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25B. AFRICA

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18790. THE “NIGERIAN SCAM.” AND CONFIDENCE SCHEMES. This term paper is concerned with e-mails and letters, originating in Nigeria, that invite people to participate in corrupt practices for their personal benefit but are actually designed to con them out of their money through the payment of “advance fees.” The paper addresses the causes of the problem and the efforts that have been made to resolve it. It is argued that the problem should be handled by strengthening law enforcement within Nigeria rather than through outside intervention. TAGS: criminology research paper, international relations, internet, Nigerian scam essay. APA Style. 10 pages, 38 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,366 words.   $70
 
18576. THE AFRICAN BRAIN DRAIN: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT. Drawing on examples from some of the most heavily-affected countries and focusing in particular on the heavily affected healthcare sector, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of the brain drain from sub-Saharan African countries to the developed world. It is the thesis of this paper that for some of the most heavily affected African countries, brain drain has already created a crisis of development through its impact on the healthcare and education sectors, and that in all of the affected African countries, brain drain stands as a primarily impediment to sustainable development. KEYWORDS: brain drain knowledge workers Africa healthcare development push pull migration factors education AIDS life expectancy south Africa Ghana Nigeria Senegal Kenya Zimbabwe Uganda. APA Style. 15 pages, 62 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources. 4,240 words.   $105
 
18376. CARLYLE JAPAN (A) HARVARD BUSINESS CASE STUDY 5080092. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School marketing case study by Godes, Egawa and Yamazaki concerning the Japanese division of Carlyle, one of the world’s premier private equity firms. The case focuses on Managing Director Tamotsu Adachi’s efforts to formulate a strategy to improve Carlyle’s capacity to source high-quality deals at competitive prices. The paper includes problem statement, problem analysis with SWOT, identification and assessment of alternatives, recommendations, and implementation plan. KEYWORDS: case studies case solution B2B marketing sales networks private equity deal sourcing. 11 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
18314. THE NEED FOR A “WHOLE-NATION” APPROACH TO RECONCILIATION AND PEACE BUILDING IN RWANDA. This paper is concerned with the effort to attain reconciliation and peace in Rwanda, a nation that has been torn by ethnic conflict between the Tutsis and the Hutus. Three major approaches have been used following the 1994 genocide: international intervention, the Rwandan court system, and gacaca (local courts, with an emphasis on reintegration of offenders). However, progress has been slow because of flaws in the existing efforts. It is argued that it is important to deal with the needs and concerns of all social groups in the nation as a whole, not just with those of the Tutsis and Hutus. KEYWORDS: Rwanda politics law justice ethnic conflict. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 22 pages, 36 footnotes in text, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
18228. APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA AND SEGREGATION IN THE UNITED STATES. This paper discusses how Jim Crow laws oppressed African Americans in the Southern U.S. despite their emancipation in the 1860s. Similarly, race-related problems have persisted in South Africa despite the end of the apartheid policy with the election of the African National Congress in 1994. Based on these examples, it is argued that various factors contribute to the persistence of problems in countries with a legacy of racial oppression, even after laws have been passed to prevent such problems. KEYWORDS: race relations apartheid South Africa segregation Jim Crow America. MLA Style. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
18073. GLOBALIZATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND MALAWI. The first part of this paper discusses globalization and development in general terms, with an emphasis on the factors that have enabled some developing nations to be more successful at globalization efforts than others. The second part of the paper is concerned with the specific case of Malawi, a country in dire poverty that is struggling with various economic, political, and social problems. Recommendations are made for policies and actions that could help Malawi become better integrated into the global economic community. KEYWORDS: globalization international development malawi. Written 2006. MLA Style. 15 pages, 38 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,682 words.   $105
 
18062. “THE WRETCHED OF THE EARTH” BY FRANTZ FANON. This paper critically reviews the first chapter of Fanon's book ("Concerning Violence"), as well as the preface by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. These authors seek to justify the use of violence in decolonization efforts. The paper criticizes Fanon and Sartre for their argument that violence is always necessary in national liberation, and for their glorification of violence as a "virtue." In addition, flaws are found in the arguments of both authors. For example, their claims are not convincing because they rely on emotional appeals and neo-Marxist views, and because they fail to address possible alternative ways of overcoming colonial oppression. KEYWORDS: book review violence decolonization frantz fanon jean-paul sartre. Written 2006. MLA Style. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,665 words.   $49
 
18051. “ESSAYS ON AFRICAN HISTORY” BY JEAN SURET-CANALE. This paper critically assesses two of the arguments made by Suret-Canale in this book: (1) the transatlantic slave trade disrupted the evolution of African societies and resulted in long-term economic, political, and social problems, and (2) the slave trade was a product of alliances between African rulers and European slave traders. It is argued that, even though these viewpoints may be true, Suret-Canale is not successful in building a convincing case. He makes unsubstantiated assumptions, fails to provide solid evidence to support his claims, and relies too much on a Marxist perspective and Marxist methods of analysis. KEYWORDS: book review historical africa history slavery marxism slave trade. Written 2006. MLA Style. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,701 words.   $49
 
