Catalog Sections:
  Accounting
  Advertising
  Africa
  African American studies
  Anthropology
  Architecture
  Art
  Astronomy
  Biology
  China
  Communications
  Computers
  Criminology
  Employee Relations
  Environmental Science
  Film
  Finance
  Foreign Governments
  Foreign Policy (U.S.)
  Gender & Sexuality
  HR Management
  International Relations
  International Trade
  Internet
  Japan
  Journalism
  Juvenile Delinquency
  Labor
  Latin America
  Linguistics
  MIS
  Managerial Science
  Marketing
  Marx and Marxism
  Math
  Medicine and Health Care
  Middle East
  Minorities (other than Blacks)
  Music
  Nursing
  Penology
  Personality Theory
  Personnel Management
  Physical Education
  Police Science
  Political Science (non-US)
  Political Science (U.S.)
  Political Theory
  Psychopathology
  Psychotherapy
  Public Administration
  Religion (Judeo-Christian)
  Religion (non-Judeo Christian)
  Sexuality
  Shakespeare
  Social Problems
  Sports
  Television and Radio
  Third World Asia
  Urban Studies
  Women's Studies
  Search by topic:  
23B. BIOLOGY

How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
 
1  2  next  
 
18888. THE NAKED APE (DESMOND MORRIS). This term paper reviews The Naked Ape, a book that views the lives of human beings from a zoological perspective. Although certain flaws are found in the author’s arguments, the essay concludes that Morris makes a good point in claiming that humans need to be aware of their animal nature so they can keep it under control. TAGS: book review, evolution, zoology, argumentative essay, anthropology, Naked Ape. MLA Style. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,698 words.   $49
 
18233. THE ROLE OF GENETIC FACTORS IN CAUSING CANCER. This paper reviews on article on the discovery that certain gene mutations allow cells to grow in an uncontrolled manner. Using this knowledge, researchers at John Hopkins University are searching to identify these gene mutations and thus pave the way toward improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment. KEYWORDS: article review science genetics cancer. APA Style. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
18032. ANEMONEFISH SYMBIOSIS. This paper is concerned with the symbiotic relationship between anemonefish (also known as clownfish) and various species of sea anemone. Specifically, the paper examines the evidence from research experiments relating to the question of why anemonefish are not stung by the toxic tentacles of the sea anemone. Researchers agree that the fish are protected by a mucous coat, but there continues to be a debate over whether this coat is acquired genetically or through acclimation behaviors. The paper also discusses the role of chemical cues in the fish recognizing their host anemone, as well as the importance of "specificity" in the effort to understand relationships between specific types of anemonefish and specific types of sea anemone. Two tables are included in the paper's text, which summarize data from two of the studies discussed. KEYWORDS: clownfish anemonefish sea anemone symbiosis. APA Style. 25 pages, 47 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 6,468 words.   $133
 
18009. HEREDITY AND ADDICTION. Although environmental factors also play a role in the development of addiction, this paper focuses on the role of genetic factors in causing various kinds of addiction. The research paper looks at the evidence from studies using animal and human subjects. In addition, the essay discusses the implications for treatment and prevention (such as the use of anti-craving medications and matching individual patients to the best possible treatment options). KEYWORDS: genetics heredity drug alcohol addiction. APA Style. 11 pages, 25 footnotes in text, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,619 words.   $77
 
18002. PATERNITY TESTING. This paper describes the process of DNA testing, which is used to identify a child's father (to settle a dispute) and sometimes to identify a rapist. The process involves collecting samples and comparing "genetic markers." It is noted that this type of paternity testing is highly accurate in most cases. KEYWORDS: genetics paternity testing dna test.. APA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,395 words.   $42
 
17718. DWINDLING BIODIVERSITY IN THE TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: LIMITING ADVANCES IN PLANT-BASED MEDICINES This paper provides an overview and analysis of the environmental problem of tropical rainforest destruction and the associated loss of biodiversity in the context of the development of tropical plant-based medicines. The paper includes an overview of the problem of rainforest destruction (its scope and its causes), a discussion of existing and potential tropical rainforest plant-derived pharmaceuticals, and an overview of ethnobotany and efforts to develop the pharmaceutical potential of tropical rainforest plants. It is argued that while the loss of rainforest biodiversity will have the greatest immediate negative impact on the people of the forest, in the future, this loss of biodiversity will have a negative effect on the entire world population as scientists search for effective treatments for both old diseases and newly emerging diseases. It is further argued that focusing on the “services” that tropical rainforests can potentially provide, such as new sources of medicines, should be part of the overall strategy to save the world’s rainforests. At the same time, it is noted that such a strategy needs to be implemented carefully to avoid exploitation of the rainforests and further loss of biodiversity. KEYWORDS: rainforest botanicals plant-derived medicine ethnobotany biodiversity. APA Style. 9 pages, footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 2,092 words.   $63
 
