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  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
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19358. IMPOSSIBLY THIN: FASHION, BODY DISSATISFACTION AND EATING DISORDERS. NEW, WINTER-SPRING 2017. This paper presents an overview and analysis of the links between fashion magazines’ depiction of thinness as the ideal female form and distortions in girls’ and women’s body image, leading to body dissatisfaction and contributing to the development of eating disorders among women who internalize these standards. Drawing on examples from fashion magazines and a review of scholarly literature on the topic, the analysis explores the process by which women may come to internalize the impossible standards of the fashion magazines and grow dissatisfied with their own forms as well as the evidence linking fashion magazine depictions with increased body dissatisfaction and the development of eating disorders. Includes illustrations. APA Style, 13 pages, 42 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 3,404 words.
TAGS: women, body image, anorexia, models, high fashion, thinness, weight, obesity, self-image, feminine ideal, body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, contemporary social problems.
19306. THE LEGAL, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL FIGHT AGAINST SEX TRAFFICKING IN THE UNITED STATES New, Winter/Spring 2017. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of sex trafficking in the United States, focusing on the efforts taken by the U.S. government and its agencies as well as various nongovernmental organizations to address the problem of sex slavery and trafficking. Following a definition and overview of the essential components of human trafficking in general and sex trafficking in particular, the analysis presents an overview of the sex trafficking problem in the United States. The next section looks at U.S. government law, policy and practice regarding sex trafficking and considers the role played by key non-governmental organizations. Concluding sections present an analysis of the primary obstacles to solving the problem of sex trafficking in the United States. MLA Style. 19 pages, 67 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources, 5,440 words.

TAGS: sex trafficking, prostitution, Trafficking Victims Protection Act, TVPA, Palermo Protocol, immigration, social attitudes, politics and sex, sex crimes, women and children, sex exploitation, sex slavery

18892. MARISSA MAYER OF GOOGLE. . This term paper discusses the management and leadership style of Marissa Mayer, Vice President for Search Products and User Experience at the internet search engine, Google. Through the combined use of enthusiasm, participatory management and discipline, she has achieved remarkable success in a male-dominated industry at a relatively young age. TAGS: Marissa Mayer, Google executive, leadership style, young leader, women, management, internet. APA Style. 12 pages, 30 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,917 words.   $84
18885. IMPACT OF SEXISM, GENDER DISCRIMINATION AND STEREOTYPING ON WOMEN. This research paper examines the psychological impacts of sexism, discrimination and stereotyping on women, particularly in the workplace. It is argued that multicultural counselors have an important role to play in helping women cope with these impacts. TAGS: counseling psychology, term paper, sexism, gender discrimination, employment counselors, multiculturalism, multicultural psychology. APA Style. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,860 words.   $56
18844. REVERSE DISCRIMINATION CASE: JOHNSON V. TRANSPORTATION AGENCY OF SANTA CLARA COUNTY, 480 U.S. 616 (1987). This paper explores the controversial issue of “reverse discrimination” using the Supreme Court case of Johnson v. Transportation Agency (involving a male road dispatcher’s claim that a woman had been unfairly promoted based on her gender and his employer’s policy of reverse discrimination). The analysis first reviews the facts of the case and the ruling by the Court, including Justice Scalia’s vehement dissent. The second part of the paper considers the political implications of the case and offers an argument and opinion favoring the Court’s ruling. TAGS: reverse discrimination, supreme court ruling, landmark case, employment discrimination gender, women in transportation. APA Style. 7 pages, 17 footnotes. 7 bibliographic sources. 1,588 words.   $49
18828. RESILIENT WOMEN LEADERS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of resilient women leaders and the concept of resiliency in women’s leadership. The concepts of resiliency and resilient women leaders are discussed, the scholarly literature on resilient women leaders is reviewed, and examples of resilient women leaders are provided. The paper begins with a definition of resiliency and an overview of women and leadership. Following this, the literature on resilient women leaders is reviewed and specific examples of resilient women leaders provided and discussed. KEYWORDS: leadership leaders resilient psychological resiliency gender transformational leadership. APA Style. 9 pages, 39 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 2,215 words.   $63
18772. SEX TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN. This paper addresses sex trafficking, a problem that affects women and girls around the world. The paper discusses the causes, consequences and prevalence rates of sex trafficking and considers the ways that a human rights perspective might be helpful in eliminating the problem. TAGS: crime, sex trafficking, sexual abuse, women, globalization, human rights, sex slave trade, organized prostitution, poverty. APA Style. 8 pages, 31 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,914 words.   $56
18767. CULTURAL ASPECTS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN. This paper is concerned with the problem of violence against women around the world. The cross-cultural aspects of the problem are considered, and it is argued that a human rights perspective is useful for understanding the problem as well as for finding potential solutions. TAGS: violence against women, culture and violence, gender roles and society, human rights, intimate partner violence, feminism. APA Style. 7 pages, 20 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,657 words.   $49
18751. ENOUGH (DIRECTED BY MICHAEL APTED). This paper uses three theories of relationship violence to analyze the abusive relationship depicted in Enough, a 2002 film starring Jennifer Lopez and directed by Michael Apted. Of the three theories (feminist theory, power theory and common couple violence theory), it is concluded that feminist theory provides the best explanation for the abuse shown in the film. According to this theory, certain men assume that they have a right to control women through the use of physical violence. TAGS: domestic violence relationships feminism film feminist theory. APA Style. 11 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,603 words.   $77
18736. AGING AND GENDER STYLES. This paper discusses the theoretical perspective of Margaret H. Huyck and her view that men and women shift away from gender stereotypes when they become older. The paper includes references to research studies by Huyck and others, the influence of Jung, and Huyck’s concern with the relationship between aging and women’s mental health. The character Maude in the 1971 film Harold and Maude is used to illustrate the freedom from gender stereotypes that often occurs among elderly persons. The paper concludes with a personal opinion and interpretation of Huyck’s viewpoint. KEYWORDS: psychology aging gender Huyck Jung film. APA Style. 11 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,790 words.   $77
18714. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONTENT PRODUCERS AND CONSUMERS IN THE MAGAZINE BUSINESS. This paper addresses the relationship between magazine producers and readers and asks which side has more influence and power in the relationship. The paper includes an examination of the extent to which gender issues play a role in answering the question. The research and views of Joke Hermes, among others, are considered, and it is concluded that, overall, readers have more power because magazine producers are dependent on the need to cater to readers’ wishes and demands in order to stay in business. Free Appendix includes 5 images. TAGS: magazine journalism journalism power gender images women submissive commodification. Harvard Style. 9 pages, 20 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,176 words.   $63
