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23A. ASTRONOMY

How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
 
 
18113. GLOBAL WARMING: A TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH TO A SOLUTION. This paper is concerned with a 2006 Science News article that describes a possible technological approach to solving the problem of global warming. The approach calls for the use of a trillion tiny spacecraft, equipped with shades, which would orbit the sun and reduce the amount of light that the earth receives. It is argued that this approach is both impractical and wrong-headed. It is further argued that a better approach is to work to reduce industrial pollution, which prevents sunlight from being reflected back into space. KEYWORDS: science technology global warming. APA Style. 6 pages, 1 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,406 words.   $42
 
15874. A COMPARISON OF THE KECK TELESCOPES (IN HAWAII) AND THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. This paper compares the Hawaiian-based Keck telescopes with the Hubble space telescope. The paper argues that the Hubble Space telescope is especially good for locating objects in deep space and for providing photographic images that stir public interest in astronomy. However, the less costly Keck telescopes are comparable in quality and are better-suited for data analysis. As such, the Keck telescopes have made a more important contribution to the advancement of astronomical science. Includes a table comparing the features of the two types of telescopes. 8 pages, 23 footnotes in text, 8 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
15644. ARE WE ALONE? BY PAUL DAVIES. A summary analysis and critique of the Australian cosmologist's 1995 book which explores the "philosophical assumptions that underlie the belief in, and search for, life beyond the Earth, and the impact that the discovery of alien life forms would imply for our science, religion and beliefs about mankind." Provides a generally favorable assessment of the book, which is interesting in its exploration of the long history of mankind's search for extraterrestrial life as well as in its thoughtful consideration of the implications of the discovery of compelling evidence of alien life for both philosophy and modern science. Criticizes the author's tendency to wax rhapsodic about quantum physics and notes that some portions of the book may prove too difficult for readers without extensive background in the physical sciences. KEYWORDS: book review astronomy physics extraterrestial life. 13 pages, 22 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 3,238 words.   $91
 
15186. THE GALILEO AFFAIR. Discusses the conflict between the 17th century scientist and the Church, including the controversy over the Copernican theory, the charges of heresy, and the Inquisition trial. Also argues that the conflicts were due more to political reasons than to Galileo's beliefs. 19 pages, 50 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $126
 
13864. SATELLITE BROADCASTING INDUSTRY. Examines the international satellite broadcasting industry to see how the emergence of direct-to-home television broadcasting was made possible by advancing telecommunications technology. The focus of the analysis is the European satellite broadcasting industry in the 1980's and early 1990's. Argues that direct broadcasting will revolutionize the television markets of Europe and the rest of the world. 9 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
13730. TWO FIGURES IN MODERN SCIENCE: GALILEO AND DARWIN. Compares and contrasts the life work and scientific approaches of Galileo and Darwin, to see how the two men viewed the basic problems of scientific method, construction of theory, and the application of evidence to new hypotheses. Argues that both scientists achieved revolutionary breakthroughs because they were willing to look objectively at large and complex bodies of evidence. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
12584. UFO CONSPIRACY THEORIES AND THE SKEPTICS. Drawing primarily on Internet websites and the response of mainstream media, this report presents an overview of UFO-conspiracy theories. Reviews five main categories of UFO-related web sites: quasi-academic, those with a "higher consciousness" agenda, entertainment-related, and skeptics. Concludes with a summary of arguments presented by UFO believers and non-believers. 12 pages, 9 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11977. THE EXTINCTION OF THE DINOSAURS. This investigation examines two contemporary theories which are widely held to be the most plausible explanations of the disappearance of the dinosaurs: 1) the "impact theory" which holds that a cataclysmic extraterrestrial event (collision of an asteroid or meteor with the earth) caused changes leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs; and 2) the "volcanism" theory which holds that volcanic activity (both the eruption of volcanoes and the sudden quiescence of eruptions) holds the key to mass extinctions. The concluding section offers an opinion about which theory best explains the extinction of the dinosaurs. 13 pages, 39 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
11907. SPACE SPENDING: AN ARGUMENT AGAINST MANNED SPACE FLIGHT. Presents an argument against continued funding for manned space programs along with support for diverting funds to promising unmanned programs. Establishes the high costs/limited benefits of manned programs versus the cost-effectiveness and potential benefits of unmanned programs. KEYWORDS: cost benefit analysis space exploration manned flights unmanned robots persuasive essay. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 1350 words.   $35
 
