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23C. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

How to interpret the catalog entries:
  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
 
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19372. OCEAN ACIDIFICATION. This brief paper provides an overview of the problem of ocean acidification and its relationship to climate change, greenhouse gases, atmospheric pollution, and global warming, including rising sea temperatures. APA Style. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources, 1,330 words.
TAGS: climate change, ocean acidification, sea temperatures, global warming, atmospheric pollution, carbon emissions, coral reefs, ocean life.
  $35
 
19256. LEVI STRAUSS AND CO.: DRIVING ADOPTION OF GREEN CHEMISTRY ELEPHANT UC BERKELEY HAAS SCHOOL OF BUSINESS CASE STUDY B5867 SOLUTION. NEW, FALL 2016. This paper provides a case study analysis and solution to a University of California Berkeley Haas School of Business operations management case study by Robert Strand and Martin Mulvhill on iconic apparel maker Levi Strauss. The case focuses on Levi Strauss’s efforts to establish a cross-industry sustainability initiative to eliminate hazardous chemicals and environmentally damaging processes in the apparel supply chain. The case study analysis includes problem identification, analysis, discussion of alternatives and recommendations. APA Style, 12 pages, 9 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: Levi Strauss & Company case study, green business, supply chain, hazardous chemicals, apparel industry, sustainability, social responsibility, manufacturing

  $84
 
19200. THE ETHANOL COMMODITY MARKET. This paper provides an overview an analysis of the market for the biofuel ethanol, considering supply, demand, price, exporting, importing and recent developments with an emphasis on the period from early 2007 through early 2010. The analysis discusses in detail the position of the two largest producer/suppliers – the United States and Brazil – and looks at factors affecting demand in these countries and the rest of the world. The essay identifies and discusses the factors affecting price volatility in the ethanol market and looks at the controversy over the use of food crops to produce biofuel versus food. The research paper concludes that despite recent setbacks in production and demand, advances in technology and predictions of a rebound in the market makes fuel ethanol a worthy commodity for consideration by investors. It is recommended that foreign investors should look towards Brazil, the major exporter of fuel ethanol. APA Style. 16 pages, 27 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 3,640 words.

TAGS: ethanol, biofuel, renewable energy, energy markets, commodities, alternative energy, energy pricing, supply and demand

  $112
 
19152. PLUGGING IN THE CONSUMER: THE ADOPTION OF ELECTRICALLY POWERED VEHICLES IN THE U.S. HARVARD BUSINESS CASE STUDY 510076 SOLUTION. This paper provides a Berkeley Research analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business marketing case study by Elle Ofek and Polly Ross Ribatt on consumer responses to the development of electrically-powered vehicles. The case focuses on the challenges in marketing electric cars and the role of government and policymakers in encouraging development in alternative vehicles. The case analysis includes problem identification, problem analysis, assessment of alternatives, and recommendations. APA Style. 12 pages, 9 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.
About Berkeley Research Case Solutions: Berkeley Research has offered authoritative case solutions to Harvard Business School case studies since 1984. We also feature solutions to case studies from other leading graduate business schools including Stanford, Darden, Wharton and Ivey. Our case solutions feature in-depth analysis drawing on appropriate analytical tools including S.W.O.T., P.E.S.T. and Five Forces analyses, and include secondary references from scholarly journals and leading business periodicals. We do not offer student-written essays; all of our case solutions are professionally written by MBA and DBA –degreed writers with proven aptitude and long experience in writing insightful case solutions. Unlike other case solutions made available on the Internet without competent evaluation of their merits, Berkeley Research case solutions are peer reviewed by a panel of case analysts prior to being offered on our website. The strongest and most gratifying endorsement of the quality of our case solutions comes from our customers: over two-thirds of our case study sales are made to repeat customers, graduate students and executives enrolled in some of the most distinguished and selective graduate business programs, and who necessarily set a high bar for analytical rigor and expository clarity. The Berkeley Research case study solution is a premium product intended for a discerning audience.

TAGS: Harvard business case solution, marketing strategy, automobile industry, alternative-fuel vehicles, electric cars, fuel cells, green marketing, environmentalism, energy, business and government relations.

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18735. THE BROWN TREE SNAKE. This paper discusses the biology of the brown tree snake and its status as an “invasive” species, capable of causing extreme ecological and economic damage. The accidental introduction of the species to Guam in the late 1940s resulted in the destruction of the local habitat. Since the 1980s, there has been growing concern about a possible invasion of the brown tree snake in Hawaii. The paper includes a discussion of the efforts that are being made to prevent this from happening. KEYWORDS: invasive species snakes environment Guam Hawaii. Science Style. 12 pages, 54 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 3,211 words.   $84
 
18685. INTERFACE, INC. AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BUSINESS. This paper is concerned with Interface, Inc., a global carpet manufacturer, and its efforts to achieve sustainability and minimize its impact on the environment. The company’s founder, Ray C. Anderson, has been a vital figure in this effort. Anderson was influenced by Paul Hawkins’ book The Ecology of Commerce, as well as consumer demands, to initiate a sustainability program at the company. The effort has been successful in setting an example for other companies to follow. The paper includes a discussion of the global impacts of Interface’s sustainability program, as well as the use of Internet technologies as part of the effort. KEYWORDS: business leadership environment sustainability program. APA Style. 9 pages, 25 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,009 words.   $63
 
18542. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY. This paper argues that there is need for a sound geothermal policy in the United States. Although there are disadvantages as well as advantages to the use of geothermal energy, it provides a feasible alternative to America’s over-reliance on fossil fuels and nuclear power. KEYWORDS: energy policy alternatives geothermal solar wind environmentalism. APA Style. 8 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,946 words.   $56
 
18512. THE THREAT OF GLOBAL WARMING. This paper discusses the need to address the problem of global warming. It starts by describing the scientific evidence that global warming exists, has damaging impacts, and is caused by human activity. It then considers views on the extent to which the problem can be reversed. It is argued that there is a need for cooperative action on various levels, as well as the use of a market-based approach combined with a certain degree of government intervention. KEYWORDS: science environment global warming climate change. APA Style. 18 pages, 51 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 4,171 words.   $126
 
18496. WAL-MART’S SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGY STANFORD UNIVERSITY BUSINESS CASE STUDY 9-OIT-71. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case solution to a popular Stanford University case study (available via the Harvard Business case study website as product #9-OIT-71) by Erica Plambeck and Lyn Denend concerning Wal-Mart’s business sustainability strategy (launched in 2005) to dramatically reduce the company’s impact on the global environment. The paper includes problem identification, discussion of key issues, problem analysis with SWOT, discussion of alternatives, and recommendations. KEYWORDS: walmart wal-mart sustainability strategy case study case solution environmental impact sustainable environment supply chain management external stakeholders environmental protection corporate social responsibility strategy implementation green labor problems. APA Style. 15 pages, 19 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 4,200 words.   $105
 