17331. CRITIQUE OF “AN ANTHROPOLOGIST ON MARS” BY OLIVER SACKS. This paper provides a selected review of the prominent neurologist’s 1995 book containing seven “paradoxical” cases of neurological disease. According to Sacks, these cases are paradoxical because they demonstrate creative adaptations to the suffering caused by brain damage. This paper closely examines two of the cases in the book (“A Surgeon’s Life” and “The Case of the Colorblind Painter”) and based on this examination, it is argued that Sacks’ bias as a neurologist causes him to occasionally lose objectivity. Sacks errs by always placing himself at the center of the cases - as an observer, an actor, and an interpreter as well as by explaining everything in neurophysiological terms. KEYWORDS: Oliver Sacks neurology neurological disorders book review. 7 pages, 17 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,743 words.   $49
 
17244. THE CLASSICAL AND POSITIVIST SCHOOLS CRIMINOLOGY. This paper compares the deterrence theory of Beccaria (the Classical School of criminology) with the biological traits theory of Lombroso (the Positivist School). The paper includes a discussion of the policy recommendations an adherent of each school would make for fighting crime and argues that Lombroso’s approach is discriminatory and ineffective. Keywords: crime theory early history traits. 6 pages; 8 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,428 words.   $42
 
17241. BIOSOCIAL THEORIES OF CRIME. This paper discusses how biological factors, personality traits, and social (or environmental) factors interact to contribute to crime. The paper includes a discussion of “biological harms,” twin and adoption studies, and studies on the personality traits and body types of delinquents. Keywords: crime theory biology anatomy personality heredity. 6 pages; 8 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,353 words.   $42
 
17131. ARE THERE LEADERS AND FOLLOWERS IN FISH SHOALS? This paper explores and discusses the question of whether there are leaders and followers in fish shoals. After reviewing the basic characteristics of fish shoals and schooling behavior and summarizing the traditional view that fish shoals or schools are self-organized, leaderless systems, the paper consider the possibility of leaders and leadership roles (and by implication, followers) within organized fish aggregations. It is argued that there are indeed, leaders and followers within some fish shoals, although it is also argued that ‘leaders’ and ‘leadership’ must be differentially defined for fish shoals versus the paradigm of leadership evident in the human military organization or the wild wolf pack. Specifically, within the fish shoal, leadership occurs in the relative absence of organizational hierarchy and outside of the framework of leadership as social dominance. 15 pages; 39 footnotes; 17 bibliographic sources. 3,743 words.   $105
 
17054. THE PROBLEM OF OVER-FISHING IN DEEP-SEA FISHERIES. This paper provides an economic analysis of the problem of over-fishing and attributes it to unlimited competition for a limited “common property” resources. Past efforts at regulation are noted, and it is argued that a private ownership solution is needed (for example, through the use of Individual Transferable Quotas) in order to create an incentive to conserve. Includes a graph. Keywords: fishing conservation resources sustainable fisheries. 7 pages, 28 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
17020. PRIMATE COMMUNICATION. This paper examines the research on how primates use visual signals, sounds, scents and touch to communicate amongst themselves. The paper also addresses the controversy over whether or not primates can learn to use and understand “human type” communication such as sign language. Keywords: primates communication signals language. 7 pages; 33 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
17016. ANIMAL CAMOUFLAGE. This paper looks at the ways different animals disguise themselves to either hide from predators or to capture prey. Types of coloration, physiological mechanisms, and the importance of remaining motionless are discussed. Specific references are made to such animals as chameleons, octopus, and flounder, among others. Keywords: animal behavior predation camouflage. 6 pages; 17 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15960. SEA URCHINS. This paper provides an anatomical description of sea urchins, a type of echinoderm, and discusses how they eat, move, and reproduce. Also refers to the 1980s “plague” in the Jamaican coral reefs that made sea urchins nearly extinct there and thus created a threat to the region’s ecosystem. 11 pages; 50 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 2,524 words.   $77
 
15937. ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE USE OF GENETIC CLONING. This paper discusses the moral dilemma of cloning, especially in regard to the idea of cloning human beings. The arguments against cloning are presented, and rebuttals are made to the arguments in favor of cloning. 12 pages; 41 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 3,357 words.   $84
 
15868. CLONING: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS. This paper provides an overview of cloning. The paper describes the process by which the sheep Dolly and other mammals have been cloned, and points out that there have been serious problems with cloned animals thus far. Argues that the research on cloning is only in the very early stages, and much more work needs to be done before a truly successful cloning can be achieved. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15803. DOLPHIN COMMUNICATION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of dolphin communication patterns and systems. The analysis explores the channels of communication used by dolphins, considers the normal environmental limitations on communication related to life in an aquatic versus terrestrial environment, discusses the cognitive and sensory basis of dolphin communication systems, and examines the evidence that dolphins have language. While the focus of the analysis is on intraspecies dolphin communication, the possibility of dolphin-human communication is necessarily also considered in that assessments of dolphin language potential often involve investigations of human-dolphin symbolic interaction. KEYWORDS: animal communications dolphin language intraspecies interspecies communication. 12 pages, 42 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,740 words.   $84
 