18014. “GOD'S BITS OF WOOD” BY SEMBENE OUSMANE. This paper discusses Ousmane's novel, which is based on a historic event (a strike by West African workers on the Dakar-Niger Railroad in 1947-1948). Through characterization, action and dialogue, Ousmane shows the clash between traditional and French cultures, the impact of industrial capitalism on the lives of African men and women, and the ways that industrial capitalism liberated and empowered the people yet subjugated them at the same time. KEYWORDS: africa history post-colonialism book review fiction essay. Written 2006. MLA Style. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,415 words.   $42
 
18004. RWANDAN JOURNALIST CHARLES KABONERO. This paper discusses the problems faced by the editor of Rwanda's only independent newspaper, Umuseso. In 2004, Kabonero was tried on charges of defamation and "divisionism" because of an article criticizing a parliamentary official. This situation is discussed in the context of Rwanda’s ethnic conflict and the government's oppression and intimidation of the press. It is noted that the case has drawn increased international attention to the problems relating to press freedom in Rwanda and elsewhere in the world. KEYWORDS: rwanda charles kabonero government oppression press freedom umuseso newspaper. Written 2006. APA Style. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,258 words.   $35
 
17605. MALARIA: A GLOBAL HEALTH PROBLEM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of malaria as a major health problem affecting many of the underdeveloped regions of sub-tropical Africa, Central America, South America, and Southeast Asia. Discusses the scope of the problem, describes the symptoms of the disease, its causes, and its treatment. Describes how the disease was eradicated in the developed world and then considers developing world prevention and eradication programs, including philanthropic efforts by Bill Gates and others. KEYWORDS: malaria infectious vector borne disease prevention eradication third world. Written 2005. MLA Style. 8 pages, 26 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,342 words. 16, 23c   $56
 
17602. MALARIA AND THE BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION. Following a brief profile of malaria as a serious health problem affecting millions of people in Africa and other parts of the developing world, this paper looks at contemporary efforts to eradicate the disease, with a special focus on the efforts led by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. KEYWORDS: malaria eradication efforts philanthropy bill gates foundation. Written 2005. MLA Style. 6 pages, 18 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,465 words.   $42
 
17413. THE DOBE JU/’HOANSI: A HUNTING & GATHERING SOCIETY CONFRONTS MODERNITY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Dobe Ju/’hoansi (a band of indigenous hunters and gatherers living in the northwest Kalahari Desert) and the global forces influencing them. After a brief discussion of !Kung Bushmen nomenclature, the first part of the paper provides a general orientation on the Dobe Ju/’hoansi, considering their racial and linguistic antecedents, location, population, social structure, historical relations with other societies and recent historical occurrences. The second part of the paper examines the recent (present-day) circumstances of the group, looking at the external forces influencing them and their internal and external resources available for cultural survival. A concluding section makes suggestions on future research and comments on the problems and benefits of the various reference materials used. KEYWORDS: African primitive culture hunter gatherer societies bushmen Kung. Written 2004. 14 pages, 17 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 5,296 words.   $98
 
17356. CRISIS IN ZIMBABWE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of current events (as contained in recent newspaper articles) in Zimbabwe, within the context of that country’s historical background as a colonized region. It is hypothesized that the legacy of British imperial rule is related to the nation’s current problems. In particular, the current dilemma in agricultural production is related to the fact that imperial rule left most of the country’s farmlands in the hands of a tiny minority of white settlers. Concludes that the greatest domestic problem faced by Zimbabwe today is that of the starvation of most of its people – a problem clearly related to the government’s recent program of seizing land. In turn, the land-seizure program can be seen as a reaction to the imperial period, when a minority of white settlers took over the land for their own gain. Overall, the hypothesis that many of the current problems in Zimbabwe are related to the nation’s legacy of imperial rule under the British is confirmed. KEYWORDS: Zimbabwe Rhodesia Mugabe land seizure problems colonial heritage. Written 2005. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,226 words.   $70
 
17348. OKONKWO IN CHINUA ACHEBE’S “THINGS FALL APART”. This paper presents an analysis of the character Okonkwo in the novel “Things Fall Apart” by Chinua Achebe. Specifically, the paper addresses the question of whether Okonkwo, in his reactions to the advent of colonial rule in Igbo (Nigerian) society, is a victim of tradition or a victim of his own individualistic ambition. Although Okonkwo’s downfall is clearly related to his efforts to preserve the traditions of his society, it is argued that, ultimately, he is a victim of his own anger, pride, and ambition. KEYWORDS: African literature Nigeria character Okonkwo Achebe colonial Nigerian fiction society. Written 2005. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,653 words.   $49
 