18377. ADAPTING TO CLIMATE CHANGE: THE CASE OF SUNCOR ENERGY AND THE ALBERTA OIL SANDS IVEY BUSINESS CASE STUDY 908M73. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case solution to an Ivey School of Business case study (available as 908M73 on the Harvard Business School website) by Pratima Bansal and Jijun Gao on Canadian-based Suncor Energy. The case focuses on Suncor CEO’s deliberations about making a large investment in reducing greenhouse gases. The paper includes problem statement, problem analysis with SWOT, identification and assessment of alternatives, recommendations and implementation plan. KEYWORDS: case studies case solution energy industry petroleum extraction global warming greenhouse gases tradeoff analysis business strategy and public policy. APA Style. 11 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
18354. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND BP HARVARD BUSINESS CASE STUDY 708026. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School competitive strategy case study on British Petroleum (BP) by Forest Reinhardt. The time setting for the case study is 2007 following the sudden resignation of CEO Sir John Browne, who had broke with his colleagues and publicly declared that global climate was a serious problem. The case focuses on how new CEO Tony Hayward will (or will not) integrate global climate change into BP’s corporate strategy. The paper includes problem statement, problem analysis with SWOT, identification and assessment of alternatives, recommendations, and implementation. KEYWORDS: case studies case solution BP energy resources global climate change energy conservation social responsibility corporate strategy business and government carbon trading APA Style. 12 pages, 19 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 3,716 words.
About Berkeley Research Case Solutions: Berkeley Research has offered authoritative case solutions to Harvard Business School case studies since 1984. We also feature solutions to case studies from other leading graduate business schools including Stanford, Darden, Wharton and Ivey. Our case solutions feature in-depth analysis drawing on appropriate analytical tools including S.W.O.T., P.E.S.T. and Five Forces analyses, and include secondary references from scholarly journals and leading business periodicals. We do not offer student-written essays; all of our case solutions are professionally written by MBA and DBA –degreed writers with proven aptitude and long experience in writing insightful case solutions. Unlike other case solutions made available on the Internet without competent evaluation of their merits, Berkeley Research case solutions are peer reviewed by a panel of case analysts prior to being offered on our website. The strongest and most gratifying endorsement of the quality of our case solutions comes from our customers: over two-thirds of our case study sales are made to repeat customers, graduate students and executives enrolled in some of the most distinguished and selective graduate business programs, and who necessarily set a high bar for analytical rigor and expository clarity. The Berkeley Research case study solution is a premium product intended for a discerning audience.
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18310. METHODOLOGIES FOR A STUDY OF NATURE DEFICIT DISORDER. This paper discusses the kinds of methodologies that could be used to research the concept of “nature deficit disorder” and provide evidence to support its existence. The nature deficit disorder hypothesis, introduced by Richard Louv in his book Last Child in the Woods, claims that alienation from nature has negative health consequences for children. The paper describes the need for obtaining both quantitative and qualitative data, identifies the key variables that should be studied, emphasizes the value of multiple methods, and notes the importance of considering alternative solutions. KEYWORDS: environment nature child development research methods. MLA Style. 21 pages, 35 footnotes in text, 17 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
18113. GLOBAL WARMING: A TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH TO A SOLUTION. This paper is concerned with a 2006 Science News article that describes a possible technological approach to solving the problem of global warming. The approach calls for the use of a trillion tiny spacecraft, equipped with shades, which would orbit the sun and reduce the amount of light that the earth receives. It is argued that this approach is both impractical and wrong-headed. It is further argued that a better approach is to work to reduce industrial pollution, which prevents sunlight from being reflected back into space. KEYWORDS: science technology global warming. APA Style. 6 pages, 1 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,406 words.   $42
 
18086. THOMAS BERRY’S “NATURAL CAPITALISM”. This term paper discusses the concept of "natural capitalism," which is seen as a way to reconcile economic progress with the need to protect the environment and its resources. The paper agrees with Thomas Berry's view that there is a need for a certain kind of spiritual attitude in order for this attempt to be effective. Although he is a Catholic priest, Berry doesn't insist on a religious framework; rather, he argues for a "cosmological viewpoint," which merges scientific knowledge with a sense of awe. KEYWORDS: natural capitalism thomas berry cosmological viewpoint. MLA Style. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,673 words.   $77
 
18044. “MATERIAL CONCERNS” BY TIM JACKSON. This paper reviews Jackson's book on how to protect the environment without undermining the existing economic system. Jackson's proposed solutions include the use of "preventive environmental management" and a shift to a "service economy." The book also addresses the extreme challenges that will need to be faced in making the proposed changes. Yet, such changes are necessary because of the threat of industrial pollution to life on the planet. It is argued that Jackson's book makes an important contribution because it encourages dialogue on the issue and it provides insights into the material and psychological changes that will need to be made. KEYWORDS: book review environment economics management environment. MLA Style. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,707 words.   $49
 
17742. GLOBAL WARMING: EVIDENCE AND EFFECTS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of global warming. The paper begins with an overview of the global warming debate, outlining the major controversies over whether or not global warming is actually occurring as well as the debate about the role of human activities in causing global warming. International coordination on global warming research and policy-making is briefly profiled, including a discussion of the recent (18 November to 9 December 2005) United Nations Climate Change Conference in Montreal. The observed climate changes are placed in historical perspective. The evidence on global warming, and humans’ role in global warming is considered. Special attention is devoted to an examination of the predicted consequences of global warming for human health and food security. The concluding section summarizes the findings and argues that human-caused global warming is a real and present danger. KEYWORDS: global warming greenhouse effect 2005 unfcc cop 11 montreal kyoto protocol human health infectious disease severe weather events food supply climate change agriculture crops. 17 pages, 146 footnotes, 52 bibliographic sources. 5,261 words.   $119
 
17718. DWINDLING BIODIVERSITY IN THE TROPICAL RAINFORESTS: LIMITING ADVANCES IN PLANT-BASED MEDICINES This paper provides an overview and analysis of the environmental problem of tropical rainforest destruction and the associated loss of biodiversity in the context of the development of tropical plant-based medicines. The paper includes an overview of the problem of rainforest destruction (its scope and its causes), a discussion of existing and potential tropical rainforest plant-derived pharmaceuticals, and an overview of ethnobotany and efforts to develop the pharmaceutical potential of tropical rainforest plants. It is argued that while the loss of rainforest biodiversity will have the greatest immediate negative impact on the people of the forest, in the future, this loss of biodiversity will have a negative effect on the entire world population as scientists search for effective treatments for both old diseases and newly emerging diseases. It is further argued that focusing on the “services” that tropical rainforests can potentially provide, such as new sources of medicines, should be part of the overall strategy to save the world’s rainforests. At the same time, it is noted that such a strategy needs to be implemented carefully to avoid exploitation of the rainforests and further loss of biodiversity. KEYWORDS: rainforest botanicals plant-derived medicine ethnobotany biodiversity. APA Style. 9 pages, footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 2,092 words.   $63
 