15802. STEM CELL CONTROVERSY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the ethical problems presented by human stem cell research. Following a brief background summary on the medical/scientific components of the controversy and an equally brief overview of the current U.S. legal framework on stem cell research, the analysis focuses on the ethics of stem cell research. The ethical arguments for and against stem cell research are considered and the principal ethical dilemmas in the controversy are identified and discussed. The concluding sections present a proposed resolution to the dilemmas and a personal perspective on the problem. It will be argued that stem cell research using particular categories of human embryos and fetal material is ethically acceptable when carried out within a carefully designed ethical/legal framework and that further, there is a moral imperative to conduct such research so that society receives benefits from the related medical breakthroughs. KEYWORDS: stem cells embryos fetus research ethics law parkinsons paralysis experimental treatment. APA Style. 12 pages, 16 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3,592 words.   $84
 
15788. THE CHEETAH: FAST, AND ENDANGERED. This paper provides a brief profile of the current status of the world's cheetah population. Describes the great cats' current habitat, range, and total numbers; outlines their status as a threatened species, considering the specific threats to the population; considers the arguments for and against population recovery; and outlines steps that could be taken to preserve and/or revitalize the cheetah population. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
15712. BIOTERRORISM: BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM: ANTHRAX, SMALLPOX & MORE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the threat and reality of biological terrorism and/or biological warfare in 21st Century, post-September 11th America. The first part of the paper conducts an overview of the potential sources of a biological attack, looking at both state actors and non-state actors, and examining the barriers that these potential attackers would have to overcome in order to carry off a large-scale attack using biological agents. The second part provides an overview of what experts have identified as the five "critical biological agents" that might be used as biological weapons: plague, botulism, tularemia, anthrax and smallpox. TAGS: bioterrorism biological terrorist threats anthrax botulism poison disease terrorism suicide terrorism terrorist organizations. APA Style. 15 pages, 63 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 5,631 words.
RELATED PAPERS

Suicide Terrorism Research Paper

Suicide Terrorism in the Middle East Research Paper

Terrorism and the Foreign Policies of Libya, Turkey & Saudi Arabia Research Paper

Defining Terrorism Research Paper
  $105
 
15706. THE CONTROVERSY OVER DINOSAUR METABOLISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversy over dinosaur metabolism and the ongoing debate concerning whether dinosaurs were endothermic or ectothermic. Following a brief introductory overview of the implications of endothermy versus ectothermy for species physiology and survival, the essay examines the main arguments and evidence directly related to dinosaur metabolism, the analysis also considers the implications of the recent findings on the KT event and the mass extinctions for dinosaur metabolism. Concludes that the metabolism of dinosaurs was probably heterogeneous (some were endotherms and others ectotherms). KEYWORDS: dinosaurs biology metabolism endotherm ectotherm term paper. APA Style. 13 pages, 34 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15659. NUTRITIONAL NEEDS IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of nutritional needs and dietary concerns of patients with Parkinson's disease as well as an overview of potentially beneficial dietary therapies for PD patients. Concerns addressed include weight loss, L-dopa absorption problems and the need for protein intake modulation, and the association between specific dietary factors (e.g., antioxidants, B-vitamins, coffee, alcohol), and PD. KEYWORDS: parkinsons disease symptom management antecedents diet nutrition. APA Style. 12 pages, 33 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,093 words.   $84
 
15623. HEALTHY AGING: THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITION. This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of the critical role of nutrition and physical activity in the health and well-being of the elderly. The analysis examines the problem of malnutrition in the elderly and the relationship between health and nutrition in this population considers specific nutrient needs and concerns of the elderly; and presents dietary recommendations. The specific benefits of physical activity (in terms of disease prevention, health improvements, disability prevention, and improved mental status) are discussed and guidelines for elderly exercise programs presented. 9 pages, 28 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15611. PREDICTIVE GENETIC TESTING IS INHERENTLY UNETHICAL WITHIN THE EXISTING U.S. HEALTHCARE SYSTEM. This paper analyzes the ethically complex and controversial issue of predictive genetic testing. It will be argued that given the current conditions in the U.S. healthcare system, the use of predictive genetic testing is inherently unethical and should be prohibited because it may harm patients and result in injustices. It is argued that the benefits of genetic testing are grossly overstated (e.g., there are often no treatments available for genetic diseases) and that the risks, especially those related to breach of patient confidentiality, loss of insurance, and discrimination in employment, are grossly understated. It is maintained that barring the implementation of a system of universal healthcare, predictive genetic testing will remain an ethically unviable proposition. 18 pages, 26 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
15542. DEBATE OVER THE ORIGINS OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. In regard to the prehistoric decline of the Neanderthal and the rise of modern humans, this paper compares the "multi-regional" theory (modern man arose in various parts of the world) with the "Out of Africa" theory (modern man arose in a single location). Both sides of the debate are discussed, and it is noted that the issue remains unresolved because of a lack of conclusive evidence. 7 pages, 24 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
15486. NATURALISM IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF JOHN DEWEY. This paper discusses how Dewey's pragmatic, empirical worldview was influenced by the theories of Darwin, and by the idea that human beings are an integral part of the constantly-changing natural world. 9 pages, 30 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $63
 