18538. DRESS STYLES OF THE 1920S. . This paper describes various popular dress styles in the U.S. and Europe during the 1920s, with an emphasis on the social forces that had an impact on the development of those styles. Based on the evidence, the major social forces were the emancipation of women, societal attitudes following the First World War, the values of modernism, and the increasing importance of consumerism. KEYWORDS: fashion history consumerism feminism masculine dress styles women 1920s flappers. APA Style. 8 pages, 27 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 1,992 words.   $56
18046. FASHION CHOICES IN GENDER AND IDENTITY. This term paper is concerned with the British fashion industry and the notion of a "British identity" in dress style. The introduction notes that, although clothing choices are constrained in various ways, people generally express themselves through either conservative or non-conformist styles. The paper then discusses the styles associated with Burberry of London (which are conservative and based on traditional ideas of gender-based power) and Vivian Westwood (which make an artistic commentary on British society and dress). Reference is also made to a small-scale study that showed British women having complex reasons for their fashion choices, as related to their search for personal identity. KEYWORDS: fashion industry clothes identity gender identity british society. MLA Style. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,743 words.   $49
18039. WOMEN & LEADERSHIP. This paper examines the role of women as managerial leaders and the differences between male and female styles of leadership. Research studies have shown that men tend to be more aggressive and controlling as leaders while women tend to be more focused on personal relationships. Although the male style has been traditionally associated with success, there is evidence that the female style is more appreciated by followers. The paper argues for a new paradigm of leadership that incorporates the styles associated with both genders. KEYWORDS: leadership management women gender differences female leaders. MLA Style. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,287 words.   $35
18027. INFANTICIDE FORENSIC INVESTIGATIONS. This term paper focuses on five perspectives (as found in five different sources) relating to infant killing and forensic investigations. The perspectives are: (1) educational campaigns have reduced the number of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) cases, thereby helping to reveal bona fide cases of infanticide, (2) there is a need to balance thoroughness with sensitivity in investigations, (3) genetic evidence is becoming increasingly important, (4) procedural rules tend to take precedence over physical evidence in trials, and (5) society is ultimately to blame when mothers commit acts of infanticide. The relative strengths and weaknesses of the claims and arguments in the five chosen sources are discussed. KEYWORDS: forensics infanticide criminal investigation infant deaths killings. APA Style. 15 pages, 14 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,521 words.   $105
18022. FROM MARGIN TO MAINSTREAM (SUSAN HARTMANN) AND SUBURBAN WARRIORS (LISA MCGIRR). This paper compares two books on important social-political movements in the U.S. in the late twentieth century. Hartmann's book is concerned with the women's movement and McGirr's book is concerned with the conservative ("New Right") movement. The paper first discusses the content of each book separately, and then compares and contrasts them. It is concluded that both books are useful as informative historical texts; however, Hartmann's book is more engaging and it provides broader coverage of its specific topic. KEYWORDS: comparative book review history women's movement feminism new right conservatism. MLA Style. 11 pages, 17 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,582 words.   $77
18020. ITALIAN FUTURIST WOMEN. This term paper examines the role of women in the artistic and literary movement known as Futurism (approximately 1909-1918). Arising in Italy during the period of World War I, the movement called for radical change in art and society. It praised machines, violence, and warfare, while denigrating feminine values as weak, soft, and hopelessly tied to tradition. The paper discusses the views of male Futurists such as Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (the movement's founder) and various male poets. These views are compared with the writings of two prominent women in the movement: Valentine de Saint-Point and Sibilla Aleramo. These writings show that women were an important intellectual force in the movement, challenging the male-dominated views on gender roles. KEYWORDS: italy literary movement futurism gender essay. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes and Separate Bibliography. 11 pages, 10 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,490 words.   $77
18000. HIV/AIDS & AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN. This termpaper discusses the disproportionate impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on African American women. The paper focuses on statistical data (obtained mainly from the Centers for Disease Control) regarding the scope of the problem and the most likely factors causing it. The appendix includes 5 tables and 1 chart showing the statistical data discussed in the paper. KEYWORDS: HIV AIDS african american women blacks race disease CDC. APA Style. 8 pages plus 5 page appendix, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $56
17767. CHILDHOOD EXPOSURE TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence (spouse abuse, family violence). Following a brief overview of the problem of domestic violence and a discussion of the likely scope of the problem of children’s exposure to domestic violence, the essay considers the symptoms and signs of children’s exposure to domestic violence, children’s methods of disclosing violence in the home as well as strategies to draw children out, and the short- and long-term consequences of children’s exposure to family violence and abuse. A concluding section looks at strategies that teachers, community leaders and counselors can take to address the problem. KEYWORDS: spouse abuse children child abuse domestic violence violent families term paper. APA Style. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,326 words.   $77
17745. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SPOUSE ABUSE: CONTEXTUAL FACTORS IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL SUFFERING OF VICTIMS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the psychological effects of spouse abuse, considering in particular the contextual factors which may serve to exacerbate, mitigate or protect against psychological harm. A review of recent studies provides support for the working hypotheses that the chronic nature and severity of abuse is associated with more extensive psychological impact and that a variety of contextual factors influence victims’ psychological responses to spouse abuse. Type of abuse, history of abuse, social support, socioeconomic factors, gender, and coping skills are among the factors influencing the psychological impact of spouse abuse. KEYWORDS: spouse abuse interpersonal partner violence battered women psychological effects depression ptsd trauma behavior. 12 pages, 45 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,473 words.   $84
17741. GENDER & MANAGEMENT STYLE: ARE THERE DIFFERENCES IN HOW MEN & WOMEN MANAGE? This paper explores the question, “Are there differences in how men and women manage, and if so, how can these differences be characterized?” The paper reviews scholarly management and organization literature, describing and discussing differences in male/female management and leadership styles, and discussing possible reasons for these differences. While there is observed and self-reported evidence of differences, there is little evidence for biologically-based differences in men’s and women’s management or leadership style. Most observed differences can be explained by sex roles, status, socialization and/or contextual factors in the organization. KEYWORDS: gender management style women managers female managerial style differences sex manager. 22 pages, 72 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 5,747 words.   $133