17715. GLOBAL WARMING: IS NUCLEAR POWER PART OF THE SOLUTION? This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of global warming and considers whether or not nuclear power can be part of the solution to the problem. The paper begins with an overview of the problem of global warming. The analysis includes a definition of global warming, a discussion of its major aspects, a review of scientific evidence demonstrating the existence of the problem, and an overview of the likely consequences of global warming. The analysis then considers strategies and steps might be taken to begin to address the problem. The second part of the paper considers whether or not nuclear power could be part of the solution to the problem of global warming. The analysis considers the both the advantages of increased reliance on nuclear energy and the risks associated with nuclear power. KEYWORDS: global warming greenhouse gases carbon emissions nuclear power. APA Style. 17 pages, 54 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 4200 words.   $119
 
17605. MALARIA: A GLOBAL HEALTH PROBLEM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of malaria as a major health problem affecting many of the underdeveloped regions of sub-tropical Africa, Central America, South America, and Southeast Asia. Discusses the scope of the problem, describes the symptoms of the disease, its causes, and its treatment. Describes how the disease was eradicated in the developed world and then considers developing world prevention and eradication programs, including philanthropic efforts by Bill Gates and others. KEYWORDS: malaria infectious vector borne disease prevention eradication third world. MLA Style. 8 pages, 26 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,342 words. 16, 23c   $56
 
17584. OIL PRICES. This paper analyzes how oil prices are related to the law of supply and demand. While the law of supply and demand says that higher prices will decrease demand for a particular commodity and create an incentive for producers to increase their supplies, these rules have not applied to oil prices in the 2000s. Notable in 2005 was the fact that despite high oil prices, demand remained strong. The concluding section explores the possibilities/difficulties in developing alternative fuels. KEYWORDS: oil prices oil supply demand alternative fuel. MLA Style. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,667 words.   $49
 
17581. MARINE WHALE SANCTUARIES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of marine whale sanctuaries. Following a background discussion of the whale sanctuaries and how they work, the arguments for (mounted by environmentalists) and against (mounted by business interests) their existence are considered. Concludes that whale sanctuaries are far more beneficial than they are detrimental. KEYWORDS: whale sanctuaries marine life protection whale protection. MLA Style. 8 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,891 words.   $56
 
17485. BOOK REVIEW: THE MAKING OF GREEN KNOWLEDGE BY ANDREW JAMISON. This paper provides a largely favorable review of Jamison’s thorough and insightful examination of the environmental movement’s last thirty years. Considers Jamison’s point of view, his central thesis and major themes, and summarizes the main points of the book. Argues that it is the author’s personal involvement in the environmental movement, as well as his firsthand observations of environmental politics and activism in the US, Sweden and Denmark that give the book its weight. review environmentalist. MLA Style. KEYWORDS: green movement environmentalism history book 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,195 words.   $35
 
17460. URBAN FUTURES: TRANSPORTATION IN AN ERA OF FUEL SHORTAGES. This paper addresses how alternative transportation services and use systems might be structured in cities in the future after diminished fuel reserves and soaring fuel costs render reliance on personal fossil fuel-based cars unfeasible. The analysis proposes various alternative transportation systems to respond to the situation, examining problems and opportunities in their implementation, and looking at how reducing dependence on fossil-fuel based private vehicles would impact city planning and the structures of everyday life for the city’s residents. It is argued that a variety of transportation alternatives will need to be implemented to address the situation, including increased use of people-powered transportation methods such as bicycles, tricycles/pedicabs and walking; expansion of mass-transit focused on light rail and electric vehicles; and increased use of personal and public vehicles utilizing alternative fuels (electric, hydrogen fuel cell, etc.). In addition, it is recommended that city planners pursue policies of urban densification and implement incentives and infrastructure encouraging increased reliance on high-tech substitutes (e.g., telecommuting) to physical transportation. Keywords: urban planning fuel shortage gas prices transportation mass transit bicycles. 12 pages, 36 footnotes; 22 bibliographic sources. 2,928 words.   $84
 
17410. NATIONAL PARKS AND LAND MANAGEMENT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of America’s national parks and their system of land management and nature conservation. The paper traces the history the parks system from the founding of the first park in 1872, through the founding of the National Park Service in 1916, and to the continued expansion of the park system during the 20th century. The factors leading to the creation of the park system are identified and the evolving mission of the national park system described. The role that the national parks have had in protecting lands, forests, waterways, species and habitats are explored. Although this analysis focuses primarily on the history of the national parks, a concluding section briefly considers some of the contemporary challenges facing the national parks. KEYWORDS: National Parks, conservation, habitat protection, land management. 15 pages, 34 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,783 words.   $105
 
17372. THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS PROTECTED AREA: AN ASSESSMENT. This report provides an assessment of the Galapagos Island protected area. Following an overview of the ecology of the Galapagos and its status as a site of global scientific significance, the report profiles the approach taken towards protection and considers the strengths and weaknesses of the conservation measures. The principal threats to the Galapagos’ fragile ecology -- tourism, immigration and overpopulation, the fishing industry, invasive species, and others -- are discussed and analyzed. The concluding section provides a summary appraisal of the conservation efforts. KEYWORDS: Galapagos island ecology conservation ecotourism invasive species fishing. Harvard Style. 15 pages, 41 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,759 words.   $105
 
17349. DEALING WITH THE IMPACT OF THUNDERSTORMS AND LIGHTNING. This short study provides a descriptive overview of the natural processes involved in causing thunderstorms and lightning strikes and then focuses on the human activities that can help people deal with the impact of these phenomena. Based on a review of scholarly literature on thunderstorms and lightening, this study considers the hypothesis that certain human activities can help reduce the threats posed by severe thunderstorms and lightning strikes. Finds that although the basic concepts of protection during thunderstorms have long been established, there is still a need for further research on the most effective and accurate ways to predict thunderstorms. There is also a need for further study in the area of global warming and whether or not such warming is causing thunderstorms to be more frequent or severe. Includes an appendix illustrating the processes involved in thunderstorms. KEYWORDS: thunder lightning storms safeguards mitigation threats. 10 pages, 38 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,475 words.   $70
 
17186. EVOLUTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE REPORT CONTENT AND PRESENTATION STYLE. Taking the perspective of a climate change policy maker, this paper provides a critical commentary on the evolution of the presentation style and content of climate change science from the time of the IPCC’s Second Assessment Report (1995) to the December 2003 presentations to the UNFCCC’s Conference of the Parties (COP-9). Following a background discussion of the history and framework for the coordination of climate change science and policy, the evolution of the style and content of climate change science over the eight year period is examined. Keywords: climate change global warming international agreements climatology science. 12 pages; 42 footnotes; 34 bibliographic sources. 3,789 words.   $84
 