15477. LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the long-term impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the ecology of Prince William Sound and the surrounding EVOS area. This essay focuses on those resources and concentrating on the waterfowl, fish and other marine life most affected by the spill and and their recovery or lack of recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The paper begins with a brief overview of the short-term/immediate impact of the spill on the biological resources of the region and then turns to a look at the longer-term impact as it can be assessed more than ten years after the spill. Included is a consideration of the controversies surrounding measurement of the degree of recovery and the specific impact of the spill on various species. KEYWORDS: exxon valdez oil spill term paper environmental consequences pollution ecology alaska. APA Style. 14 pages, 56 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
15437. GENETICS AND CRIME. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversial theory that criminal behavior has genetic roots, considering the reasons why biological and and genetic in particular and theories of crime causation are so controversial, examining the central tenets of the theory, and considering the evidence supporting the theory based on family, twin, adoption, and gene-environment interaction studies. 12 pages, 41 footnotes, 23 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15126. BIOETHICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY. Explores the ethical and social problems involved in the exploitation of flora and fauna for medicine, foodstuffs and other products. Argues that biotechnology is motivated to protect rain forests and wildlife, and may help preserve indigenous peoples in passing. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $42
 
15031. THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM. A paper on how the nervous system affects human thoughts and actions, with special reference to a study regarding how it is able to "memorize" the steps in limb movement. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $42
 
14041. THE FLORIDA MANATEE. This termpaper provides an overview and analysis of the Florida manatee (West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus). The research paper begins with a description of the manatee (its scientific classification, physiological characteristics, behavior, etc.) and a discussion of the mammal’s life-span, mortality and reproductive cycle. Another section of the paper discusses the manatee’s population demography, distribution and habitat use patterns in Florida. The concluding essay examines the Florida manatee’s status as an endangered species, examining data on manatee mortality and the causes and efforts taken to ensure manatee recovery and survival. KEYWORDS: manatee florida endangered species term paper. 20 pages, 50 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources. 5,266 words.   $133
 
13972. BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF RAPE. This research paper, which provides an overview and analysis of rape and rapists, utilizes a review of recent scholarly literature to test the hypothesis that rape has a genetic/biological basis. The paper focuses on the rapist and on rape behavior versus the rape victim and the consequences of rape. Included is an analysis and discussion of alternative hypotheses explaining the etiology of rape, such as psychological, personality, environmental and cultural causes as well as an overview of the varieties of rape. The essay concludes that rapists are a heterogeneous group and that while genetic/biological factors constitute a contributory factor in certain rape subcategories, the etiology of rape can best be conceptualized within a multi-factorial model which considers the varying contributions of biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. KEYWORDS: rape rapists sex offenders causes biology term paper. APA Style. 54 pages, 169 footnotes, 60 bibliographic sources. 14,550 words.   $133
 
13921. VITAMINS: MYTHS AND REALITIES. A brief overview of the importance of vitamins in maintaining human health and nutrition. Discusses the role of specific vitamins (A, Bs, C, D, E, K) differentiates between fat- and water-soluble vitamins, and discusses the pros and cons of using supplements. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
13849. THE ETHICS OF HUMAN CLONING. Focusing on the recent developments in genetic engineering and cloning, this paper considers the ethics of cloning human beings. Following a brief background discussion of human cloning and genetic engineering, the essay considers the arguments for and against human cloning. The paper concludes that human cloning is ethically unacceptable. KEYWORDS: human cloning ethics term paper genetic engineering argumentative essay. MLA Style. 9 pages, 19 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,609 words.   $63
 
