses how Bandura’s social leaning theory and work on “modeling” provides a theoretical explanation for the harmful effects of television violence on children and adolescents. 11 pages; 25 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 2,551 words.   $77
17143. POVERTY AND CHILDREN'S EDUCATION. This paper analyzes the impact of poverty on a child’s capacity to benefit from schooling. Following a brief review of the literature demonstrating the link between lower income and lower levels of educational achievement, the analysis looks at how poverty influences the child’s initial readiness for learning, parent-child relations, parental school involvement, child nutrition, access to educational resources outside of school, and school environment in ways that negatively impact the child’s ability to benefit from education. 8 pages; 24 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $56
17140. THE GREAT MIGRATION AND RACE RELATIONS IN AMERICA. This paper considers the history, scope and impact of the Great Migration of blacks from the rural south to the urban north beginning in 1915. Following an overview of the forces driving the Great Migration and a discussion of the status of race relations prior to the migration, the analysis draws on examples from various northern and western cities and the South in general to examine how the Great Migration changed race relations in both the North and the South. Demonstrates how the Great Migration turned race into a national, versus just a southern issue. The argument is made that the migration, and more specifically, the pattern of settlement in the migration (with blacks clustered in geographically segregated areas of the cities) set the stage for increased racial conflict. KEYWORDS: black migration southern us northern cities racial conflict us american migratory patterns african americans. APA Style. 21 pages; 39 footnotes; 17 bibliographic sources. 4,908 words.   $133
17133. PARENT INVOLVEMENT IN SCHOOLS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of recent trends and issues in school parental involvement programs and the drive to create effective school-parent partnerships. With a special focus on language minority parents (parents whose first language is not English) and their bilingual or language minority children, the paper includes a review of the scope and parameters of existing programs, an overview of the outcomes of parental involvement programs, and an analysis of the major barriers and impediments to increasing parental involvement in schools. Keywords: parents schools education involvement multicultural multilingual. 12 pages; 43 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 4,233 words.   $84
17128. EXPLAINING WHITE COLLAR CRIME. This paper provides an overview and analysis of criminological theories which help to explain white collar crime. While the importance of both Sutherland’s theory of differential association and leftist Critical theory (and its indictment of U.S.-style capitalism) are acknowledged, it is argued that Rosenfeld & Messner’s update and expansion of Merton’s theory of social structure and anomie best explains white collar crime when one accounts for the offender and victim profiles, types of offenses, and the situational/contextual elements of white collar crime. KEYWORDS: criminological theory crime causation white collar crimes critical theory anomie. 10 pages; 19 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 2,399 words.   $70
17101. GENDER AND ACHIEVEMENT IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM. This paper reviews the current academic literature on the relationship between gender and achievement in the elementary classroom. The gender/achievement relationship is considered within the framework of the debate on gender equity in education and the broader perspective of gender disparities in academic achievement across the educational continuum. Focusing on girls and boys at the elementary (K-6) grade level, the analysis examines the literature investigating the varying impact of society, parents, teachers, peers and individual motivation on boys' and girls' academic achievement. KEYWORDS: gender differences education elementary gender academic achievement girls boys. Written in 2002. APA Style. 37 pages; 193 footnotes; 65 bibliographic sources. 10,572 words.   $133
17012. "RACE" AND RACISM. Viewing the topic from a British perspective, this paper argues that it is important to have a theoretical and historical understanding of race and racism. Although “race” is a social construct rather than a fixed biological category, “racism” nonetheless has a real social impact, both because of prejudice and because people identify themselves with their “race”. Keywords: racism racial identity race theory. 15 pages; 49 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 3,775 words.   $105
15997. PROMISING APPROACHES TO THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLISM AND ALCOHOL-RELATED PROBLEMS. This paper examines three promising approaches in alcohol treatment: 1) the Community Reinforcement Approach; 2) Behavioral Marital Therapy; and 3) Social Skills Training. Evidence of their effectiveness in the treatment of alcoholism is presented, along with suggestions for convincing practitioners to incorporate these approaches into existing alcoholism treatment services. Keywords: alcohol treatment alternatives effectiveness. 5 pages; 18 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