17567. MEDIA AND WOMEN’S SELF-IMAGE. This paper examines the view that the media has a generally negative impact on the self-image of women. The paper describes and documents how media representations present an unattainable ideal for female appearance and behavior and how women – especially young women – accept this ideal and develop a negative self-image when they fail to achieve the ideal. It is argued that the best way to overcome this problem is to increase women’s awareness that they are being manipulated by the media for the sake of increased profits. KEYWORDS: mass media images women self-esteem women’s negative self-image media portrayal ideal women. MLA Style. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,845 words.   $56
17565. CRASH DIET BY JILL MCCORKLE. This paper presents a largely favorable review of McCorkle’s collection of short stories about an assortment of “everyday” women and girls. The author’s style is praised as is her skill at characterization, although a number of stories are faulted as lacking emotional power despite their technical perfection. KEYWORDS: book review fiction short stories women. MLA Style. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,432 words.   $42
17556. BOOK REVIEW: THE WOMAN WARRIOR BY MAXINE HONG KINGSTON. This paper examines Kingston’s autobiography and its relations to the legend of Fa Mu Lan and the Disney film “Mulan”, in order to illustrate the idea that women are victims of their own myths under patriarchal society. KEYWORDS: autobiography book review woman warrior Chinese American women patriarchy women’s role women’s status. MLA Style. 11 pages, 23 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2,694 words.   $77
17484. BOOK REVIEW: THE BOYS OF MY YOUTH BY JO ANN BEARD. This paper reviews Beard’s collection of highly personal and painful stories from her own life, ranging from the loss of her childhood doll to her first crush to her divorce to her witness and survival of the mass murder of her coworkers. Finds that Beard has successfully and effectively blurred the lines between fiction and nonfiction, blending the two styles to create a voice that is detached but entirely honest. KEYWORDS: book review nonfiction memoir. Chicago/Turabian parenthetical style. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,923 words.   $56
17426. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: SPOUSE ABUSE. Provides an overview and analysis of the problem of domestic violence within the context of the marital couple (former and current). The first part of the paper examines the theories explaining spouse abuse and considers the correlates of intimate partner violence, including alcohol/substance abuse, family abuse history, economic factors, and social factors. The second part of the paper discusses the extent and nature of the problem in U.S. society. The third section looks at existing and potential strategies (legal, social, practical, psychological) to address the problem. KEYWORDS: domestic violence causes spouse abuse theories correlates intimate partner violence. APA Style. 17 pages, 68 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources. 5,650 words.   $119
17391. FEMINIST SOCIAL RESEARCH. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the concept and application of feminist social research. The concept of feminist social research is defined, and its central elements contrasted with those of traditionally-defined male-centered “scientific” research. Both the major epistemological perspectives and the central methodologies of feminist social research are discussed. Through a review of current literature on the topic, the analysis seeks to identify what is distinctive about feminist social research and to illustrate these distinctive elements with examples drawn from feminist social research studies. KEYWORDS: feminism feminist research methods methodology social research postmodern lived experience qualitative. APA Style. 15 pages, 39 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 4,083 words.   $105
17383. WHY WERE WITCHES USUALLY WOMEN? EXPLAINING GENDER BIAS IN THE ENGLISH WITCH CRAZE. EXPLAINING GENDER BIAS IN THE ENGLISH WITCH CRAZE. Focusing on the witch hunts in 16th and 17th century Elizabethan and Jacobean England, this paper considers explanations for why women comprised the overwhelming majority of those accused and/or convicted of witchcraft. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the central features of the witch craze in England (as distinct from that in continental Europe) and a discussion of the predominantly female “profile” of the English witch. Following this, the analysis explores some of the economic, social, biological, psychological and cultural factors possibly responsible for the gender bias in the English witch craze and reviews the major explanatory theories found in the current and historical witchcraft literature. KEYWORDS: witchcraft women witches gender witch persecutions older women. APA Style. 15 pages, 59 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 4,950 words.   $98
17380. ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN IN THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH: A LITERATURE REVIEW. This paper provides a summary review of representative literature on the expanding role of women in mainstream Protestant churches in America and England. The large American literature and small but growing British literature on women clergy encompasses multiple perspectives, including theological, sociological and feminist, and utilizes a variety of methodological approaches, including surveys, case studies, and various forms of quantitative and qualitative analysis. KEYWORDS: women clergy women ministers protestant churches Christian women women’s role church. APA Style. 13 pages, 54 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources. 3,355 words.   $91
17354. WOMEN’S RIGHTS: VIEWS OF EARLY FEMINISTS. This paper compares the views on women’s rights and other issues in three texts from the early period of feminism in England and the United States. The texts to be considered are: Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), Anna Letitia Barbauld’s poem “The Rights of Woman” (1792), and the Seneca Falls Conference’s “Declaration of Sentiments” (1848). Wollstonecraft emphasized theory and the need for changes in education and social conditioning, while the “Declaration” emphasized action and the need for changes throughout public life. By contrast, Barbauld rejected the idea of “revolutionary” change and argued instead for a conservative viewpoint on women’s natural place in society. KEYWORDS: women’s rights women’s role early feminist thought feminism. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,769 words.   $49
17353. WOMEN IN PUBLIC RELATIONS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the important role played by women in the public relations industry. The review of literature demonstrates that women already dominate the public relations field in terms of numbers, but not yet in terms of leadership power. Pressure from women researchers in the field however, have resulted in a growing emphasis on issues of concern to women in public relations. These issues include the wage gap, gender discrimination, stereotypical viewpoints, sexual harassment, and the lack of programs and facilities to help women balance their careers with familial duties. KEYWORDS: public relations profession women sex discrimination gender barriers. 10 pages, 23 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,535 words.   $70
17273. PROFILE OF THE LIFE & WORK OF POET AUDRE LOURDE. This paper provides a profile of the life and work of black lesbian poet Audre Lourde. Argues that Lorde’s treatment of the theme of difference shows that being “different” is a condition that is shared by all human beings. In her poems, prose writings, and speeches, Lorde expressed the view that we are all unique in our individuality. Lorde’s message is that identities of difference should be accepted and celebrated, and that they should not be regarded as problematic or as a cause for separatism. KEYWORDS: black feminist lesbian poet. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,611 words.   $42