13730. TWO FIGURES IN MODERN SCIENCE: GALILEO AND DARWIN. Compares and contrasts the life work and scientific approaches of Galileo and Darwin, to see how the two men viewed the basic problems of scientific method, construction of theory, and the application of evidence to new hypotheses. Argues that both scientists achieved revolutionary breakthroughs because they were willing to look objectively at large and complex bodies of evidence. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13581. THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT. A paper on the international effort to map and sequence the entire structure of human DNA. Both the potential benefits of the project, and its ethical, legal and social implications, are discussed. 11 pages, 31 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13531. SEX DIFFERENCES IN NEUROANATOMY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the contemporary scientific literature on sex differences in neuroanatomy. Following a discussion of some of the central methodological problems and issues which have made the resolution of this controversy more difficult, the analysis surveys recent research on sexual dimorphism in neuroanatomy, considering the evidence from studies on structural differences in parts of the brain; gender and cognition; hormonal influences; sexual differences in brain development and brain aging; and sexual differences in brain-based psychopathologies. KEYWORDS: male female brain biological psychological differences. APA Style. 13 pages, 41 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
13489. COLOR VISION. This paper covers the importance of color to human life, theories on how the eye perceives colors, the causes of color blindness, the effects of color on body and behavior, and areas where further research is needed. 12 pages, 29 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
13403. THE HISTORY OF WINE. Traces the history of wine production and consumption from earliest times to the present day. Includes the development of wine in France, Italy, Germany, and America, and covers such topics as the 19th century blight and the impact of Prohibition. 11 pages, 45 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13392. VIRUSES AS A CAUSE OF CANCER. This paper provides an overview of analysis of the viral etiology of human cancer. Following a brief introduction to cancer, the analysis profiles the known and suspected links between specific viruses and cancer, considers the biological mechanisms of viral action in cancer, and discusses recent research on the links between viruses and cancer. KEYWORDS: cancer etiology viruses research paper. APA Style. 11 pages, 52 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13363. ANIMAL PLAY. An overview and analysis of the phenomenon of “play” observed in documented across a broad spectrum of birds and mammals. Defines animal play and the controversy surrounding the construct, describes the various categories of play, considers variations in play behavior across the life span and between sexes, and examines theories of the function and/or purpose of animal play. Keywords: animal play behavior term paper. 15 pages, 45 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13226. THE NATURE-NURTURE CONTROVERSY AND HUMAN INTELLIGENCE. This report presents an overview and critical analysis of the nature-nurture controversy over human intelligence. Following an overview of the historical background to this controversy and the initial explorations of human intelligence, the basic positions and evidence supporting each side of the debate are considered. Concludes that human intelligence has a strong genetic basis, yet is nevertheless susceptible to environmental influences, particularly at an early age. 15 pages, 46 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
13068. KOALAS AS A POTENTIALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES. This paper provides a scientific description of the koala and then argues that the species is vulnerable because of such problems as destruction of natural habitat, stress and disease, and a slow breeding rate. Describes the work of organizations devoted to protecting the koala, and argues that the Australian government should make a nationwide effort to protect it. 14 pages, 62 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13060. THE ECOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON IN RELATION TO THE COLORADO RIVER FLOW REGIME. Discussion and analysis of the environmental forces governing the plan and animal life forms of the Grand Canyon with emphasis on the relationship to the Colorado River flow in both the pre- and post-dam era. Considers physical processes of the river flow, vegetation, aquatic animal life, terrestrial animal life, and birds. Concludes with a discussion of flood management and the future of the biota of the Canyon. 20 pages, 54 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13015. SPORT FISHING IN LOUISIANA. Describes the popularity of this activity in the state, as well as the many varieties of saltwater and freshwater fish that are available there. Includes a discussion of catfish, and notes recent controversies between recreational and commercial fishing interests. 11 pages, 48 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
12586. ASPECTS OF COTTON PLANT HOST-PARASITE INTERACTIONS. Discusses and analyzes selected aspects of host-parasite interactions involving insect parasites and cotton host plants. Presents a model of the host-parasite interaction in plants, reviews cotton parasites, looks at the host-parasite interface, and reviews the role of genetic selection and biological control as a method for influencing the relationship. 8 pages, 31 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
12574. THE K-T BOUNDARY EVENT AND MASS EXTINCTION. Provides an overview and analysis of the K-T boundary event, focusing on recent evidence which helps to clarify the cause(s) of the K-T mass extinctions. While the bulk of the analysis focuses on the scientific evidence lending support to and/or calling into question the veracity of the Alvarez impact hypothesis, the investigation also considers and summarizes the other major theories seeking to explain the extinctions. 20 pages, 59 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12534. "LITTLE LAMB, WHO MADE THEE?" Analysis of 1997 Newsweek article on the first successful cloning of a sheep, a scientific development with ethical, economic, political, and legal implications. The article is found to be informative, especially in its use of analogy to explain the topic. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
12534B. "THE AGE OF CLONING." Analysis of the 1997 Time article on the economic, educational, and legal implications of new cloning technologies. The article is found to be informative and well-rounded and it concludes with an optimistic view on the future of cloning. 5 pages, 22 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
12527. ARISTOTLE IN THE HISTORY OF BIOLOGY. Examines the role of the Greek philosopher in the development of natural philosophy, scientific method, observation and collection of species. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
12378. THE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF BIOTECHNOLOGY. The paper argues that factors such as proximity to university facilities, existing high-tech industry and a well-educated workforce are the reasons why biotechnology firms tend to cluster in a few metropolitan areas such as Boston, San Diego and San Francisco. 5p. 14f. 8p..   $35
 