15996. DIVERSITY ISSUES IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT. This paper examines issues related to diversity and multiculturalism in substance abuse treatment. The paper discusses vulnerable groups, peer influences, culturally sensitive practices, the cultural factors that might inhibit disclosure of a problem, and the importance of recognizing that ethnic and racial groups are diverse within themselves. Keywords: addiction treatment culture diversity. 5 pages; 14 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
15995. INTEGRATION OF SERVICES IN THE ADDICTION-TREATMENT FIELD. This paper concerns the movement towards providing integrated criminal justice, mental health, social and substance abuse services within the addiction treatment field. The advantages, disadvantages and overall effectiveness of the integrated approach to substance abuse treatment. Keywords: substance abuse treatment integration. 5 pages; 10 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,341 words.   $35
15994. AN ADDICTION TREATMENT PROGRAM BASED ON THE "CONTROLLED DRINKING" MODEL. This paper evaluates the “controlled drinking” approach to the treatment of alcoholism and addiction. The controlled drinking approach is discussed as consistent with a type of harm reduction model of addiction treatment and in contrast to the disease and total abstinence approach to addiction treatment. Research evidence to support the controlled drinking approach is presented, along with the elements to consider in developing a program based on the model. Keywords: addiction alcoholism treatment models. 5 pages, 17 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
15993. SHORTCOMINGS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION PROGRAMS. This paper identifies key failures in substance abuse prevention programs, including the failure to pay enough attention to gateway drugs, the failure to accurately understand why young people use drugs and alcohol, the overemphasis on educational information, the failure to effectively engage the community, and the overemphasis on the need for total abstinence. Keywords: addiction prevention failures. 5 pages; 5 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
15992. EVALUATION TECHNIQUES IN A SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT AGENCY. This paper is concerned with the types of measures that should be used to determine if a substance abuse treatment facility is being effective in achieving desired outcomes. Topics include: the determination of outcome goals, appropriate measures, issues to be considered, and the importance of qualitative as well as quantitative data. Keywords: addiction treatment evaluation outcomes. 5 pages; 16 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
15991. THE IMPACT OF MANAGED CARE ON ADDICTION-RELATED SERVICES. This paper examines the challenges to the addiction-treatment profession caused by funding limitations in the managed care environment. Includes such issues as stringent reporting requirements and the effort to provide quality service despite cost cutting. Also provides some suggestions for improving the system. Keywords: addiction treatment managed care. 5 pages; 14 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
15990. THE IMPACT OF MANAGED CARE ON ADDICTION-RELATED SERVICES. This paper examines the challenges to the addiction-treatment profession caused by funding limitations in the managed care environment. Includes such issues as stringent reporting requirements and the effort to provide quality service despite cost cutting. Also provides some suggestions for improving the system. Keywords: addiction treatment managed care. 6 pages; 14 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
15989. GROUP TECHNIQUES FOR THE TREATMENT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE. Studies have shown that support group meetings can be helpful in the treatment of substance abuse. This papers provides recommendations for creating a successful group, and also describes some of the things that might cause a cause a group to be ineffective. Keywords: addiction group treatment. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
15988. THE HARM REDUCTION MODEL OF ADDICTION TREATMENT. In this paper, the harm reduction model of addiction treatment is presented as an alternative to the medical “disease” model and the criminal justice “law-and-order” model, both of which are described as relatively ineffective for the treatment of substance abuse problems. The paper includes information on various types of harm reduction efforts, and notes that there is research evidence supporting the model’s effectiveness. Keywords: drug abuse treatment models harm reduction. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