17178. PORTUGUESE SOLID WASTE RECYCLING: MARKET ENTRY STRATEGY. Taking the perspective of an American firm considering investment prospects in Portugal, this paper presents a S.W.O.T. (Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats) analysis of Portugal. Part 1 provides a general overview of the Portuguese market and business climate, focusing on general strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats from the perspective of the American investor. Specific high-potential areas for investment are identified and one area – solid waste recycling – is selected for further investigation. Part 2 provides a brief overview of the solid waste recycling market in Portugal. Drawing on the analysis from Parts 1 and 2, Part 3 presents a summary SWOT analysis for an American solid waste recycling firm planning on entering the Portuguese market. Keywords: Portugal country risk assessment investment solid waste industry recycling SWOT. 12 pages; 35 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources. 3,261 words.   $84
 
17161. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) FOR DECISION MAKING. This paper investigates and discusses the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for decision-making applications in the real world, including real estate development planning, agricultural development, environmental management, urban development, and public management. The existing and potential uses of GIS for decision making in watershed management, environmental protection, agricultural planning, agricultural/non-agricultural land allocation decisions, urban commercial development, and urban planning and management are described and discussed. Limitations and problems in GIS implementation and use within these contexts are also discussed. A concluding section looks at the future of GIS technologies and usages. 13 pages; 37 footnotes; 20 bibliographic sources. 3,586 words.   $91
 
17115. THE GREEN PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES. Traces the history, ideology and politics of the Green Party of the United States. Examines the Green Party's role as “spoiler” in the 2000 Presidential election and the 2002 mid-term elections. Contrasts the Green Party ideology with that of the Democrats and Republicans. Discusses factional splits within the Green Party and consider the future of the Greens in U.S. politics. Keywords: political parties Greens elections politics. 12 pages; 25 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 3,181 words.   $84
 
17112. DISEASE AND DEMOGRAPHY: WEST NILE VIRUS AND MALARIA IN THE U.S. This paper provides an anthropological overview of the arrival of West Nile Virus (WNV) and malaria in the United States, focusing on the Washington, D.C. area. The analysis describes the facts surrounding the arrival of these diseases; discusses the demographics; considers how they are spread and identifies people at risk in the area; reviews the efforts to stop the spread of the diseases; and makes suggestions on future actions aimed at controlling the diseases. Keywords: mosquitoes disease malaria West Nile US. 9 pages; 23 footnotes; 16 bibliographic sources. 2,401 words.   $63
 
17054. THE PROBLEM OF OVER-FISHING IN DEEP-SEA FISHERIES. This paper provides an economic analysis of the problem of over-fishing and attributes it to unlimited competition for a limited “common property” resources. Past efforts at regulation are noted, and it is argued that a private ownership solution is needed (for example, through the use of Individual Transferable Quotas) in order to create an incentive to conserve. Includes a graph. Keywords: fishing conservation resources sustainable fisheries. 7 pages, 28 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
17016. ANIMAL CAMOUFLAGE. This paper looks at the ways different animals disguise themselves to either hide from predators or to capture prey. Types of coloration, physiological mechanisms, and the importance of remaining motionless are discussed. Specific references are made to such animals as chameleons, octopus, and flounder, among others. Keywords: animal behavior predation camouflage. 6 pages; 17 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15926. COMPUTERS AND THE SCIENCE OF WEATHER FORECASTING. This paper describes how forecasts are made and how the use of computer models has developed over the years. Although computer-based forecasting has become increasingly sophisticated and accurate, there are still some areas in need of improvement, and such improvements can be expected with future developments in computer power and observation methods. 10 pages; 28 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15881. A RESPONSE TO LYNN WHITE'S 1967 ARTICLE, "THE HISTORICAL ROOTS OF OUR ECOLOGICAL CRISIS." This paper presents a critique of White’s article which argues that today’s ecological problems are largely due the Judeo-Christian world view. This paper agrees with some of his points, but disagrees with the view that there is an inherent connection between religious beliefs and the tendency to exploit nature. Rather, the problem is mainly due to the element of greed in human nature. 6 pages; 0 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
15869. LETTER TO THE SEVENTH GENERATION. This paper is constructed as a letter to the people of the year 2141, apologizing for the environmental mess left behind by the present generation. The causes of the environmental problems are described, as well as the obstacles faced in solving them, including the failure of political and corporate leadership and inertia among people in general. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
15864. U.S. POLICY ON GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS. This paper explores U.S. policies on greenhouse gas emissions. It is noted that industrial and corporate interests may have influenced the Bush Administration to reject the international agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, this action may have a positive impact in the long run by bringing the issue of global warming to the forefront of policy debate. This paper also discusses the growing local-level effort to reduce emissions, in spite of the failings of the federal government. KEYWORDS: climate change global warming greenhouse gas us policy international agreements. 13 pages; 25 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15844. THEODORE ROOSEVELT AND THE AMERICAN CONSERVATION MOVEMENT. This paper concerns the conservation efforts made by Theodore Roosevelt throughout his life and during his time as president. Although some of his efforts failed as a result of controversies, he made a great contribution overall to the American conservation movement. 14 pages; 59 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
15837. "REAL PRICE OF GAS." This paper presents a summary and a discussion of a report that was posted on the Website of the International Center for Technology Assessment. The report is concerned with the hidden, indirect costs involved in using fuel for running motor vehicles and internal combustion engines. Written 2003; 6 pages; 0 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source. 1,372 words.   $42
 
15833. THE SACRED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JUDAISM AND NATURE. This paper addresses the misconception that Judaism is somehow responsible for the environmental problems that exist today. Demonstrates that despite the fact that rabbis once tried to distance the faith from the nature-based values of paganism, there is a tradition of reverence for nature and its cyclical processes to be found in Judaism. The paper further argues that there is a need today for the faith to 'reclaim the feminine' and restore emphasis on the sacredness of nature. 11 pages; 26 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
15811. DEALING WITH THE PROBLEMS OF TRASH DISPOSAL AND THE OVERUSE OF LANDFILLS. Written in the first person, this paper considers various ideas for helping with the trash disposal problem, emphasizing the importance of the "3 Rs" (recycling, reusing and reducing). Includes suggestions for creating a web site on the issue, changing one's personal behaviors and habits, and encouraging others to participate in the effort. 6 pages; 8 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources. 1,785 words.   $42
 