17242. JAMES MESSERSCHMIDT'S THEORY OF "DOING GENDER". This paper discusses Messerschmidt’s theory on why men tend to commit more crimes than women, and why each gender tends to commit different types of crime. Men, for example, are constantly seeking ways to express their masculinity, and this need is influenced by factors of age, class, and race. This paper also considers the advantages and disadvantages of the theory in terms of crime control and prevention. Keywords: crime theory gender differences. 5 pages; 6 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,178 words.   $35
17232. THE DEPICTION OF WOMEN IN THE MOVIES OF THE 1930'S. This paper discusses how the Great Depression and other factors contributed to how women were depicted in Hollywood movies in the 1930s. It is noted that women were depicted differently in the period before the passage of the Hays censorship code (1934) and in the period following its implementation. The paper includes a discussion of the “male gaze” and female stereotypes. In addition, it is noted that the “screwball comedies” of the time often showed women who appeared to be empowered; however, this was played for laughs and the women were generally shown to be submissive to men in the end. Keywords: films women 1930s censorship gender relations. 13 pages; 36 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 3,334 words.   $91
17167. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN SOUTHEAST ASIA & ASEAN'S RESPONSE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of human trafficking in Southeast Asia. The analysis explores the causes, scope, migratory patterns, and components of human trafficking in and out of the ten member states of ASEAN (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar [Burma], Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). The investigation considers ASEAN’s role in addressing the problem, profiling the history of the association’s involvement in the problem and the steps that it has taken to address the problem to date. The effectiveness of the ASEAN’s efforts are evaluated and recommendations for future action offered. The investigation also looks at the steps that individual member states have taken to address the problem and considers the impact of cooperation (if any) from non-member states. 23 pages; 68 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 6,500 words.   $133
17155. ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN IN THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH: BREAKING THROUGH THE STAINED-GLASS CEILING OR FACING BACKLASH? RESEARCH DESIGN FOR AN EXPLORATORY STUDY. This paper presents a research design for an exploratory study of attitudes towards women’s changing role in Christian churches across the U.S. The study focuses on gender, denominational, and clergy/lay differences in attitudes towards women assuming leadership roles in the church. A sampling of the relevant literature is briefly reviewed. The proposed methodology uses a grounded theory framework and draws on both quantitative and qualitative methods. Proposed data collection methods include a survey questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. 11 pages; 45 footnotes; 41 bibliographic sources. 3,174 words.   $77
17124. THE 20TH CENTURY REHABILITATION MODEL AND FEMALE PRISONERS IN GREAT BRITAIN. This paper traces the impact of the development of the 20th century rehabilitation model (as mandated by the Gladstone Committee in 1895) on female prisoners in Great Britain. The impact is noted in terms of changes in prison labor, dress, and prisoner relations as well as in terms of the introduction of educational programs, job training, borstal training, and open prisons. Negative aspects of the developing model are also noted (e.g., failure to update training programs, treatment of female prisoners as mental patients, etc.). KEYWORDS: prison system great britain 20th century rehabilitation model prisons england wales. 9 pages; 20 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 2,634 words.   $63
17123. SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS IN THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF WOMEN'S IMPRISONMENT IN GREAT BRITAIN IN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES. This paper evaluates the usefulness and problems of historical social research for an investigation and critical review of the history of the imprisonment of women in Great Britain during the 19th and 20th centuries. 9 pages; 20 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 2,280 words.   $63
17103. RESEARCH ON SEX DISCRIMINATION IN THE YOUTH JUSTICE SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES. This paper provides a critical analysis and comparison of a few research-based studies investigating how young women suffer systematic discrimination in the youth justice system in England and Wales. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the traditional assumptions regarding female crime and delinquency and a summary of some of the major findings from the early investigations of young women’s encounters with the justice system, as well as synopsis of contemporary feminist positions concerning young women and the justice system. The investigation then turns to a critical analysis and comparison of specific (England & Wales-based) studies, focusing on the relationship between research methods and theoretical findings. 19 pages; 33 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 4,909 words.   $133
17102. EMPLOYEE EMAIL, INTERNET USE & SEXUAL HARASSMENT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the nexus between the increase in workplace based sexual harassment claims and the proliferation of work-based email and Internet use. The analysis begins with a general overview of the issue and recent trends. Following a brief review of the status of sexual harassment law as it applies to workplace settings, the investigation looks at how email and Internet technologies are implicated in sexual harassment and considers some of the reasons why these technologies have provoked harassment claims. The next section considers employer responses to the problem. The concluding section makes recommendations for addressing the problem. Keywords: sexual harassment employment email. KEYWORDS: sexual harassment employees email online pornography workplace. APA Style. 15 pages; 39 footnotes; 21 bibliographic sources. 4,542 words.   $105
17101. GENDER AND ACHIEVEMENT IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM. This paper reviews the current academic literature on the relationship between gender and achievement in the elementary classroom. The gender/achievement relationship is considered within the framework of the debate on gender equity in education and the broader perspective of gender disparities in academic achievement across the educational continuum. Focusing on girls and boys at the elementary (K-6) grade level, the analysis examines the literature investigating the varying impact of society, parents, teachers, peers and individual motivation on boys' and girls' academic achievement. KEYWORDS: gender differences education elementary gender academic achievement girls boys. Written in 2002. APA Style. 37 pages; 193 footnotes; 65 bibliographic sources. 10,572 words.   $133
15962. FIVE EVENTS THAT CHANGED THE LIVES AND ROLES OF WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES. This paper discusses the 1848 women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, the ratification of the 19th Amendment (giving women the right to vote), the increased number of women in the labor force caused by the Second World War, the approval of the birth control pill in 1960s, and the rise of the civil rights movement and modern feminism. 9 pages; 35 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 2,530 words.   $63