17233. "AKE: THE YEARS OF CHILDHOOD" BY WOLE SOYINKA (BOOK REVIEW). This paper discusses how Soyinka’s autobiographical work represents the impact of colonial modernism on the Yoruba society of Nigeria. Religious beliefs, technology, and changes in culture and consumption are described. Keywords: Yoruba Nigeria society. 7 pages; 17 footnotes; 1 bibliographic sources. 1,612 words.   $49
 
17226. THE CONGO FREE STATE (1885-1908). This paper describes how the combined forces of greed, command economy, and racism led to the cruelties that resulted in a drastic reduction of the indigenous population in the Congo. Topics include the actions of King Leopold II of Belgium, the colonial ivory and rubber industries, and the extreme punishments used to coerce labor. Keywords: Congo Belgium racism planned economy slave labor. 10 pages; 35 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources. 2,545 words.   $70
 
17224. ZIMBABWE AND THE LEGACY OF COLONIALISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Zimbabwe’s modern-day economic, political and social problems, as described in newspaper accounts. These problems are then related to the legacy of European imperialism and colonial rule. That legacy included such things as white seizure of farmlands, segregationist treatment of the indigenous population, and the failure to provide a smooth transition to democracy during the nation’s independence movement. Keywords: Africa Colonialism legacy contemporary problems segregation Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Written 2004. 10 pages; 14 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 2,226 words.   $70
 
17211. EXTRAJUDICIAL KILLING IN NIGERIA. This paper provides an overview and analysis of extrajudicial killings as a major human rights abuse in Nigeria. The paper focuses on the more recent continued problem of extrajudicial killing as it has occurred under the civilian administration since May of 1999. The investigation provides an overview of the abuse and its context, including a discussion of where, how and why the abuse is occurring. Additional sections identify and discuss the application of existing international human rights law to the problem of extrajudicial killing in Nigeria; describe and evaluate relevant United Nations procedural action against this type of human rights abuse; and describe and evaluate complementary and alternative strategies and procedures to address this serious abuse of human rights in Nigeria. Keywords: human rights abuse extrajudicial killings international law Nigeria United Nations sanctions. Written 2004. 15 pages; 45 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 4,229 words.   $105
 
15719. AMERICAN INTELLECTUALS AND AFRICAN NATIONALISTS, 1955-1970 (MARTIN STANILAND). Staniland's book concerns the role of American intellectuals in the African nationalist movements, and he discusses such things as the assumptions and misconceptions of the intellectuals and the growing radicalism of the 1960's. Although the book has weaknesses as well as strengths, it is argued that overall it is useful for the study of this particular aspect of history. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
15654. THE PROBLEM OF HUNGER IN ZIMBABWE. This paper reports on the progress (or lack thereof) made by Zimbabwe since the 1996 World Food Summit in the eradication of hunger; identifies the major obstacles an difficulties Zimbabwe faces in overcoming hunger; and summarizes proposed plans for improving the progress towards achieving the goal of reducing hunger. Zimbabwe's food security position is found to have deteriorated markedly since 1996. Although inclement weather plays a partial role in the current crisis, the major causes of Zimbabwe's food security problems are political and can be traced to Mugabe's land-reform programs, the recent "land invasions," and the mismanagement of the Zimbabwean economy. The AIDS epidemic is cited as a key factor in which must be addressed as part of longer-term efforts to solve the hunger crisis. 17 pages, 47 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
15634. ZIMBABWE: THE POLITICS OF ECONOMIC CRISIS. This paper provides a brief overview and analysis of the current economic situation in Zimbabwe and the prospects for future recovery. Following a background discussion, the analysis examines current economic conditions and the scope of the economic crisis and its underlying causes. It will be argued that Zimbabwe's economic crisis is rooted in the political strategies and ambitions of Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe's president since the country achieved independence in 1980. The concluding section assesses Zimbabwe's prospects for recovery. 9 pages, 28 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
15581. FREEDOM IN FULANI SOCIAL LIFE (RIESMAN) AND VEILED SENTIMENTS (ABU-LUGHOD). In both of these ethnographic studies, the researchers lived among the people they were studying, and both researchers incorporated their own perspectives and experiences into their methodologies. It is argued that, of the two, Abu-Lughod was more successful in absorbing herself into the culture she studied; as a result, her work is more engaging and provides deeper insights. 13 pages, 34 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
15487. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. An overview of the civilization, including a discussion of the role of the Nile River and other natural resources. Also discusses the art and religious beliefs of the Egyptians, and notes that although a similar culture persisted throughout the civilization's 3000-year history, changes and variations can be seen as well. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $49
 
15175. DOING BUSINESS IN SOUTH AFRICA. Provides a brief history of the country, with its political, economic and social background, and argues that there are great opportunities for doing business there. However, there is also a need for caution because of labor and race issues, limited domestic market, high crime rate, and other factors. 12 pages, 36 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.   $84
 
15157. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. An overview of the civilization, including a discussion of the role of the Nile River and other natural resources. Also discusses the art and religious beliefs of the Egyptians, and notes that although a similar culture persisted throughout the civilization's 3000-year history, changes and variations can be seen as well. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $49
 