15788. THE CHEETAH: FAST, AND ENDANGERED. This paper provides a brief profile of the current status of the world's cheetah population. Describes the great cats' current habitat, range, and total numbers; outlines their status as a threatened species, considering the specific threats to the population; considers the arguments for and against population recovery; and outlines steps that could be taken to preserve and/or revitalize the cheetah population. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
15712. BIOTERRORISM: BIOLOGICAL TERRORISM: ANTHRAX, SMALLPOX & MORE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the threat and reality of biological terrorism and/or biological warfare in 21st Century, post-September 11th America. The first part of the paper conducts an overview of the potential sources of a biological attack, looking at both state actors and non-state actors, and examining the barriers that these potential attackers would have to overcome in order to carry off a large-scale attack using biological agents. The second part provides an overview of what experts have identified as the five "critical biological agents" that might be used as biological weapons: plague, botulism, tularemia, anthrax and smallpox. TAGS: bioterrorism biological terrorist threats anthrax botulism poison disease terrorism suicide terrorism terrorist organizations. APA Style. 15 pages, 63 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 5,631 words.
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Defining Terrorism Research Paper
  $105
 
15697. ISRAEL'S WATER CRISIS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL CONFLICT. This paper provides a sociological perspective on Israel's current water crisis, examining the scope of the problem and focusing on the effect of Israel's water problem on it relations with Arab neighbors (most specifically the Arab neighbors within the Jordan River System basin - Syria, Lebanon, Jordan) and the Palestinians. The first section examines the overall importance of water to Israeli state building and survival; the next section provides an overview of the scope of Israel's water problem, examining major sources of water, current and projected demand levels, and the scope of the water quality problems and their causes. The final section focuses on water as a source of conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors and the Palestinians. KEYWORDS: water resources israel israeli palestinian conflict. APA Style. 16 pages, 42 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 5,567 words.   $112
 
15654. THE PROBLEM OF HUNGER IN ZIMBABWE. This paper reports on the progress (or lack thereof) made by Zimbabwe since the 1996 World Food Summit in the eradication of hunger; identifies the major obstacles an difficulties Zimbabwe faces in overcoming hunger; and summarizes proposed plans for improving the progress towards achieving the goal of reducing hunger. Zimbabwe's food security position is found to have deteriorated markedly since 1996. Although inclement weather plays a partial role in the current crisis, the major causes of Zimbabwe's food security problems are political and can be traced to Mugabe's land-reform programs, the recent "land invasions," and the mismanagement of the Zimbabwean economy. The AIDS epidemic is cited as a key factor in which must be addressed as part of longer-term efforts to solve the hunger crisis. 17 pages, 47 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
15633. MARKETING ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN-UP TO CHINA. This paper presents a market assessment/risk analysis and recommendation for the proposed Chinese market entry of a U.S.-based environmental firm, which markets pollution control products and services. The analysis begins with an overview of current political and economic conditions in China. The next section profiles the current market for environmental and pollution control services and products in China. Following this, the analysis considers some of the basic aspects - and risks - of doing business in China, including accounting practices, legal structure, available modes of entry, intellectual property rights, costs of doing business, cultural considerations, human resource management issues, and the general logistics of operating in China. A concluding section makes recommendation on entry. KEYWORDS: china market chinese marketing environmental clean-up pollution chinese environmental products market plan. 27 pages, 74 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 7,177 words.   $133
 
15630. WIND POWER: TODAY'S MOST PROMISING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current state and future potential of wind power as a source of energy throughout the world, with particular focus on the use of wind power in the United States. The investigation includes a review of the current state of the art in wind power technology, an overview of the size and scope of the current and potential wind power market, both globally and specifically in the U.S., and an examination of existing and potential barriers to wind power expansions. KEYWORDS: alternative energy wind power markets. 18 pages, 47 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $126
 
15546. CONTROVERSY OVER THE USE OF WATER IN THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN. This paper discusses the controversy over whether limited water resources in southwest Oregon should be used for irrigation of farmland or to protect endangered fish species. The diversion of water from farms resulted in great financial losses and protests in the year 2001, and it was later found that the diversion was based on erroneous scientific evidence. The paper concludes by arguing that there is a need for a solution based on compromise between the two sides. 10 pages, 36 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
15515. STATISTICAL DATA AND THE "ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE" CONTROVERSY. Discusses the hypothesis that low-income people and minorities are more likely to reside in areas that pose environmental risks. It is argued that the studies opposing this hypothesis are flawed and are based on generalizations and assumptions by contrast, the studies that support the hypothesis are based on stronger statistical evidence. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
15480. GLOBAL WARMING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: OUTLOOK AND POLICY RESPONSE. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the global warming problem as it is understood at the beginning of the 21st century. The paper begins with a definition and history of global warming. The next section surveys the literature on global warming trends over the past century, reviews the latest predictions on global warming over the next century, and summarizes the predicted consequences of such warming. The final section of the essay examines the domestic and international policy responses to the global warming problem. 20 pages, 71 footnotes, 36 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
15478. THE NICARAGUAN DRY CANAL PROPOSAL. Within the framework of a comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Panama Canal, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the proposed Nicaraguan "dry canal" project, considering the environmental, commercial, economic, and human development aspects of each. The analysis begins with an overview of the current and likely future role of the Panama Canal as a trans-Oceanic passage. Following this, the analysis describes the history and current scope of the Nicaraguan dry canal proposal, comparing its advantages and disadvantages (commercial, economic, environmental, human development) with that of the Panama Canal. KEYWORDS: canals oceanic passages nicaragua dry canal term paper. APA Style. 18 pages, 41 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references.   $126
 
15477. LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the long-term impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the ecology of Prince William Sound and the surrounding EVOS area. This essay focuses on those resources and concentrating on the waterfowl, fish and other marine life most affected by the spill and and their recovery or lack of recovery from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The paper begins with a brief overview of the short-term/immediate impact of the spill on the biological resources of the region and then turns to a look at the longer-term impact as it can be assessed more than ten years after the spill. Included is a consideration of the controversies surrounding measurement of the degree of recovery and the specific impact of the spill on various species. KEYWORDS: exxon valdez oil spill term paper environmental consequences pollution ecology alaska. APA Style. 14 pages, 56 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
15447. ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE AND THE HAZARDOUS WASTE TRADE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of trade in hazardous waste between industrialized nations and less developed countries. The analysis examines the Basel Convention through the lens of environmental justice by looking at issues of equity, justice and legal conflicts of trade and the environment. The analysis traces the history of toxic waste trading and the Basel Convention (providing specific case examples; examines the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of the Basel Convention; looks at the more recent debate on the amendment which would ban all hazardous waste trade between OECD and non-OECD nations; and considers the current scope of the problem in hazardous waste trade as illustrated by recent dumping cases. KEYWORDS: international environmental agreements hazardous wastes basel convention term paper. APA Style. 16 pages, 42 footnotes, 25 bibliographic references.   $112
 