12352. THE IMPORTANCE OF BEES TO HUMAN LIFE. Discusses the different types of bees and their way of life, as well as covering the history of the development of innovations in beekeeping. Also considers the benefits of honey and other products, and contrasts these with such threats as stings and killer bees. In addition, the paper describes the recent decline in the domestic bee population and the search for solutions to this problem. 11 pages, 45 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
12285. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF AMNESIA. Reviews research (experimental and case investigations) on the physiological basis, anatomical correlates, and behaviors associated with non-psychogenic amnesia. Defines anterograde versus retrograde amnesia, discussing their relationship and their differences. Traces recent trends and significant findings in 24 neuropsychological research studies. 15 pages, 42 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
12281. CATFISH FARMING. The economic geographic of catfish aquaculture is examined. Warm climate, water supply and cheap labor are found to be the reasons the industry is concentrated in the Mississippi Delta Region. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
12271. THE PROS AND CONS OF AQUACULTURE. Provides an overview of the pros and cons of modern aquaculture methodologies so that its application may meet the expectations of those who view it as an important element in the solution to the world's growing food scarcity problems. Traces the current state of the industry, examining both its potential and its problems, drawing on examples of its applications to specific fish species such as the Pacific salmon. A concluding analysis provides an assessment of the future directions and needs in modern aquaculture. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
11977. THE EXTINCTION OF THE DINOSAURS. This investigation examines two contemporary theories which are widely held to be the most plausible explanations of the disappearance of the dinosaurs: 1) the "impact theory" which holds that a cataclysmic extraterrestrial event (collision of an asteroid or meteor with the earth) caused changes leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs; and 2) the "volcanism" theory which holds that volcanic activity (both the eruption of volcanoes and the sudden quiescence of eruptions) holds the key to mass extinctions. The concluding section offers an opinion about which theory best explains the extinction of the dinosaurs. 13 pages, 39 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
11975. THE EXTINCTION AND RE-INTRODUCTION OF THE RED WOLF. Emphasizes the controversy regarding whether the red wolf is a true species (and thus entitled to protection as an endangered species) or if it is merely a hybrid of the gray wolf and coyote. Argues that endangered hybrids are also worth protecting. 12 pages, 33 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11960. DEEP SEA HYDROTHERMAL VENTS. This paper presents an overview of hydrothermal vent systems, also know as mid-ocean vents. Following a brief history of their discovery, known locations, and presumed geological purpose, the analysis profiles the vent systems. Particular attention is devoted to the unusual nature of the biological communities in vent systems and the possible implications related to photosynthesis and the origins of life on earth. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11925. EVOLUTION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR. A brief overview of evolutionary psychology, one of the most rapidly developing and controversial subdisciplines within the field of evolutionary biology. Following an overview of the history of its development, and a discussion of the major assumptions of the discipline, the analysis briefly considers major areas of application. 6 pages, 26 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
11894. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA AS A GENETIC MARKER. Discusses the mitochondria's role in creating protein and energy. Covers evolutionary theories based upon DNA hereditary linkages and diseases linked to mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
11584. THE AMERICAN WHITE ELM. Thorough botanical and environmental/historical summary of Ulmas americana Linneaeus, including description and habitat, native or exotic, other symbiotic species, Dutch elm disease, and cultural/historical role as a favorite American tree. 10 pages, 35 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11573. THE RETURN OF WOLVES TO YELLOWSTONE. Considers the Yellowstone wolf controversy from a conflict management perspective. The main parties (ranchers, environmentalists, federal government) and their positions on the issue are analyzed, along with the substance of the problem itself, the procedures used for conflict management, and the prospects for conflict resolution. 12 pages, 27 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
11500. WHAT IS SOCIOBOLOGY? Provocative review of an article by Sociobiology founder E.O. Wilson. Criticizes Wilson's ability to explain his theory, contrasts his basic thrust that human behavior is genetically determined with his many apologies that the details of culture cannot be genetically determined. Attempts to apply his abstract pronouncements to concrete examples of animal and human behavior show that Wilson cannot say anything meaningful to add to the existing discussions on human ethics, meanings and motivations. 8p. Notes in Text, 1b.   $56
 
11438. SHELLFISH AND DISEASE. An overview of diseases in humans which can be traced to the consumption or handling of shellfish. Focuses on shellfish-related diseases commonly found in North America. Reviews the major diseases, causal factors, and examines strategies and steps for disease prevention. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
11312. SPERM - EGG INTERACTION. Detailed discussion of composition of sperm and fertilization process. Research literature is surveyed and implications of research for facilitating fertility or in vitro procedures are discussed. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11105. "SPLIT BRAIN" PATIENTS. Considers major issues and controversies in the fields of neurology and psychology involving human split brain operations, including practical aspects on human cerebral functioning with severed hemispheres, the respective functions of the right and left hemispheres, the psychiatric consequences, and the controversy concerning possible unifying structures within the human split brain. 13p, 22f., 14b.   $91
 