11591. THE SEARCH FOR BLACK HOLES. Summary of black holes in modern physics and cosmology, from Chandrasekhar's theorizing on how dying stars could form these, through modern theorizing including how Hawking derived "temperature" for black holes, and finishing with 1990s reports on actual objects thought to be black holes, including Sagittarius A at the center of our galaxy and the much larger object at the center of galaxy M87. 11p. ,17f., 7b.   $77
 
10285. SOLAR ASTRONOMY. The structure, evolution and surface activities of the sun are reviewed. Hydrogen fusion, radiation and convection processes, sunspots and solar prominences are described, and remaining problems such as the solar neutrino are noted. 12 pages, 16 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
10171. INTERNATIONAL SATELLITE BROADCASTING. The development and scope of the international satellite broadcasting industry is examined in this study. The basic technology, including development of direct broadcasting systems in commercial television in Europe, is described, and future trends are analyzed. 10 pages, 21 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
10160. JAMES MICHENER'S SPACE. Review and critique of James Michener's novel Space, a docu-novel outlining man's quest for flight and space exploration. Suggests that while book is lacking in essential characteristics of fine literature, Michener is an excellent researcher. 5p. 1b.   $35
 
09796. TIME: THE EVERYDAY USE OF ASTRONOMY. The ways in which the science and discoveries of astronomy affect our daily life through the use and perception of time, time zones, tide tables and seasons is looked at. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
09065. REVIEW OF SCHWARTE'S "ON THE PSYCHODYNAMICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DISASTER: THE CASE OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER." Critical review and analysis of this Columbia Journal of World Business article which explores the underlying organizational factors which impacted the way that the Challenger launch decision was made and the effect this structure had on the followup process. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
09057. STRATEGIC DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN THE SPACE SHUTTLE CHALLENGER TRAGEDY. Examines the decision-making process in the Challenger disaster, analyzing NASA's decision model and management style. Considers the role played by NASA organizational design and external environmental factors in the tragedy. Concludes with an analysis of factors in the NASA system which must be changed in order to prevent a similar disaster from occurring again. 15 pages, 27 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
08578. BLACK HOLES. The origins and conceptual ideas of the black hole theory are analyzed. Possible implications for alternative theories of matter are discussed. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
08404. MANNED V. UNMANNED SPACE EXPLORATION. Using the 1986 explosion of the space shuttle Challenger as a starting point, this paper examines the public policy issues raised by a space program focused on manned flights. Provides a cost-benefit analysis of manned versus unmanned space exploration. Argues that the cost of manned space flight is not commensurate with the relatively tiny increase in useful scientific and economic benefits of such efforts and makes the case that future policy should focus on unmanned flights. KEYWORDS: us space program manned flights unmanned space exploration robots safety space accidents challenger columbia. 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2,407 words.   $70
 
08109. SOLAR FLARES. The causes and consequences of solar flares are examined in this study. Differences between types of solar disturbances, and the relationship of solar flares to radio flares and flare stars are also noted. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
07104. MAYAN AND AZTEC CALENDAR SYSTEMS. Comprehensive overview of early Meso-American calendars, which were as accurate as any pre-telescope calendars. The 260 and 365-day cycles; the Mayan Long Count of years; the problem of the Mayan year 1; Mayan systems for tracking the moon and Venus; correlating Mayan years to our system; latter-day Mayan and Aztec systems; role of calendars and astrology in Mayan and Aztec civilizations. 16 pages, 29 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
07090. THE BENEFITS OF INDUSTRY IN SPACE. Optimistic review of the prospects for industry in space (which already exists in the form of communications satellites). Discusses possibilities of mining and metallurgy, power satellites, bio-factories, and more. Cost is the barrier now (and may remain such), but technology is feasible. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
06572. SUNSPOTS. The physical characteristics and cycles of sunspots are examined in this report. The possible relation of solar to terrestrial weather cycles is noted. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
05721. SAGITTARIUS A. The work of Piddington and Minnet in the verification of Sagittarius A. since 1951, and the nature of their research is documented. The use of infrared in the investigation is explained. 6 pages, 23 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
05717. WHITE DWARF THEORY. The role of white dwarf theory in astronomy and the speculative nature of much of the investigative work surrounding it is explained The thermodynamic properties of such high density matter is examined. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
05562. SUNSPOTS. Sunspots are a major source of electromagnetic energy. This energy is a key factor in explaining the development of prominences on the Sun's surface, as well as the effect of the Sun's energy as a whole on terrestrial phenomena. Includes extensive physical description of magnetic fields, along with a general explanation of sunspot development. 10 pages, 7 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
05561. THE MOON AND THE EARTH'S TIDAL SYSTEM. Newton's gravitational theory and its effect on global tides, their range and nattern is explained. 16p. 7b. 14f.   $112
 