15076. PORTUGAL IN THE SLAVE & SPICE TRADES. Why did Portugal, pioneering founder and unequivocal European leader of the spice and slave trades through the sixteenth century, drop to the margins of these trades in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? That is the central question under investigation in this comparative study of the European-Asian spice trade and Atlantic slave trade of the 15th-18th Centuries. The analysis looks at the major reasons for the decline and eventual diminution of the Portuguese role in these two major trades, considering political, organizational, cultural, economic, competitive and other factors. KEYWORDS: portugal history economic decline spice trade slave trade. APA Style. 14 pages, 40 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references. 5,421 words.   $98
 
15073. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN MARITIME NATIONS, 1440-1860. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the economic impact of the transatlantic slave trade on the major European slave-trading nations. Argues that despite huge losses and inefficiencies, the major European slave traders of the 17th and 18th Centuries (Dutch, British, French) benefited economically from the trade in terms of increased exports, improvements in the shipping industry, the slave labor efficiencies of the plantation economies in the colonies, and the stimulation of development and innovation within certain industries. The effect is most dramatic for Great Britain. KEYWORDS: colonial powers slave trade history economic development commerce slaves britain france netherlands portugal. APA Style. 15 pages, 45 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references. 5,216 words.   $105
 
15060. SOMALIA: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHALLENGES. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current political and economic conditions in Somalia and the major challenges the country faces as it tries to re-create a state. The analysis provides an overview of the recent historical and current political and economic conditions in Somalia; considers the underlying social-political-economic structure of the country and the presence (or absence of the prerequisites of statehood); summarizes the major threats and challenges faced by the newly-emerging Somali state; and considers the most appropriate structure of government for Somali survival. Contrary to the bias of international authorities, it is argued that Somalia should not attempt to forge a new state based on a single central authority. Rather, Somalia must rebuild its nation on a foundation of multiple centers of local control. 11 pages, 40 footnotes, 20 bibliographic references.   $77
 
14046. MAGIC RITUAL IN THREE CULTURES. This term paper examines and compares magical practices and beliefs in three cultures: 1) the Nuer of Sudan, the Dobuans of the South Pacific, and the Afro-Caribbean followers of Vodou. The paper concludes that while the basic ideas behind magic are similar in the three cultures, the exact practices of magic reflect different views on the supernatural and how the world functions. KEYWORDS: supernatural comparative religion folk beliefs magic superstition nuer dobuan vodou voodoo. MLA Style. 7 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
14025. ALGERIA AND THE PROSPECTS FOR DEMOCRACY. This paper covers the nation’s politics after Independence (1962) and then discusses how the failed elections of 1991 led to a violent civil war between Islamic fundamentalists and the military-based government. The prospects for democracy appear bleak at this time, but there are also signs of hope for the future. Topics covered include the need for compromise and a change in the military’s perceived role, as well as the need to address the nation’s economic problems and to develop agreed-on rules for fair elections. 24 pages, 81 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.   $133
 
13670. THE BOER WAR OF 1899-1902. An investigation of the Boer War in terms of the cultural and political forces leading up to it, the military forces involved; and the economic and social forces emerging in its aftermath. Considers both of the major players (Boers and British) and some of the minor players (e.g., Germans, Americans). Argues that the Boer War effectively introduced guerilla warfare to the European powers, and ended the military era of the massed infantry formation, the casual truce, and the antiquated weaponry of the 19th Century. 14 pages, 30 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13650. MODERN AFRICAN LITERATURE: RESPONSES TO SOCIAL & POLITICAL CRISES. Examines the differing nature of the African people's responses to various kinds of social, political and spiritual crisis in four different works of modern African literature: Achebe's Anthills of the Savannah, Soyinka's autobiography, Ake, and Sembene Osumane's two novellas, The Money Order and White Genesis. Focuses on the common threads of traditional African society running through all four works and argues that each of the works studied poses a similar problem in which the central character or characters must face a crisis in their lives. 14 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13631. AIDS AND THE DEMOGRAPHIC DISASTER IN AFRICA. This paper examines the demographic effects of AIDS in Africa. Focusing on the hardest-hit countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, the analysis considers the present and future impact of the AIDS epidemic on major demographic measures such as fertility, mortality, life expectancy, gender, age, and family structure. KEYWORDS: aids africa term paper aids epidemic demographic change sub-sahara africa. APA Style. 20 pages, 61 footnotes, 36 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
13217. POLITICAL INSTABILITY AND THE FAILURE OF THE SUDANESE REGIME. Following a brief background discussion of Sudan's political structure, this report examines the causes of Sudan's chronic political instability and its threatened disintegration. Traces key causal factors in the failure to form a national identity, looking back to the 1820 Turko-Egyptian invasion and forward to the failure of the 1972 Addis Ababa Accord during the Numeiri regime. Examines the continued failure to create an accountable government among the successive regimes, with particular emphasis on the disruptive influences of the Numeiri regime and the current regime officially led by President Omar al Bashir but under the defacto leadership of NIF founder and speaker of the parliament Hassan al-Turabi. A concluding section considers the prospects for a future in Sudan. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
13173. THE LIMITS TO "MODERNIZATION" IN COLONIAL AFRICA. A detailed examination of the problem of psychological and social "modernization" in late colonial Africa. Focuses on three specific examples: the 'Kimbangist' church movement (an adaptation of Christianity) in the Congo region 1920's--1940's; the tribal 'consolidation' and renewal movement of the Fang peoples in Cameroun and Gabon 1947-51; and the career of Adegoke Adelabu, a Nigerian politician who made a transition from a distinctly marginal commercial/bureaucratic career to a Cabinet position before and untimely death in 1958. Conclusion mixes importance of 'modernization' changes in individual lives, with socio-political-economic structures that provided firm limits to large-scale social change. 12 pages, 19 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $84
 