15436. THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY CRISIS. Provides an overview and analysis of the California energy crisis. Considers the principal causes of the crisis, including botched deregulation, supply scarcity, market power of energy suppliers, rising demand and rapid population growth, and the failure to conserve. Examines the economic, political, and environmental impact of the crisis, looking at the effects both in California and in other regions. The concluding section makes recommendations for solving the current crisis and preventing a recurrence of the problem in the future. KEYWORDS: energy crisis electric power industry scandals pg&e california blackouts brownouts. 23 pages, 51 footnotes, 40 bibliographic references.   $133
 
15434. BAY AREA TRAFFIC CONGESTION: THE PROBLEM AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS. This investigation looks at the problem of traffic congestion in the San Francisco Bay Area and then considers possible solutions to address the gridlock problem. The first section provides an overview of the scope, magnitude, and causes of the Bay Area gridlock problem. The second section focuses on "solutions" to the problem, first reviewing the more "traditional" solutions encompassed within the current Bay Area transportation plan, and then looking closely at two non-traditional solutions and congestion pricing and telecommuting. It is recommended that congestion pricing be implemented on the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and that telecommuting programs focus on high-tech industries in Silicon Valley and Southern Alameda counties. The parameters of the recommended programs along with their potential risks and barriers to implementation are discussed. 20 pages, 91 footnotes, 34 bibliographic references.   $133
 
15210. EARTHQUAKES IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA. Includes discussions of the geologic conditions that cause a risk in the area, the need for preparedness on both the household and community levels, and the problems in implementing retrofitting programs. Argues that, although much has been done to prepare the community for a future quake, still more needs to be done. 11 pages, 20 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $77
 
15203. A SAND COUNTY ALMANAC (ALDO LEOPOLD). Leopold made an important contribution to the philosophy of the environmental movement with his views on the interconnectedness of nature. According to this view, humans are a part of the "community" of nature, and therefore they need to have a "land ethic" for conserving nature. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
 
15197. RADIOACTIVE WASTE DUMPSITES ON NATIVE AMERICAN RESERVATIONS. Some tribal leaders have invited the placement of dumpsites on their reservations in order to boost the local economy; however, there are others who argue against this practice on the basis of possible health risks, threats to the environment and charges of "environmental racism." 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $42
 
15162. THE "ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE PARADIGM." This paper discusses D.E. Taylor's paradigm, which is based on the 17 principles of the 1991 First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit. It is argued that the main problem with the paradigm is its implication that acts of environmental injustice are caused by racism rather than factors of class or low income. On the other hand, it is argued that the paradigm is promising because of its grassroots nature and its ability to unify and empower diverse groups of people. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $42
 
15158. THE CONTROVERSY OVER WHALE SLAUGHTER. Discusses the arguments against the killing of whales (including claims that it is cruel and unnecessary, and that whales are an endangered species) and the arguments in favor of allowing it (which are mainly based on the rights of indigenous peoples and the cultural traditions of nations such as Norway and Japan). Concludes by referring to some of the proposed compromise solutions to the problem. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $49
 
15141. FAMINE: CAUSES AND CURES. Provides an analysis of the causes of famine, looking at the two main types of hunger found in the modern era: 1) extreme but temporary famines; and 2) chronic hunger and undernourishment. Sen's theory of entitlements is used to explain both types of hunger and to make the argument that economic and political circumstances curtail individual's ability to acquire enough food. Draws on specific examples, including the Bengal famine of 1943 and the cases of Brazil and Sri Lanka to illustrate chronic hunger. Argues that famine and chronic hunger can be prevented by addressing entitlement failures as their source, reducing economic inequities, and fostering a climate of participatory democracy. Successful hunger prevention programs in specific African and Asian countries are noted. 13 pages, 33 footnotes.   $91
 
15126. BIOETHICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY. Explores the ethical and social problems involved in the exploitation of flora and fauna for medicine, foodstuffs and other products. Argues that biotechnology is motivated to protect rain forests and wildlife, and may help preserve indigenous peoples in passing. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $42
 
15101. THE ETHICS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED FROM NATURE. This paper explores the ethical problems of biotechnology and use of natural resources, mainly in less developed nations, by scientists and business of the developed world. Among the issues reviewed are ethical conflicts posed by research, development and marketing of new drugs from exotic sources, creation and marketing of new flora and fauna, and the exploitation of tribal areas for profit. KEYWORDS: biotechnology ethics exploitation natural resources less developed countries. Turabian Parenthetical Style. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,445 words.   $42
 
15071. POPULATION AND THE FUTURE OF THE PLANET. This essay explores the larger patterns of the past 300-400 years of global ecological history to assess the relative virtue of pessimistic/Malthusian and optimistic/Boserupian prospects for the future human condition. The paper focuses on the issues of energy, population and environmental consciousness. KEYWORDS: human population Malthus over-population explosion ecology population term paper. APA Style. 14 pages, 37 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 3,865 words.   $98
 
15053. THE STRUGGLE OVER THE ZERO EMISSIONS VEHICLE MANDATE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the controversy over the zero emissions vehicles plan. The history of the ZEV mandate and the rationale for its implementation are discussed. The analysis focuses on the respective positions and responses of the automakers versus environmentalists and regulators. This paper focuses on the crucial role of Southern California and the Los Angeles basin in particular in the program's initiation and continuing controversy. KEYWORDS: air pollution control zero emissions automobiles vehicle emissions control california environmental law. APA Style. 12 pages, 46 footnotes, 28 bibliographic references. 3,763 words.   $84
 
15034. GLOBAL WARMING AND INDUSTRIALIZATION. Discusses the scientific evidence that there is a link between industrial pollution and the "greenhouse effect," as well as the controversy over the extent of the seriousness of the problem. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15006. THE OZONE HOLE IN THE ANTARCTIC. A discussion of how the annual depletion of the ozone layer is caused by pollutants and greenhouse gasses. Also covers the threat to the ecosystem, international efforts to deal with the problem, and the view that the problem will eventually be alleviated. 10 pages, 32 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $70
 
14226. THE ELECTRIC UTILITY INDUSTRY IN 1992 CASE STUDY. This paper presents an analysis and a case solution to a case study on the U.S. electric utility industry in 1992, a time when the U.S. Electric Utility Industry was plagued by sub-par profitability, high costs of construction, regulatory stalemates, decreasing consumer demand, increasing competition from alternative energy sources, and a poor public image. After problem identification, the problem analysis focuses on how the industry should cope with a new marketing environment; internal restructuring within the industry (mergers and acquisitions) and external penetration (from competitors such as AT&T) of the industry; and the new environmental/government regulatory environment. It is recommended that the industry reaffirm its single-business concentration strategy as an energy provider but that it also embark on horizontal expansion within the energy field. To control its overcapacity problem, intensification of load-management efforts and reductions in new plant construction are recommended. KEYWORDS: case study electric power industry case studies management strategy marketing alternative energy case solution. 6 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources. 1,353 words.   $42
 