15987. RELAPSE IN ADDICTION TREATMENT. Drawing on a cognitive behavioral model of addiction treatment, this paper discusses the factors that can cause patient relapse and the ways it can be prevented. In addition, the elements of a typical cognitive behavioral relapse prevention program are described. Keywords: drug abuse treatment relapse addiction. 5 pages; 14 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,409 words.   $35
15986. INITIAL ASSESSMENT AT AN OUTPATIENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE CLINIC. This paper considers the factors which need to be taken into account during patient processing and assessment of referral needs at an outpatient substance abuse clinic. Includes information on interviewing, taking client histories, and tests of psychological and medical health status. Keywords: drug abuse treatment clinical assessment. 6 pages; 17 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,333 words.   $42
15937. ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE USE OF GENETIC CLONING. This paper discusses the moral dilemma of cloning, especially in regard to the idea of cloning human beings. The arguments against cloning are presented, and rebuttals are made to the arguments in favor of cloning. 12 pages; 41 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 3,357 words.   $84
15936. "REEFER MADNESS" BY ERIC SCHLOSSER (BOOK REVIEW). This paper reviews Schlosser’s book on the underground economy (“black market”) in the United States, emphasizing marijuana trade, undocumented migrant workers, and the pornography industry. Discusses the reasons for the underground economy, and agrees with Schlosser’s view that victimless crimes should be decriminalized. Keywords: black markets illegal aliens drug trade prostitution smut decriminalization. 6 pages; 20 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $42
15913. "AMAZING GRACE: THE LIVES OF CHILDREN AND THE CONSCIENCE OF A NATION" BY JONATHAN KOZOL (BOOK REVIEW). This paper provides a review of Kozol’s book concerning the problems faced by poor people (especially children and teens) in a Bronx neighborhood. Kozol’s research methods, conclusion, and the lessons of his book are addressed. Keywords: poverty childhood urban dropouts crime. 5 pages, 14 footnotes in text, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
15903. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE. Written from the perspective of a social worker, this paper discusses the signs of child sexual abuse, the family situations that increase the likelihood of its occurrence, and the characteristics of offenders. The paper addresses the need to distinguish between real and false cases of child sexual abuse, as well as the various approaches to treatment that are available for victims. 12 pages; 27 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
15785. THE RECREATIONAL DRUG ECSTASY: THE PROBLEM AND SOME ATTEMPTED SOLUTIONS. Provides an overview and analysis of the recreational drug Ecstasy (aka "E", XTC). Outlines the chemical basis of the drug, describes its main effects and health risks; discusses it use and abuse during the 1970's, and its more recent popularity as a "club drug." Emphasizes the health risks of the drug. Briefly discusses supply and distribution patterns and current law enforcement efforts to discourage use. Considers various individual, school- and family-based psychological (psychotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, etc.) and drug education programs to address the problem. 9 pages, 32 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $63
15750. TEEN MOTHERS AND SCHOOL-BASED RESOURCE CENTERS. The literature is reviewed regarding the impact of school-based programs in meeting the needs of teen mothers and encouraging them to continue their education. According to the evidence, such programs are generally effective; however, some studies show mixed findings and there are also challenges to implementing the programs. Therefore, it is concluded that there is a need for further research to clarify issues. 26 pages, 46 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources.   $133
15698. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: ARE THE CONSEQUENCES ALWAYS CATASTROPHIC? Based on a review of the academic literature, this investigation provides an overview and analysis of the long-term consequences of child sexual abuse for the adult of survivors of that abuse. In addition to examining studies which point to particular areas of impact and studies which consider mitigating factors in the negative outcomes of CSA, the analysis reviews studies which challenge the common wisdom concerning CSA as a unilaterally harmful experience. 11 pages, 49 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $77
15696. GAY TEENS: SEXUAL IDENTITY FORMATION IN THE HIGH SCHOOL YEARS. This paper explores gay and lesbian sexual identity formation during the high school years, looking at how high school youth come to their gay and lesbian sexual identities - the pressures, involved, the biases they encounter, their influences, how their friends and parents react, the process of "coming out," etc. The analysis draws on a review of the academic literature on gay sexual identity formation in the high school years as well as anecdotal and first-person accounts from gay and lesbian youth. KEYWORDS: adolescent sexuality gay teens homosexuals teenage sexual identity lesbians high school. APA Style. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 4,505 words.   $91