12749. THE HUMAN COSTS OF COLONIALISM IN AFRICA, 1890-1940. Well-documented look at the costs of colonial rule (yet without denying that there were benefits, mostly inextricably linked to costs in grand processes of social & economic change). Focuses on military conquests and military suppression of scores of revolts in early colonialism, the extreme of economic exploitation/genocide in Belgian Congo and "normal" exploitation and land grabbing elsewhere in Africa, commercial conquest by European firms, suppression of moderate native political and social movements in interwar period, and examination of fictional character Okonkwo in Achebe's Things Fall Apart as a proxy for the psychological costs of colonialism in one man's life. 12p. 5b. 25f.   $84
 
12748. IMPERIALISM, PROFITS AND LEADERSHIP: THE FAILURES OF INDEPENDENT AFRICA. Scholarly examination of the practice of "kleptocracy" in recent decades in Africa. Beginning with a look at theories of "modernization" and "dependency," moves quickly to focus on how both the successes and failures of colonialism served to establish corrupt native elites, which only grew stronger and greedier after independence, using Sierra Leone as a major case. Also covers military/political frameworks of dependence & corruption in Chad, Angola and elsewhere, and a strong focus on Mobutu's Zaire as a classic case of what Max Weber called "the patrimonial state," including evidence of how even the IMF can be outwitted by corruption. Concludes that while modernization may yet come, at present there are new social structures which absolutely prevent wide spread development (and Western nations support this in many ways). 12p. 9b. 30f.   $84
 
12613. CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCE IN THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. Excellent summary of the political and economic social changes which made possible the Atlantic slave trade of 1450 to the late 1800's. Includes origins of slave trade in early voyages, distinction between "household" and "chattel/plantation" slavery, role of Portuguese renegade regime on Sao Tome, role of sugar industry, relative strengths of European and African regimes at various times, evolution and statistics, focusing on how the slave system was a true intercontinental political/economic/ system which both drew on existing cultures and provoked social/political/economic changes which maintained and developed the system. Conclusion highlights role of slave trade as origin of modern industrial capitalism. 11p., 26f, 8b.   $77
 
12105. NISA: THE LIFE AND WORDS OF A !KUNG WOMAN BY MARJORIE SHOSTAK. Critique of the 1981 anthropological study of the !Kung San, a group of people living in the Kalahari Desert. Particularly emphasizes the perspective of the women in the society. Concludes that the book is informative and deals with issues all people can relate to. 6 pages, 32 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
 
12099. DEFENDING BRITISH COLONIAL POLICY IN EAST AFRICA. A brief critique and analysis of Lord Lugard's defense of British colonial policy in East Africa, drawing on an excerpt from Lugard's 1893 book, The Rise of Our East African Empire. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
12087. ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN NORTH AND EAST AFRICA. Analyzes recent conflicts in the region caused by the rise of Islamic movements in Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and Chad, and by the rise of an Islamist government in Sudan. Also discusses warfare among various Islamists and proposes that the solution to the problem lies not in violence but in the establishment of new democratic systems. 17 pages, 50 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $119
 
12026. A PROBLEM IN A DEVELOPING NATION: OVERPOPULATION IN EGYPT. Brief, cogent essay profiling the problem of overpopulation in Egypt, considering its scope, causes, and complicating factors. Looks at the relationship between overpopulation and Egypt's slow pace of economic development. 8 pages, 19 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
 
12000. THE NUER (1940) BY E.E. EVANS-PRITCHARD AND THE NUER CONQUEST (1985) BY RAYMOND C. KELLY. Compares and contrasts these two works on why the African Nuer tribe expanded its territorial size during the 19th century. The argument that the expansion was caused by overpopulation and political divisions (Evans-Prichard) is contrasted with the idea that a cattle economy required the Nuer to seek out more land (Kelly). 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
11970. HUNGER AND DEVELOPMENT IN ETHIOPIA. This paper explores hunger as a problem of development in the North African country of Ethiopia. Following an overview of the scope and human impact of the problem, the analysis looks at some of the difficulties and variations in seeking solutions to the problem. 9 pages, 21 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
11888. BOOK REVIEW OF NO LONGER AT EASE BY CHINUA ACHEBE. Examines the novel's themes of cultural conflict in British colonial Nigeria and the different positions of women in modern and traditional society. Considers the novel's themes of religious and political struggle. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
11886. THE LION AND THE JEWEL BY WOLE SOYINKA. A study of Soyinka's aesthetic structure and poetics in The Lion and the Jewel . Considers the play's themes of progress, gender, and redefining values. 5p, 8f. 1b.   $35
 