14220. ARMCO STEEL CORPORATION CASE STUDY. This paper provides a case solution and analysis of a crisis management case study on Armco Steel. Armco Steel Corporation, a multinational company and America’s third largest steel manufacturer, is at risk for losing the production capacity of one of its most important coke plants. Armco’s request to the EPA for a variance to operate its New Miami plant beyond the July 1, 1975 deadline established by the federal Clean Air Act of 1970 has been denied. This case study is analyzed from the perspective of John Barker, the company’s director of Environmental Engineering. Three potential alternative responses (shut down the coke plant, fight the EPA in court, or apply for another variance and build a new plant) are identified and analyzed. It is recommended that Armco build a new plant designed to meet the new air quality standards. KEYWORDS: case studies case study pollution steel industry EPA regulation crisis management regulations swot case solution. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources. 1,388 words.   $35
 
14090. ARCTIC AND ALPINE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON VASCULAR PLANTS. This term paper discusses the growth and development characteristics of arctic and alpine plant species in respect to the effect of these extreme environments, which similarly affect plant survival responses through a cold, short growing season. The essay considers seed dormancy and germination, general growth characteristics, and photosynthesis. KEYWORDS: plant development extreme environments arctic alpine. Scientific Notation Style. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
14052. THE COLORADO RIVER. This paper describes the physical terrain of the river and discusses its role in the development of the Southwest United States. Concerns regarding the possible depletion of the river's water supply, as well as the proposed solutions for this problem, are also discussed. 17 pages, 54 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $119
 
14041. THE FLORIDA MANATEE. This termpaper provides an overview and analysis of the Florida manatee (West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus). The research paper begins with a description of the manatee (its scientific classification, physiological characteristics, behavior, etc.) and a discussion of the mammal’s life-span, mortality and reproductive cycle. Another section of the paper discusses the manatee’s population demography, distribution and habitat use patterns in Florida. The concluding essay examines the Florida manatee’s status as an endangered species, examining data on manatee mortality and the causes and efforts taken to ensure manatee recovery and survival. KEYWORDS: manatee florida endangered species term paper. 20 pages, 50 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources. 5,266 words.   $133
 
14022. GLOBAL WARMING SINCE THE 1990 GREENPEACE REPORT & UN IPCC. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current “state of the debate” on global warming. The starting point for the analysis is the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report and the response offered by Greenpeace in its Global Warming report issued that same year. The 1990 reports are reviewed in the context of recent studies and reports which consider the current evidence for global warming, speculate on the likely impact of global warming, and describe the policy responses to the problem of global warming. Keywords: global warming scientific reports international conventions greenpeace united nations climate change term paper. Scientific Notation style. 24 pages, 88 footnotes, 33 bibliographic references. 6,741 words.   $133
 
13985. SILENT SPRING BY RACHEL CARSON. Examines Rachel Carson’s book and message from three viewpoints: biographical (the factors that caused her to write it), Carson’s (her thesis on the dangers of uncontrolled pesticide use), and historical (her impact as a popularizer of the environmental movement, including the “feminine” approach to this movement). The paper includes an annotated bibliography. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $70
 
13966. 20TH CENTURY NORTH ATLANTIC HURRICANES. This term paper presents an overview and analysis of hurricanes (focusing primarily on North Atlantic hurricanes impacting the United States) in the 20th century. The first section of the paper considers the definition, characteristics and origins of hurricanes. The classification system for hurricanes is described. Another section of the research paper examines the pattern of hurricanes during the past century, including an overview of the deadliest, costliest and most severe hurricanes and a consideration of the possible relationship between global warming and future hurricanes. The concluding essay then looks closely at the impact of hurricanes on people and property. KEYWORDS: deadly costly hurricanes united states 20th century global warming extreme weather term paper. APA Style. 30 pages, 72 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 8,144 words.   $133
 
13954. ZERO EMISSIONS VEHICLES. With a focus on Southern California transportation planning, this termpaper provides an analysis of zero emissions vehicles (ZEV). The research paper focuses on the existing ZEV technology—the battery-powered electric vehicle—and then examines existing and potential alternatives to the battery-powered EV, specifically considering hybrid (gas/electric) and fuel cell (hydrogen) technologies. The essay concludes that current battery-operated EV technology is best suited for niche markets while the best promise for the widespread application of ZEV technology will come from the development of fuel cell based electric vehicles. KEYWORDS: air pollution control automobiles zero emissions vehicles hybrid electric cars hydrogen fuel cells term paper. APA Style. 20 pages, 70 footnotes, 35 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13910. HAZARDOUS WASTES: DISPOSAL AND REGULATION. The paper provides an overview of America's hazardous waste disposal problems. Explains the scope of the hazardous waste problem and examines the problems in current waste disposal methods and strategies. Makes suggestions for policy reform. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $42
 