15953. "CREATING A LIFE" BY SYLVIA ANN HEWLETT (BOOK REVIEW). Hewlett examines the problems of professional women wanting children but being unable to have them because of career demands, in contrast to men. This paper criticizes Hewlett’s methodologies and use of emotional appeals, but agrees with her basic premise and concludes that the book provides a preliminary step toward positive change. Keywords: American working women work-life families career. 7 pages; 12 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source. 1,604 words.   $49
15928. "WILD SWANS" BY JUNG CHANG (BOOK REVIEW). Chang’s book is concerned with three generations of women (the author, her Maoist mother, and her traditional grandmother) in 20th century China. This paper examines how the accounts of these three women reflect social and political changes in China during their lifetimes. Emphasis is placed on three key issues: the treatment of women, the experience of political oppression, and conditions of hardship. Keywords: Chinese women rights oppression China gender relations social conditions. 10 pages; 36 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $70
15871. SPORT AS A SOCIAL SPACE OF RELATIVE FREEDOM. This paper addresses the claim that sports offer opportunities for people to move beyond rigid self-definitions, by examining gender issues in the sports word. Although an increasing number of women are becoming involved in sports, oppressive gender distinctions continue to exist. Yet, women's growing involvement in sports is also a step towards positive social change. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $49
15861. HARRIET BEECHER STOWE. This paper provides an overview of the life and work of the author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." Includes a discussion of Stowe's views on 'moderate feminism,' and the ways in which her work is still relevant to contemporary women. 13 pages; 32 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $91
15848. "FROM FRONT PORCH TO BACK SEAT" BY BETH L. BAILEY. This paper reviews Bailey's book on the evolution of American courtship and dating patterns during the course of the 20th century. 7 pages; 31 footnotes; 1 bibliographic sources.   $49
15815. WOMEN AND POVERTY IN GREAT BRITAIN. This paper is concerned with the problem of inequality and the fact that women are more likely than men to live in poverty in Great Britain. Examines the evidence regarding the causes of the problem, and makes recommendations for alleviating it. 7 pages; 21 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 1,953 words.   $49
15789. WOMEN, GENDER, AND GENDER RELATIONS IN FAULKNER'S THE SOUND AND THE FURY. A brief review of contemporary critical interpretations of the role and importance of women in Faulkner's novel, with a special focus on the character Candace (Caddy). Considers interpretations offered by Frederick Hoffman, John Matthews, Olga Vickery, and others. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
15778. WOMEN'S RITES OF PASSAGE. This paper constructs a symbolic rite for women to share in a girl's passage into adulthood. The constructed ritual seeks to include women's concerns (such as relating to others), without limiting the perspective to traditional women's roles. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
15777. WOMEN WRITERS AND "REVISION." The paper starts with references to Adrienne Rich's views on the need for women writers to "re-vision" their place in the male-dominated world of literature. Then, two poems are examined (by Kathleen Raine and Stevie Smith), in which the myth of Eve is thus revised. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
15776. WOMEN IN SURREALISM. Discusses the role of women artists in the movement, the sexism of the movement's male leaders, and erotic images of women by male artists. Also refers to works by key female figures in the movement, such as Leonor Fini and Leonora Carrington. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
15772. WOMEN AND MID-LIFE. Discusses the physiological, psychological and emotional changes faced by women during middle age. Based on Erikson's view that growth continues throughout the lifespan, it is also argued that women should seek "generativity" rather than "stagnation" as they grow older. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
15760. RAPE: A MULTIFACETED AND VARIED CRIME. Beginning with a discussion of acquaintance rape (date and marital) and then considering homosexual rape and the major varieties of stranger rape, this research paper makes general distinctions between several different categories of rape and provides background information on the characteristics of the rapists who commit these rapes. The essay considers the major factors which differentiate types of rape and rapists and provides an overview of FBI classification schemes and pattern rapists, including the serial rapists and the sex killer. KEYWORDS: rape rapists sex offenders term paper. APA Style. 18 pages, 33 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $126
15759. RAPE AND RAPISTS. Following a brief definition of rape and a discussion of some of the methodological difficulties in studying rape behavior and rapists, this term paper provides a summary overview of the varieties of rape (e.g., acquaintance rape, stranger rape, male-on-male rape) and types of rapists (e.g., date rapists, serial rapists, sadistic rapists, classification schemes), and then considers the causes of rape, looking at co-factors in rape behavior, antecedents in rape, and psychological, social, and biological theories which attempt to explain rape behavior. KEYWORDS: rape rapists sex offenders term paper. APA Style. 11 pages, 63 footnotes, 40 bibliographic sources. 4,081 words.   $77
15756. WOMEN WHO KILL THEIR HUSBANDS AND THE BATTERED WOMAN DEFENSE IN THE U.S. AND U.K. This paper provides a comparative analysis of how the criminal justice systems in the United States versus England and Wales treats women accused of killing their husbands. The analysis begins with a general overview of spousal homicide, and its central features in the U.S. and the U.K. Following this, the historical treatment of women murderers and the legal evolution of self-defense law will be examined. This is followed by an examination of the current and evolving legal status of women who kill their husbands in the U.S. and the U.K., with a close focus on the expansion of the battered woman's syndrome self-defense strategy in the U.S. and the reliance on provocation defenses in the U.K. KEYWORDS: battered women syndrome spouse abuse victim retaliation female killers. 15 pages, 36 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 4,185 words.   $105
15751. MINORITY WOMEN AND EATING DISORDERS. This paper presents a review of literature which shows that contrary to earlier assumptions, minority women are prone to various types of eating disorders. In addition, some studies have raised interesting questions regarding the role of acculturation in causing eating disorders (or of resistance to acculturation in contributing to obesity). Inconsistencies can be found in the relatively few studies that have been conducted so far on this topic. There is a need for further study and the development of better measurement tools. 23 pages; 52 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources.   $133
15732. THE DEFENSE OF PACIFISM IN HIND SWARAJ (GANDI) AND THREE GUINEAS (WOOLF). The arguments of both Gandhi and Woolf are "socially limited" (Gandhi is concerned with rejecting modernism and using passive resistance to attain India's liberation; Woolf is concerned with the role of women in promoting peace, which she sees as being limited by patriarchal oppression). Despite these limits, the views on pacifism of both authors have value; nevertheless, it is argued that Woolf's approach is less practical because she seeks to achieve a more generalized and idealized goal. 8 pages, 15 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $56
15717. SPORTS PARTICIPATION AMONG WOMEN AND MINORITIES. It is argued that the dramatic increase in sports participation among women and minorities has not led to significant gains in social status. Although there have been some improvements in terms of social mobility and equality in media representation, there is still a great deal more that needs to be done because discrimination is deeply entrenched in American society. 10 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