11751. NIGERIA'S LONG, TROUBLED ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE. Traces Nigerian history from the time of the first independence movement through independence, civil war, and the present-day ethnic strife and political and economic discord. Examines the scope and reasons behind Nigeria's rapid political fragmentation following independence and considers how the colonial system fostered these problems. Profiles all political regimes from independence to the present-day. Considers the prospects for a unified, politically stable Nigeria in the future. 19 pages, 92 footnotes, 45 bibliographic sources. 11751   $133
 
11750. NIGERIA: FROM PRECOLONIAL TIMES TO THE BRITISH COLONY. Traces Nigerian history from the pre-Colonial period through its time as a British colony. Provides an overview of Nigeria's land and people and examines the early European influences and the effect of the African slave trade. Considers the British motivations for colonization -- focusing especially on the palm oil trade -- and traces the development and implementation of the British system of indirect rule. Looks at the costs and benefits of the colonialism in Nigeria. 14 pages, 47 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 11750   $98
 
11726. THE FAILURE OF UN INTERVENTION: THE CASE OF SOMALIA. Considers the limitations of UN-mediated efforts at multilateral intervention in the Third World, taking the Somalian case as an example. The analysis considers both the specific components or features of the UN failure, as well as the reasons behind the failure and steps to be taken for more effective future interventions. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11700. THE POLITICS OF FAMINE: THE CASE OF ETHIOPIA. Compares and contrasts the 1973/74 and the 1984/85 Ethiopian famines, identifying similarities and differences the scope, magnitude, causes, and responses. Considers the environmental, cultural, economic, and political background to each famine. Argues that politics, rather than "natural disaster," was the primary factor exacerbating the famines. Argues further that the 1984/85 famine was directly created by the policies and strategies of the Mengistu government related to the war against Eritrea and the fight against the Tigrean resistance movement. 47 pages, 92 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11658. AFRICA'S NEED FOR DEMOCRACY AND PROSPECTS FOR A DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION. Argues that a transition to democracy presents one of the best opportunities for the resolution of the current African crisis. Recognizes that African countries face many impediments to the successful implementation of democratic government and considers both the realistic prospects for African democracy and some of the steps which must be taken to overcome the barriers to a successful transition. 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11657. AFRICA'S COLONIAL LEGACY. Essay arguing that colonialism's most enduring legacy in Africa today is its creation of a political culture which has proven antithetical to the process of successful democratization. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
11644. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN WEST AFRICA. Survey of the agricultural situation in West Africa, from colonial times to the present. Includes country-by-country rundown of basic statistics, a long list of the problems facing West African agriculture in the 1990s, a review of three strategies for change (World Bank proposal, large- and small-scale irrigation strategies), and a realistic conclusion: prospects are bleak. 26 pages, 19 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11634. NIGERIA: COLONIZATION, INDEPENDENCE & FRAGMENTATION. Traces Nigerian history from the pre-Colonial period to the present. Considers colonial rule and administration, Nigerian independence, and the Nigerian Civil War. Considers current conditions (economic conditions, political fragmentation, social and ethnic discord) and prospects for Nigeria's future. 34 pages, 113 footnotes, 61 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11612. SOUTH AFRICA'S LAND INEQUITY AND THE CHALLENGE OF REDISTRIBUTION. This paper examines the history, current status and future prospects for land reform in South Africa, with a close focus on the ANC's platform for land reform and Mandela's prospects for implementing such reform. 6 pages, 18 footnotes in text, 12 bibliographic sources.   $42
 