15689. MENTAL ILLNESS AND VIOLENCE: Do the Mentally Ill Pose a Risk to Society or Does Society Pose a Risk to the Mentally Ill? This paper explores the recent debate and focus on the link between mental illness and violence. Specifically, the analysis critically appraises whether the mentally ill pose a risk to society or whether the mentally ill are really perhaps more at risk from society. Reviews the evidence suggesting that the mentally ill are more violent than the non-mentally ill; considers factors contributing to violent behavior in the mentally ill; reviews some of the risks that society poses to mentally ill persons. KEYWORDS: mentally ill persons violence psychiatric patients violent risk. APA Style. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 3,018 words.   $70
15684. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRUG ABUSE AND CRIME IN THE U.K. This paper critically examines the evidence of a link between drug abuse and crime in Great Britain. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the basis for the current government's claim of an "irrefutable link" between drug abuse and crime and for the government's implied assertion that the link is causal. Following this, the literature on drug abuse-crime linkages is reviewed and alternative explanations for the drug/crime connection considered. 10 pages, 34 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $70
15664. RESEARCH DESIGN PROPOSAL: EXAMINING MANDATORY MINIMUMS IN DRUG SENTENCING. This paper presents a proposal for a criminal justice research design. The proposed study would examine how federal judges, federal prosecutors, legislators, and the general voting public view mandatory minimum sentencing laws in drug offenses. Reviews the literature on the impact of mandatory minimums and the disparate views of these laws taken by judges, prosecutors, legislators and the public. States five hypotheses for testing and describes the methodology (study design, samples and sampling procedures, instruments) for the study. Includes sample questions from the proposed survey instrument. KEYWORDS: mandatory minimums judicial sentencing policy research design criminology deterrence theory punitive justice. 22 pages, 58 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 5,778 words.   $133
15663. ANOREXIA NERVOSA AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE. This paper presents an overview and analysis of the connection between substance abuse and one particular eating disorder - anorexia nervosa. Following an overview of the clinical syndrome of anorexia nervosa, the investigation reviews the literature examining the link between anorexia nervosa and substance abuse. Considers how anorexia differs from bulimia in its relation to substance abuse, differences in substance abuse prevalence by anorexia sub-type, whether substance abuse and anorexia arise simultaneously or whether one disorder precedes the other, and theories providing possible explanations for the link between these disorders. KEYWORDS: eating disorders anorexia anorexic bulimia substance abuse drug abuse comorbid disorders. APA Style. 14 pages, 44 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 3,711 words.   $98
15657. PREVENTING AND RESPONDING TO VIOLENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS: COUNSELING INTERVENTIONS AND COUNSELOR ROLES. This reesarch paper provides an overview and analysis of counselors' current and potential roles in addressing the problem of school violence in U.S. secondary (high schools) schools. The report looks at appropriate counselor roles and counseling interventions from the perspective of counseling theory and traditional counselor roles with adolescent populations. The essay begins with a brief overview of current thinking on the causes of school violence. The next section considers the traditional and evolving role of the school counselor. The next part of the paper focuses on appropriate roles and interventions for counselors attempting to address the problem of school violence in the secondary schools. KEYWORDS: school violence school counselors counseling interventions high school students term papers. APA Style. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources. 4,346 words.   $98
15651. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BRITAIN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of and responses to domestic violence in Great Britain. The specific focus of this study is the role of criminal justice agencies in Great Britain dealing with domestic violence. Profiles the current scope of the problem, traces the history of the legal treatment of domestic violence in England, profiles historical and current laws pertaining to domestic violence and examines the role of police and the Crown Prosecution Service in dealing with the problem. KEYWORDS: domestic violence spouse abuse criminal justice britain essay. APA Style. 21 pages, 67 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 5,526 words.   $133
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