15701. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: THE ROLE OF WOMEN. This paper provides a brief analysis of the role of women in the French Revolution. The analysis considers the role of women in the Revolution both in terms of their actual roles (e.g., as marchers, participants in political clubs, leaders, etc.) and their symbolic roles. The contributions of both ordinary women (e.g., the market-women who marched on Versailles) and relatively famous women (e.g., Madame Roland and Marie Antoinette) are noted. A concluding section briefly compares the role of women in the French Revolution with their substantially greater role in the Russian Revolution. Concludes that the role of women in the French Revolution was mainly important from a symbolic perspective. 9 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
15687. WOMEN & MINORITIES' ATTITUDES TOWARDS UNIONS. Explores historical and current attitudes of women and minorities towards unions and unionization versus that shown by white males. Traces the history of the growth of minority/female union membership in the U.S., profiles the current demographic composition of union membership, and considers the reasons behind minorities' and women's more favorable attitudes towards unions and greater inclination (versus white males) to join unions in an era when union membership overall has fallen to an all-time low. KEYWORDS: labor unions united states unionization minorities women blacks hispanics asians. APA Style. 11 pages, 35 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources. 3,730 words.   $77
15686. FEMINISM, GLOBALIZATION AND THE AUSTRALIAN STATE: PERSPECTIVES OF GIDDENS AND FOUCAULT. This paper draws on the perspective of the social theories of Michel Foucault and Anthony Giddens to explain and analyze the Australian government's approach to feminist issues and the gendering of world politics in an era of globalization. Focusing especially on Giddens' conceptions of globalization and self-reflexivity and Foucault's theories of power and identity (with reference to queer theory and Butler's expansion of Foucault's ideas to gender identity and relations), the analysis looks at the changing position of women within the Australian state, political leadership and politics and the state's changing approach to women and feminist issues in an era of globalization. KEYWORDS: foucault feminist theory globalization australia status women feminism. APA Style. 23 pages, 59 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources. 6,308 words.   $133
15678. MARYAM (MARY) IN THE QUR'AN AND IN ISLAMIC TRADITION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the significance and depiction of Maryam (Mary) in the Qur'an and in Islamic doctrine, and its comparison with Mary in Christian doctrine. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the role and importance of the Virgin Mary in Christian doctrine. Following this, the analysis traces the story of Mary (Maryam) as it appears in the Qur'an, comparing and contrasting the presentation of the major events and focal points (e.g., Mary's own birth, Mary's childhood and adolescence, Mary's immaculate conception, the birth of Jesus, Mary's purity, Mary's relationship with Joseph, and Mary's assumption into Heaven) with their presentation in Christian doctrine. The concluding sections examine the uniquely Islamic aspects of the Maryam theology and summarize the overall significance of Maryam in Islamism, including a consideration of the relative importance of Maryam versus other important women in Islam (e.g., Fatima, Khadija, and Asiya). 17 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $119
15651. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BRITAIN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of and responses to domestic violence in Great Britain. The specific focus of this study is the role of criminal justice agencies in Great Britain dealing with domestic violence. Profiles the current scope of the problem, traces the history of the legal treatment of domestic violence in England, profiles historical and current laws pertaining to domestic violence and examines the role of police and the Crown Prosecution Service in dealing with the problem. KEYWORDS: domestic violence spouse abuse criminal justice britain essay. APA Style. 21 pages, 67 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 5,526 words.   $133
15650. WOMEN IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of how women are treated within the criminal justice system in England and Wales. The investigation begins with a general overview of women's status in British crime statistics and of the general orientation of the criminal justice system towards women offenders. The analysis then takes a closer look at how the CJS treats women by examining the position of two distinct groups of female offenders: 1) women of color, and 2) female killers and/or perpetrators of serious violent crime. Another major section examines the status of women in the prisons of England and Wales. The concluding section considers the implications of the treatment of women for the implementation of justice in Britain. KEYWORDS: female killers uk criminal justice women prison essay. APA Style. 21 pages, 87 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 5,904 words.   $133
15647. THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN INDIA VERSUS THE U.S. This paper presents an overview and analysis of the status of women in India as compared to women in the United States. The analysis considers women's position in terms of work, family, legal rights, education, health and social responsibilities and roles. The primary focus of this report is on the current status of women in India (with reference to their historical position) versus the position of women as assessed along similar factors in the U.S. KEYWORDS: status women cross cultural india united states women social economic discrimination indian american sex roles sex ratio. APA Style. 13 pages, 59 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 5,567 words.   $91
15641. ARE YOU SOMEBODY: THE ACCIDENTAL MEMOIR OF A DUBLIN WOMAN BY NUALA O'FAOLAIN. A critical summary and review of a female Irish journalist's memoir. Finds that the book is interesting for its portrayal of life in Dublin in the 1950's to 1970's, as well as for its insights into repressed Irish Catholic sexuality and the nature of male-female relations in the era, but that its appeal for readers outside of Ireland is sorely limited by the book's poor organization and the writer's tendency to digress, despite evidence of the author's considerable literary skills. KEYWORDS: book review irish catholic feminist women journalist o'faolain. 8 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,993 words.   $56
15632. RAPISTS: TYPES, CO-FACTORS, AND ANTECEDENTS. After briefly identifying the differences between rapists and other sexual offenders and providing a general overview of the heterogeneity of rapists, this paper discusses some of the major typologies or schemata used to categorize rapists and explores some of the psychological, environmental, and other antecedent factors which appear to be associated with rape and rapists. KEYWORDS: rape rapists sex offenders types causes criminality term paper. APA Style. 9 pages, 41 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 2,657 words.   $63
15631. EXPLAINING RAPE: CURRENT & EMERGING MODELS. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the current and emerging explanations for rape. The first part of the report focuses on recent literature concerning biological/genetic theories of rape. The second part of the paper reviews a broad range of single-factor and multiple-factor theories of rape, including psychodynamic theory, personality theory, sexual preference theory, feminist theory, socio-biological theory, and integrative theories. KEYWORDS: theory rape causes explanatory models sex offenses rapists term paper. APA Style. 21 pages, 96 footnotes, 37 bibliographic sources. 5,803 words.   $133