05544. THE PRIMORDIAL BIG BANG. Steady state and big bang cosmological theories are compared, based on the Hubble theory of an expanding universe. The contribution of radio astronomy to the debate is detailed. The paper concludes with an explanation that the big bang theory is more widely favored. 10 pages, 8 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
04952. ISLAMIC ASTRONOMY. A history of the development and culmination period of Islamic astronomy, with a look at the great Arab astronomers and their chief discoveries. Egyptian and Persian astronomers are looked at principally, and the influence of the Greeks and the Ptolomeys considered. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
04399. QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS. The unique properties of quasi-stellar objects, such as red-shift, high radiation emission and fluctuation of wave-lengths, are pondered in this study. The various theories accounting for their behavior, and the possibilities for finding the true evolutionary history of the universe through their study are examined. 7 pages, 0 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
04109. THE NATURE OF THE UNIVERSE BY FRED HOYLE. A review of Hoyle's book on the New Cosmological theories of the origins of the universe, moving from the composition of the planets and suns, to the origins of the galaxies, nebulae and the world itself. 6 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
02043. HISTORIC SIGNIFICANCE OF NASA'S X-15. A brief history of the development, components, and long-range significance of Nasa's X-series of research rocket-powered aircraft (developed in the 1950s). 5 pages, l footnote, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
02037. NEPTUNE: THE DISTURBING PLANET. A comprehensive account, drawing upon both contemporary and historical sources, of the discovery of Neptune. Extensive treatment over the scientific controversy and contradictions surrounding the planet. 17 pages, 29 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
01514. QUASARS: A REEVALUATION OF ASTRONOMICAL THEORY. Good early discussion of the theoretical problems posed by quasars, including black and white holes, red shift, matter and anti-matter. Might need update in view of continuing developments in the field. 7 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
00503. THEORIES OF THE WORLD'S CREATION. The problem of the origin of the physical world is discussed in an historical context, from the sacred symbolism of early China to contemporary theories on the nature of the universe. The hypotheses of Hoyle, Russell, Chamberlain and Moulton and others are briefly outlined. 11 pages, 0 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
00154. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ASTROLOGY. Good basic history of astrology from Sumerian times, including Egyptian and Chinese astrology, and how the Greeks provided most of the astrological symbols in use today. 10 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
53646. LIFE ON OTHER PLANETS. A look at the possiiblities for life in our solar system, considered in light of various cosmological theories snd models of the universe. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
52495. RADIO COMMUNICATION OUTSIDE EARTH. The technology and functions of space communications systems are reviewed in this paper. Ionospheric influence on radio transmission, and some of the details of telemetry systems are gone into, and current investment and planning in the field commented on. 11 pages, 11 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
52138. COPERNICUS AND THE HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY. Overview of Copernicus' then-revolutionary notion that the earth goes around the sun, focusing on his relation to the development of astronomical thought. 11 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
51918. THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXIES. A well-written discussion of the current theories on the evolution of the galaxies, including a discussion of the expansion of the universe, types and structures of the galaxies, and the various cosmological explanations of continuous creation of galaxies and cluster groupings. 13 pages, 0 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $91
 


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