11599. OPENING OF THE NILE AND THE PARTITION OF AFRICA. Following an overview of the European partition of Africa in the late 19th/early 20th Centuries, the analysis looks at how the quest for the Nile influenced European public opinion on the need for European control over Africa, sparked European economic interests in Africa, and stimulated imperialist cravings among the major European contenders for African hegemony. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
11586. RE-ESTABLISHING CIVIL SOCIETY AND DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA. This analysis considers some of the problems and prospects for re-establishing civil society and democracy in Africa's so-called failed societies. The legacies of colonialism and the Cold War, tribal and ethnic rivalries and the scarcity of resources are among the factors considered. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11580. CANADIAN FOREIGN POLICY TOWARD SOUTH AFRICA, 1977-1988. History of Canadian actions in the campaign against the apartheid regime of South Africa. Covers Canadian attitudes at the beginning of the period, the Trudeau government's conservative attitude, detailed history of Canadian & South African events in the 1985-88 period when Canada was a relatively radical actor on this front. Finds that sanctions did make an incremental contribution to the ultimate victory, that Canada protected western interests better than the foot-dragging policy of Reagan and Thatcher, and that sanctions can be an effective method of diplomacy. 24 pages, 45 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11577. LIVINGSTONE'S PRIVATE JOURNALS, 1851-1853. Review of this compilation of two notebooks written by the famous African missionary and explorer during the 1850s. Discusses the organization, tone and point of view of the notebooks and elucidates the major themes, including the author's commitment to the missionary ideal, his love of African wildlife, and his condemnation of African natives. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
11531. TUNISIA: DOING BUSINESS IN AN EMERGING MARKET. Profiles doing business in Tunisia, with a focus on the financial infrastructure of the country and the chief mechanisms -- capital markets, direct investment, importing/exporting, and government contracting. Considers the banking system, capital markets, currency, trade and investment regulations, and incentives for foreign business activities. 11 pages, 39 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
11439. ‘THINGS FALL APART” BY CHINUA ACHEBE. This paper provides a review of Achebe’s novel about life in a small African village. The analysis focuses on gender relations and more particularly, on women’s roles as mothers, wives, caretakers, food producers, and breadwinners. KEYWORDS: villagers tribal peoples fiction Achebe Africa gender relations women’s roles. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,408 words.   $35
 
11356. AIDS AND AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BY MARTHA AINSWORTH AND MEAD OVER. A review of the existing research on the scope and potential impact of the AIDS epidemic in Sub-Sarahan Africa. Ainsworth and Over take issue with methodologically flawed studies and point out the lack of information making it difficult to estimate what the impact of this will be. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
 
11298. AFRICAN ENVIRONMENTAL DEPREDATION AND WILDLIFE ECONOMICS. Examines the African wildlife crisis as a function of global market forces based on demand for animal meat, products and specimens. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
11199. COMPARATIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: KENYA AND TANZANIA. Compares and contrasts business climate in Kenya and Tanzania in terms of political/legal, economic,and social-cultural structures. Conclusion evaluates and forecasts their respective business climates. 21 pages, 62 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
11140. AFRICAN WILDLIFE RESERVES VS. TRIBAL TERRITORIAL RIGHTS. Discusses the effect of the Kenyan Maasai Mara game Reserve on the Maasai population. Presents history of Maasai (hunters and nomadic cattle herders) and the development of African wildlife preserves. Considers the impact of growing population and concurrent agricultural demands, tourism, and new data establishing the Maasai's lifestyle as environmentally sound. Concludes the best solution is to allow Maasai more grazing land, even on the game preserve. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $91
 
11101. FACTORS INFLUENCING RECENT SOUTH AFRICAN POLITICAL CHANGE. Discusses political leaders, proposals for restructuring the state, international pressure, internal and external economic pressures. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
11101. FACTORS INFLUENCING RECENT SOUTH AFRICAN POLITICAL CHANGE. See Section 25B. 5 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
11098. BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA. See Section 25B. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
11098. BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS MOVEMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA Presents methods and goals of this radical political movement. Discusses pros and cons (in terms of achieving power) of movement's early focus on core ideas of individual self-esteem, group solidarity, and black pride. Compares movement to US groups. Its turn toward Marxism, relations with other South African groups, and eventual downfall are analyzed. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $49
 
11032. EEC TRADE AND AID TO THE THIRD WORLD. Examines the trade and aid benefits extended to African, Pacific, and Carribean countries through the European Community's Lome Conventions. Focuses on the African nations and the case of Tanzania, where unrestricted aid has fostered dependency and incompetent government. 16 pages, 23 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $112
 
10679. MULTI-PARTY MEDIATION IN THE INDEPENDENCE OF ZIMBABWE. Examines the mediation styles and results of American and British diplomacy in 1976 and 1979 talks concerning the independence of former Rhodesia. Mediation theory and practice are analyzed in detail, and shuttle diplomacy is contrasted with leveraged bargaining. 24 pages, 28 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
10649. COLGATE: SOAP MARKETING IN KENYA. A well-researched analysis which begins with a company profile, its past marketing history, and a background report on Kenya. The appeal and potential demand for the product is then discussed, as is possible foreign competition. 11 pages, 38 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10586. NIGERIA'S EXTERNAL DEBT PROBLEM. Analysis of Nigeria's debt problem in relation to its oil exports, government spending, and currency devaluation. The solution is seen in political reform which will end official corruption and incompetence in guiding the economy. 15 pages, 30 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
10534. AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION BY GEOFFREY PARRINDER. Review of a general survey of the main elements of African religion. Gods, rituals, and beliefs of major African tribes are compared. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
10520. ISLAMIC WOMEN IN SENEGAL. Provides an overview and assessment of women's social, cultural and economic status in Muslim Senegal. Concludes that despite progress in educational and economic realms, Senegalese women remain bound by Islamic social and cultural restraints. 10 pages, 26 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
10497. MARRIAGE AND CULTURAL INDOCTRINATION IN AFRICA. Discusses how marriage rites reflect and indoctrinate social values such as male dominance, the nature of religious worship, the rules of property, and social hierarchies. 10 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
10316. SOCIAL STRUCTURES AND SOCIALIZATION AMONG THE IK. Analysis of Colin Turnbull's anthropology study "The Mountain People," noting the disintegration of social structures, values and behaviors by starvation and sickness. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
 