15620. SYSTEMATIC GENDER BIAS IN YOUTH JUSTICE IN ENGLAND AND WALES. A brief overview and analysis of systematic discrimination against young women and girls in the youth justice system of England and Wales. Argues that while the existence of gender bias in the system is indisputable, its nature is complex. On some levels (e.g., cautions versus sentencing) young women appear to be treated more leniently than young men. On the other hand, young women are treated more harshly than young men in terms of sentencing on first convictions and remanded to secure local accommodations. Other areas of juvenile justice showing evidence of gender bias include disparate treatment for status offenses, differences in prison environment, differential policies on adult/youth mixing, and the preoccupation with sexual aspects or possible sexual consequences of young women's criminal behavior. KEYWORDS: discrimination against women girls gender bias uk juvenile justice system britain. APA Style. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,771 words.   $70
15608. PROSTITUTION AS A SOCIAL PROBLEM. A feminist sociological perspective is used to explain the problem of prostitution. It is noted that feminists are divided over this issue; some see "sex work" as a women's right, while others see prostitution as a form of patriarchal oppression. However, both sides agree that there is a need to stop prosecuting women who engage in prostitution; instead more emphasis should be placed on enforcing the laws that protect women from male abuse. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
15599. FOUCAULT'S THEORY OF POWER AND SEXUALITY. A discussion of Foucault's view that knowledge and discourses have an impact on power relations, which are exercised on "local" levels. The paper examines how power becomes "self-regulated"; in addition, the paper discusses how Foucault related power to sexuality, and how feminists have had mixed reactions to his claims on this topic. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
15592. THE UNDERSTANDING OF FEMALENESS IN THE WAVES (WOOLF) AND ULYSSES (JOYCE). Woolf depicts three main female characters and thus shows three different ways of being "female" (with both good and bad qualities). Joyce's emphasis is on the contradictory and ambiguous nature of femaleness. He captures this idea in the free-flowing inner dialogue of Molly Bloom; however, it is argued that there are also overtones in this dialogue which can be attributed to Joyce's status as a male "outsider." 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
15576. CONTROVERSIES OVER THE ORDINATION OF WOMEN IN THE JUDEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION. Orthodox Jews and Catholics prohibit women from being ordained, whereas the Protestant denominations and the Reform and Conservative branches of Judaism permit it. This paper argues that allowing women to be ordained has a positive impact on theory and practice; however, gender discrimination often persists in cases where women have become ordained. 12 pages, 42 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
15563. MARRIAGE IN ISLAM AND THE WEST. Both cultures view marriage as important to the social order, forbid marriage between blood relations, and advocate similar sex roles for husbands and wives. However, Islam places more emphasis on spirituality and the control of sexuality in marriage than is found among the often-secularized views of the West. It is also argued that many of the elements of Islamic marriage regarded as "bad" by Westerners are due to patriarchal traditions, not to Islamic beliefs themselves. 11 pages, 25 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
15547. IN THE LAND OF GOD AND MAN (SILVANA PATERNOSTRO). Review of book on the threat of the spreads of AIDS among Latin American women, which the author argues is related to the extramarital affairs of "macho" husbands. Criticizes the author's use of "emotionalized" language, but otherwise finds the book useful because it provokes debate on an important health risk issue. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
15544. CLARE BOOTHE LUCE (1903-1987). The life and career of this active and sometimes controversial woman. During the course of her life, she was a playwright, journalist, magazine editor, conservative politician. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
15541. A TASTE FOR POP: POP ART, GENDER & CONSUMER CULTURE” BY CECILE WHITING. This paper provides a review and analysis of Whiting’s book about the pop art movement of the 1960s, viewed from the perspective of a feminist scholar writing in the 1990s. The paper includes a chapter-by-chapter summary of the book, which considers the role and importance of all the major pop icons of the 1960s, including Andy Warhol. Concludes that Whiting provides a good survey of the historical development of Pop art and its relationship to consumer culture and to representations of gender. KEYWORDS: book review nonfiction pop culture 1960s andy warhol Lichtensteinfeminism gender. MLA Style. 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $56
15529. WOMEN IN ANCIENT GREECE (SUE BLUNDELL). Review of book, whose purpose is to provide information on a topic neglected in traditional historical studies (special emphasis is given to Blundell's views on women in Sparta and Gortyn). It is argued that the author creates an informative overview by drawing from a wide range of sources, although since the evidence is fragmentary, she must sometimes reach speculative conclusions. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
15526. THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION ON WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Argues that, although many women participated in the Revolution and made demands for reform, in the end their social position was basically the same as it was in the beginning. The male-dominant views of the time are contrasted with the arguments for women's equality, and it is shown that women were ultimately suppressed by the male leaders of the Revolution. 10 pages, 20 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $70
15510. AN "AUTOBIOGRAPHY" OF JOAN OF ARC. The life of the peasant girl who became a military leader in the war of the French against the English, as it would have been told from her own perspective while awaiting her execution on heresy and witchcraft charges. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $49
15506. TWO CONTEMPORARY WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS WITH OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS. The National Organization for Women (a feminist group seeking equal rights) is compared with the Independent Women's Forum (a conservative pro-family group). The paper covers the historical background of the two groups, their leaders, and their views, agendas and activities. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $49
15504. WOMEN AND EQUALITY (WILLIAM H. CHAFE). Critical review of this book of essays concerning the history of the women's rights movement in America. Discusses the author's use of a structural perspective and argues that, although minor flaws exist in the book, it is valuable overall. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
15498. THE TALIBAN AND AFGHANISTAN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Taliban and their use of Islamic fundamentalism to influence and control the people of Afghanistan. Following a brief background overview of Afghanistan and its strategic importance, the first section details the Taliban's rise to power in Afghanistan. The second section focuses on the Taliban's strategy and actions after coming to power, with particular attention to the regime's subjugation of women's rights and basic human liberties. The Taliban's relations with foreign powers - including the U.S. - are discussed within the context of this topic; broader foreign policy concerns related to September 11th and its aftermath are not considered within this analysis. KEYWORDS: afghanistan taliban human rights status women us intervention 911. APA Style. 15 pages, 47 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $105
15490. MINORITY WOMEN & THE GLASS CEILING SYNDROME. A review of the literature on this subject including an examination of studies conducted by the Glass Ceiling Commission, the Catalyst organization, and others. Topics covered include the syndrome's dimensions, its causes and its existence in such places as the military and medical schools. Although many of the existing studies deal with women in general, this review pays particular attention to studies that have examined the problem as it pertains to minority women. 30 pages, 70 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.   $133