10524. PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS. Good general discussion of the importance of proteins and amino acids in biochemical processes. The scientific search for the nutritive element in food, for the genetic mechanisms for DNA's replication, and for new medical and health applications of proteins and amino acids is described. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
10369. EVOLUTION AND CREATIONISM: DARWIN VS. THE BIBLE. Compares Darwin's "Origin of Species" and the Biblical account of creation in book of Genesis. The theory of evolution is described and the attacks from advocates of "creation science" are noted. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
10194. GENETIC CAUSES OF DEPRESSION AND SCHIZOPHRENIA. Review of genetic causes of both depression and schizophrenia. Report demonstrates that substantive evidence exists linking familial genetics to both problems. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
09733. SUFIISM AND ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION. Defines, considers the origins, traces the evolution, and profiles some of the classical teachers of Sufi mysticism. Also briefly considers Sufiism in the West. 11 pages, 19 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
09480. VITICULTURE IN OREGON'S WILLAMETTE VALLEY. Analyzes location, environmental characteristics, predominant grapes and wines, history, and major producers in the area. Also considers the local industry from the perspective of national and global viticulture. 9 pages, 28 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
09408. THE NEW EVOLUTIONARY TIMETABLE: FOSSILS, GENES, AND THE ORIGIN OF THE SPECIES BY STEVEN STANLEY. Review and analysis of this book which argues in favor of a "punctuational" view of evolution versus Darwin's "gradualistic" view. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
09389. VENUS FLYTRAP. Considers the origin, structure, and eating habits of this carnivorous plant. Includes a discussion of the myths and folklore associated with the plant. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
08973. IS GENETIC ENGINEERING ETHICALLY PERMISSIBLE? After a review of the arguments for and against genetic engineering, this essay concludes that while the science of genetic engineering holds many promises for improvements in agricultural productivity and disease control, it nevertheless presents a serious threat to individual freedoms and rights of privacy. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
08737. STERNBERG ON HUMAN MEMORY PROCESSING. This paper critically examines Saul Sternberg’s theories on human memory and processing of information, focusing in particularly on Sternberg’s argument that retrieval from short-term memory was serial and exhaustive. Explains how Sternberg arrived at this conclusion and considers criticisms of his model. 9 pages, 19 footnotes in text, 13 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
08472. LIGHT-EMITTING ANIMALS. Examines the varieties of light-emitting animals, from the standpoint of the function and method of luminescence, and considers the different means whereby evolution favors creatures with this adaptive mechanism. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
08416. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT. Following a brief explanation of the components of the greenhouse effect, this paper considers pertinent environmental questions and scientific controversy surrounding the effect. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
08251. CHOCOLATE. An overview of the problems Third World cocoa producing nations face. Environmental problems, internal political and economic problems, external political and economic problems are assessed. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
08107. THE GENETICS OF THE JEWS BY A. E. MOURANT. Review of this work by an English geneticist and serologist who used both disciplines to trace Jewish population groups in Europe, Asia and Africa. Supports the argument that Jews have maintained a relative uniform genetic identity. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
07724. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHIMPANZEES. An observational account of a group of chimpanzees enclosed in an aboreal setting in a city zoo. Behavioral patterns of chimp communication, aggression, play, and food-seeking are observed. 7p.   $49
 