13747. THE POTENTIAL FOR A HYDROGEN-FUELED AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY. Explores the unique potential and daunting technical and safety problems with the use of hydrogen fuels for future aircraft development. Assesses the relative merits of hydrogen fuels, evaluates the feasibility of hydrogen-based aircraft development projects, and considers alternative theories, applications and designs for these aircraft. 10 pages, 17 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
13558. CROWDING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS. Drawing on the environmental psychology literature, this report presents an overview and analysis of the effects of crowding on the human psychological stress and behavior. Includes a review of the early theories of crowding and behavior as formulated by Hall (proxemics), Stokols ("spatial density") and others. Following a review of animal research, the study reviews the empirical and survey literature focusing on human subjects in prison, clinical and field settings. A concluding section examines recent studies of the effects of crowding on people in heavily populated developing nations. 25 pages, 48 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13550. CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH EFFECTS. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the potential effects on human health occurring as a result of climate change. The first section of the paper offers a brief discussion of climate change models and the various inter-related factors which must be considered when predicting the effects of climate change on human health. Following this, the analysis looks at the potential direct and indirect consequences of climate change for human health. In taking into consideration the potential health consequences of global climate change, this investigation looks at the likely impact not only in the tropical and sub-tropical regions (areas where the population is expected to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change) but also in the developed temperate regions (areas where the actual magnitude of climate change is likely to be the greatest). KEYWORDS: climate change global warming health impact disease term paper. APA Style. 20 pages, 42 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13546. GLOBAL WARMING: EFFECTS ON HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE IN THE TROPICS. This paper provides an overview and assessment of how global warming and climate change will impact the health of people in the tropics and the delivery of health care services in the tropics. The paper begins with a brief review of the traditional and contemporary focus of health care delivery in the tropics. The next section considers some of the likely impacts of climate change on the health of people in the tropics. Concludes with an examination of the impact of these changes on health needs and health care delivery in the region. Keywords: climate change human health medicine disease global warming. 17 pages; 45 footnotes; 31 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
13479. BEACHES OF THE EAST (ATLANTIC) AND SOUTHWEST FLORIDA COASTS. This paper presents a survey of the ecology of barrier beaches along the U.S. Atlantic coast with a brief comparison to beaches found along the southwest Florida coast. Considers geology, current and tidal patterns, vegetation, and birds and other animals. A concluding section discusses human impact on the beaches in both areas. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
13478. CONSIDERATION OF CHAOS THEORY IN THE STUDY AND FORECASTING OF EL NIÑO EVENTS. Following a definition of El Nino and a discussion of climate modeling, this report presents an overview of the applications of chaos theory (a theory originally associated most closely with climatology) to the climatological phenomena of El Niño. Considers the extent to which chaos models of El Niño can be incorporated into general circulation models of climatology. 11 pages, 27 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13254. EL NINO. This paper provides an overview and analysis of El Nino and its influence on global climate patterns. The investigation includes a definition of El Nino and its position within the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, a brief history of lay and scientific observation and study of the phenomenon, and a discussion of the mechanisms through which the ENSO affects world climate patterns, through both warm events (El Nino) and cold events (La Nina). A concluding section examines the impact of El Nino on world climate, with particular attention to the most recent 1997-98 event. 17 pages, 54 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
13252. OPEN-ACCESS FISHERIES. Discusses the problems of overfishing and sustainability and argues for a flexible approach to implementing corrective measures. Also discusses the need for both international efforts and cooperation among local fishers. 11 pages, 50 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
13182. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SOUND. Comprehensive study of the psychology of sound, reviewing the basic physiology of hearing and the structural causes of auditory effects. Phonological blocking, masking and loudness contour effects are examined. The contribution of noise to stress, and of music to learning and relaxation, are described. Noise reduction and its relationship to the psychological effects of sounds is briefly noted. 32 pages, 43 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13098. THE BRAER OIL TANKER SPILL (1993). How the public, local government and international community responded to this crisis near the Shetland Islands. Focuses on the defensive stance taken by the ship management company in dealing with the problem. Discusses criticisms of the shipping industry's efforts to cut costs, and concludes by noting that industry-wide improvements in safety have been made since then. 16 pages, 52 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
13097. BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS: THE CASE OF THE AMOCO CADIZ. The paper provides a summary of the wreck of the oil tanker Amoco Cadiz off the coast of Brittany, France in March 1978. By analyzing the background and overview of the company, the environmental dimensions of the crisis, and the overall outcomes for the various parties involved, the paper explores what should be the response of a business when it becomes involved in an environmental crisis. 17 pages, 38 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
13068. KOALAS AS A POTENTIALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES. This paper provides a scientific description of the koala and then argues that the species is vulnerable because of such problems as destruction of natural habitat, stress and disease, and a slow breeding rate. Describes the work of organizations devoted to protecting the koala, and argues that the Australian government should make a nationwide effort to protect it. 14 pages, 62 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13060. THE ECOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON IN RELATION TO THE COLORADO RIVER FLOW REGIME. Discussion and analysis of the environmental forces governing the plan and animal life forms of the Grand Canyon with emphasis on the relationship to the Colorado River flow in both the pre- and post-dam era. Considers physical processes of the river flow, vegetation, aquatic animal life, terrestrial animal life, and birds. Concludes with a discussion of flood management and the future of the biota of the Canyon. 20 pages, 54 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13015. SPORT FISHING IN LOUISIANA. Describes the popularity of this activity in the state, as well as the many varieties of saltwater and freshwater fish that are available there. Includes a discussion of catfish, and notes recent controversies between recreational and commercial fishing interests. 11 pages, 48 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
12737. BEACHES OF THE EAST (ATLANTIC) AND SOUTHWEST FLORIDA COASTS. Compares the physical features (age, sand, dunes, sandbars, intertidal features, associated ecosystems), vegetation, birds and other animals (aquatic and terrestrial) of the barrier beaches along the US Atlantic coast with those of Southwest Florida. Concludes with a note on human impacts on beach ecologies. 16 pages, 48 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
12588. COASTAL EROSION AND PUBLIC POLICY. Considers the environmental and long-term economic impact of population settlement (permanent and vacation-development) along the barrier beaches of the Atlantic Coast. Concludes that the only long term solution to the problems posed by human settlement is not to build structures in zones of imminent erosion and to remove structures now at risk. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
12581. SWINE OPERATIONS AND POLLUTIONS. Threat to environment and health due to waste disposal problems of large-scale pork farms. Includes such topics as the spills in North Carolina, the threat of Pfiesteria, and recent efforts to deal with the problem. 5 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
12574. THE K-T BOUNDARY EVENT AND MASS EXTINCTION. Provides an overview and analysis of the K-T boundary event, focusing on recent evidence which helps to clarify the cause(s) of the K-T mass extinctions. While the bulk of the analysis focuses on the scientific evidence lending support to and/or calling into question the veracity of the Alvarez impact hypothesis, the investigation also considers and summarizes the other major theories seeking to explain the extinctions. 20 pages, 59 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12512. WHAT'S WRONG WITH OUR SPERM? Analysis of 1996 Time magazine article reporting on recent declining sperm counts in men. Discusses the implications of this finding, and the search for its cause and possible solutions. Also criticizes a logical fallacy in the article and suggests that a decline in fertility may actually be good for reducing overpopulation. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
12400. COMMERCIAL ONLINE SERVICES: AMERICAN ONLINE (AOL) VERSUS THE MICROSOFT NETWORK (MSN). A marketing analysis of the number one and number three commercial online service/Internet service providers. Provides a comparative assessment and analysis of each firms' marketing objectives, goals, pricing strategy, advertising and promotional strategy, and unique selling points. Considers the major strengths and weaknesses of each service and makes recommendations for improvement. Includes AOL vs. MSN summary comparison chart. 21 pages, 49 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
12282. FREE TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: INCOMPATIBLE OBJECTIVES. Considers the statement that the objectives of free trade and sustainable development are fundamentally incompatible in the context of European Union external trade policy. Argues that the EU, along with the WTO, United Nations and other international organizations, are moving toward the position that liberalized trade regimes and sustainable development are not incompatible. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. ,   $70
 
12281. CATFISH FARMING. The economic geographic of catfish aquaculture is examined. Warm climate, water supply and cheap labor are found to be the reasons the industry is concentrated in the Mississippi Delta Region. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
12279. POPULATION AND GOVERNMENT. Review of 1968 article "The Tragedy of the Commons" by biologist Garrett Hardin; philosophical arguments for a government role in population control, pollution and public safety are drawn from Hobbes, Mill, and others. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
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