15484. SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND EMPLOYMENT LAW. Examines various cases in the Supreme Court and other courts, and includes a discussion of quid pro quo cases, hostile work environment claims, same sex harassment, and other types of claims. In addition, the paper discusses what the courts have determined regarding employer liability, and thus what companies can do to defend themselves against sexual harassment claims. 19 pages, 58 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $133
15468. IMMIGRANT & REFUGEE WOMEN OF EUROPE & NORTH AMERICA. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the current status and acculturation issues among the immigrant/refugee women of Europe and North America. Following an overview of some of the issues of legal and illegal immigration and the distinction between immigrants and refugees, the essay explores issues of acculturation and assimilation among the immigrant/refugee women as they struggle to settle in their new homelands. KEYWORDS: women immigrants refugees immigration female term paper. APA Style. 23 pages, 53 footnotes, 26 bibliographic references. 7,407 words.   $133
15452. MULTIPLE VIEWS OF ARAB FEMINISM IN "FOUR WOMEN OF EGYPT." This paper utilizes Tahani Rached's 1997 documentary film, "Four Women of Egypt" as the starting point for a discussion of the heterogeneity of contemporary Arab feminism and Egyptian women's role in politics. The analysis focuses on some of the key issues and/or points of ideological differences between these four Egyptian women portrayed in the film. Specifically, the analysis considers the differences between Western and Arab feminism and the link between Arab feminism and nationalism in Egypt; religious differences (in this case, Muslim, Christian and atheist), the debate over the secular versus religious state, women's role in Islam, and the meaning of the veil. It is argued that the film effectively debunks Western stereotypes about Arab feminism and Egyptian women's role in political life. Keywords: arab feminists women islam term paper women arabia essay. APA Style. 14 pages, 28 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.   $98
15238. UNIVERSITY SEXUAL HARASSMENT CODES. This paper considers whether university sexual harassment policies violate the First Amendment (free speech) rights of professors' and students. Reviews existing case law on academic freedom, First Amendment rights of public employees, and applicable university sexual harassment cases. Concludes that a First Amendment challenge to the vague "hostile environment" standards in these policies is possible. KEYWORDS: first amendment free speech sexual harassment codes university academic freedom. APA Style. 15 pages, 64 footnotes, 41 bibliographic sources (including cases). 5,053 words.   $105
15226. WOMEN AND SALONS IN 18TH CENTURY EUROPE. In the eighteenth century, many women held meetings in their homes for artists and intellectuals. The practice began in Paris and then spread throughout the cultural centers of Europe. However, although the salon hostesses played an important cultural and social role, they continued to lack full equality with men at the time. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $77
15193. SHAKESPEARE'S DEPICTION OF FEMALE SEXUALITY. This paper looks at how Shakespeare treated women's sexuality in six plays: Romeo and Juliet, Othello, Hamlet, Antony and Cleopatra, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest. These plays show a wide variety of ways in which women express their sexuality; in addition they show that male dominance has a negative effect on women and their ability to express themselves. 15 pages, 40 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.   $105
15188. RUMI'S VIEWS ON WOMEN. This paper looks at the life and work of the Persian mystic and poet, and finds that his views on women are ambiguous. Some passages in his work reflect the sexist attitudes of the time; however, there are other passages that treat women as equal in the spiritual quest, and even equate the qualities of women to those of God Himself. 14 pages, 42 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $98
15170. WOMEN IN ISLAM. Argues for the need to view the situation from the perspective of Islamic women rather than from a Western feminist point of view. As such, it can be seen that it is not Islam, but rather traditions of patriarchy, that causes women to be treated poorly in certain societies. Among other things, female genital cutting, the veil, the Qur'anic passages are discussed. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
15163. REVIEW OF BOOK: FEMINISM AND RELIGION (RITA GROSS). This paper reviews Gross's book on how feminism has changed both the practice of religion and the academic study of religion. It is argued that the author's use of survey evidence is convincing, and her views on the need for an open-minded perspective and on the "postpatriarchal future of religion" are also discussed. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $42
15114. WOMEN IN ADVERTISING. Historical overview of the use of women in ads, as role models and for sex appeal. Includes a discussion of stereotypes and unrealistic standards, which still exist despite changes that occurred after the 1970s. Concludes with some suggestions for improving the image of women in the media. 17 pages, 53 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $119
15043. THE ROLE AND STATUS OF WOMEN IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY. The evidence of Paul's letters indicates that women at first had equal status in the church, similar to what they had in the Greco-Roman cults. However, this status declined by the time of the "deutero-Pauline" letters and the apocryphal text "Acts of Paul and Thecla." 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $42
15041. DEPICTION OF WOMEN IN THE ARABIAN NIGHTS. A study of the role and status of women, as seen in the narrator Shahrazad, and various female characters in her tales. Argues that the overall purpose of the tales is to teach the men of the society that "women are people too"; as in the case of men, some women are unfaithful or evil, but others are good and heroic. 17 pages, 45 footnotes, 10 bibliographic reference.   $119
15013. WITCHCRAFT IN EUROPE. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the development and practice of witchcraft in Europe. Following a definition of witchcraft and witches, the paper discusses the development of witchcraft and the links between healers, traditional religions, and witchcraft. Focusing on Europe, the paper then discusses witchcraft from Classical to modern times. KEYWORDS: wicca witches witchcraft europe. Scientific Notation Style. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $63
14073. MARY CASSATT AND THE MODERN WOMAN. Discusses how the works of the Impressionist painter reflect the views on "femininity" that existed at the time. Discusses how she treated women subjectively rather than as "objects," and how she depicted women's space; also compares her depiction of women with those of Renoir, Degas, Manet and Morisot. 15 pages, 42 footnotes, 10 bibliographic reference.   $105
14055. FAMILY FRIENDLY ORGANIZATIONS. This paper provides an overview and analysis of “work-family” issues (considering the topic from its more inclusive term of “work-life”) and their impact on the organization, in terms of making the organization more “family-friendly”. The first section provides a general overview of the history and evolution of “work/family” concepts and traces the demographic and organizational/work changes which have spurred the focus on these issues. The next section surveys the current status of “family-friendly” policies and practices in organizations, looking at the scope and breadth of these programs and considering factors such as barriers to implementation as well as benefits accruing to the organization and the individual as the result of family-friendly policies and practices. A concluding section examines the future issues in the “family-friendly” organization. KEYWORDS: work family conflict family friendly organizations term paper. APA Style. 24 pages, 62 footnotes, 35 bibliographical sources. 6,219 words.   $133
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