07401. LOREN EISELEY'S "THE IMMENSE JOURNEY". Answers two questions in personal perspective: what is valuable in the book to you, and how does evolution theory help you as a social scientist to understand human behavior? The major value of the book is in skillfully blending fact and philosophy, showing that science and human values flow together. By exploring some of the mysteries of human evolution, such as its relative swift speed and the appearance and extinction of highly-developed forms of man, Eiseley accentuates man's dependence on his fellow man and forces us to admit that we don't yet have all the answers as to why man is the way he is. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
07393. COMPUTERS IN BIOLOGY. Basic but not technical review of computer applications in the biological sciences; computer-controlled genetic engineering procedures, computer simulation of organ functions, diagnostic applications. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
07310. SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCES OF PLANTS ON HUMANS. Brief analysis of five significant influences of plants on human affairs in the last 2500 years: traditional cereal cultures based on wheat and rice allowing traditional civilizations; spices and sugar as motives for European colonization; cotton as a stimulus to early Industrial Revolution; development of modern farming in Europe and America (corn and root crops fed to animals) allowing population growth and mass urbanization; industrial crops such as rubber and oil palm furthering industrialization. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
07309. FIVE WAYS PLANTS HAVE INFLUENCED HUMAN AFFAIRS. Discusses five major ways that plants have influenced human life in the last 2500 years: wheat-based European culture, rice-based Asian culture, luxury crops such as coffee, tea and tobacco stimulating world trade and symbolizing man's psychological dependence on plants, new plants such as maize and potatoes allowing population growth in early modern Europe, and rise of industrialized farming since McCormick's mechanical wheat harvester in 1850s. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
07093. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE. Complete, detailed yet flowing narrative covering the evolution of life from the prebiotic soup to the appearance of man: the various one-celled animals, the development of the body cavity in higher animals, plants, and the terrestrial vertebrates. 21 pages, 39 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
07092. DARWIN AND THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION. Overview of the development of evolutionary theory from 18th Century to present. Includes predecessors of Darwin, Darwin's contribution, genetics from Mendel to Crick and Watson, modern understanding of how species are formed: allopatric, sympatric and parapatric models of speciation. 8 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
07086. POPULATION AND MIGRATION DYNAMICS OF THE LOCUST. Overview of the locust: actually a relative of the grasshopper that changes from a solitary form to a swarming, incredibly destructive horde. Focuses on the desert locust of the old world world, also various form of new world locusts and grasshoppers. Life cycle and habits of the locust, economic damages and control methods. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
07056. ENDORPHINS: THE BRAIN'S NATURAL OPIATE. Full review of the medical studies on endorphins, the types of peptides found in the brain which act as neurotransmitters and hormones, and are generally thought to be the body's natural pain killer, 1000 times more effective than morphine. Includes evidence linking endorphins to the effectiveness of acupuncture, also notes the cautions of some researchers. 8 pages, 11 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
07055. NERVE GROWTH FACTOR. Actually, a comprehensive review of medical research on the development of the central nervous system and the brain during pregnancy, using medical vocabulary. Covers from the 8 stages of embryological development of the brain common to all vertebrates, to the mysteries and confusions arising when the brain's 100 billion nerve cells (give or take a factor of 10) try to understand the electro-chemical channels these cells are using to create this ability for understanding. 17p. Notes in text. 13b. Quoted, another 36b. Supplemental reading list.   $119
 
07022. SDRS AND WORLD TRADE. Good broad overview of the SDR, the new unit of international paper money. Includes history of the SDR and the currency problems of the 1960s; the creation of SDR by the IMF and distribution; SDRs as a unit of exchange; SDRs as a unit of measurement; whether SDRs could or should be created to stimulate trade in the Third World. 15 pages, 25 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
06711. THE DATE PALM. che cultivation and history of the fruit-bearing date palm Phoenix Dactylifera is examined in this study, with a look at the mythology, geography and historical importance of the date palm for the Mesopotamian and Egyptian ancient civilizations. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
06708. THE HONEY BEE. A solid short study of the honey bee, looking at its social organization, sexual division of labor, and manufacture of honey and wax cells. The reproductive instincts are seen as the key to the honey bee's success. 4 pages, 6 footnots, 2 biblographic sources.   $28
 
06707. MUSCLE CONTRACTION. An excellent study of neurological, biochemical and mechanical process involved in muscle action; the report introduces the sliding-filament theory of striated muscle contraction, with illustrations and detailed experimental data included. 8 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
06704. THE CEDARS OF LEBANON. The cultural and historical background of the cedrus libani are examined, and the chief botanical features of this Near Eastern tree are described. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
06695. LEARNING AND MEMORY. A through analysis of the physiological basis of learning and memory processes. Includes a review of the history of neurological research, a look at the neurostructural elements and the anatomy of the nervous system, and a summary of the neurochemical processes and their effects on long and short-term memory. 30 pages, 34 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
06582. VITAMIN E: ITS FUNCTIONS AND FALLACIES. A good discussion of the facts and fallacies surrounding the use of Vitamin E as a dietary supplement; looks at the sources of Vitamin E, the functions in the human body, and the claims made for it; Vitamin E deficiency is seen as almost unknown. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
06581. SOIL MICROORGANISM. The role of soil microorganism in cycling chemical elements essential for life and the soil system is reviewed. The interaction of microorganisms with the microenvironment of the soil and its nutrients is given a through chemical analysis. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
06580. THE FOREST BY ROGER CARAS. A review of an environmentalist's study of the interdependency of the forest ecology at many levels; the "web of exchange" concept is noted in particular. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
06578. THE BEAVER. An interesting study of the habitat, behavior and prospects for the future of the North American beaver. The uniques dams and lodges of Castor Canadensis are noted. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
06577. OPIUM: ITS HISTORY, CULTIVATION AND USE. A well-organized short report on the history of the opium popoy and its derivative substances. Covers the contemporary geographical growing regions, the distribution and marketing of the substances, and legal and illegal uses of opium, morphine, codeine, and heroin. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
1  2  next  


Copyright 1998-2013 Berkeley Research

Associate Term Paper Sites:
  • Academic Research Papers
  • Academic-Research-Papers
  • Research Central
  • Term Paper Assistance