10187. ALGERIA: POLITICAL PROFILE. Details Algeria's political history, discussing its present political and constitutional systems and analyzing its influential groups and parties. Includes a discussion of the perceptions of political stability with speculation on the country's future. 11 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
 
10133. RAMSES II. The life and accomplishments of the 19th Dynasty pharoah are reviewed. Ramses role in war, his patronage of architecture and statuary, and the general prosperity and strength of Egyptian civilization in his period are discussed. 10 pages, 10 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
09907. RACIAL CONFLICT AND EXTERNAL INTERVENTION: SOUTH AFRICA AND APARTHEID. Critical evaluation of two articles in African studies on the role of external (Western nation) intervention in ending apartheid. One article takes a U.S. position and argues that it is possible to install effective economic sanctions against South Africa. the other article takes the French position that the best policy is non-military "dialogue" without economic sanctions. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
09652. NUER AND DINKA RELIGION: HERMENEUTICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES. A comparison of the semiological, hermeneutic approach to analysis of a primitive religion, with the psychological approach. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
09487. THE IMF, THE WORLD BANK AND AFRICA: AUSTERITY MEASURES AND THE PROBLEM OF EXCESS DEBT. Examines the development of debt problems in Africa and the economic effects of World Bank and IMF policies. Noting the human cost of IMF banker's austerity measures in Africa, makes suggestions for alternative relief programs. 9 pages, 23 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
09428. ISRAEL AND SOUTH AFRICA. Discusses the "unnatural alliance" of these two countries. Considers economic and national security reasons behind the alliance. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
09428. ISRAEL AND SOUTH AFRICA. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. See Section 19E.   $35
 
09358. AIDS IN UGANDA. Traces the epidemiology of AIDS in Uganda. Examines the government-sponsored AIDS prevention program in Uganda and considers social, political, economic and cultural barriers to the prevention of AIDS. 10 pages, 30 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
09338. SOVIET-LIBYAN RELATIONS UNDER GORBACHEV. Examines and analyzes Gorbachev-directed Soviet policy towards Libya and outlines the way in which these policies represent a divergence from previous Soviet positions. The influences of U.S.-Soviet relations and the Soviet's relations with other Mid-East countries are also considered. 14 pages, 24 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $98
 
09214. U.S. LIBYAN RELATIONS SINCE 1969. Traces U.S.-Libyan relations from the time of Qaddafi's takeover coup in 1969 up to the present, with an emphasis on policy during the Carter and Reagan administrations. Considers the role of U.S.-lsraeli relations in the policy decisions as well as assessing the effectiveness of military action against Libya during the Reagan Administration. 15 pages, 35 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
09180. "MASTER HAROLD" ... AND THE BOYS BY ATHOL FUGARD. A critical evaluation of Fugard's treatment of the consequences of apartheid. Contends that Fugard's analysis of the apartheid system parallels the cynical analysis of the individual and the state found in Machiavelli's The Prince. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
09178. "THE ARROW OF GOD" BY CHINUA ACHEBE. Considers the treatment of the father and son characters in Achebe's novel which deals with the coming of the white man and Christianity into the heartland of the ibo in Eastern Nigeria. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
 
09111. THE WORLD DIAMOND MARKET. Profile of the world diamond market and industry, including a history of the industry, a profile of the major players in the diamond industry monopoly, and a discussion of the role of diamond cutters. Argues that diamonds no longer represent a sound long-term investment. 30 pages, 45 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
08907. THE DEBT STRUCTURE OF ZAIRE. Analyzes the debt structure of Zaire in terms of Zaire's economic structure and standing in the world economy. Considers public and private debt, repayment arrears, debt rescheduling arrangements, commercial and developmental banks involved in Zaire's debt and prospects for a rescheduling plan. Zaire,s resources, employment, governmental policies, and tax incentives are also taken into account. 19 pages, 37 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
 
08816. "JULY'S PEOPLE" BY NADINE GORDIMER. Considers the social implications of Gordimer's novel which presents a reversal of the white power structure in present-day South Africa. 5 pages, 6 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
08550. NATURAL RESOURCES IN NORTH MOSLEM AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST. discussion and analysis of the natural resources of the region, including those which are plentiful (oil, natural gas, minerals) and those which are unavailable (water, arable land, and food). 10 pages, 23 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
 
08425. THE BOTHA GOVERNMENT'S RACIAL POLICY. Essay arguing that the South African government's hard line policy against blacks has profound implications for international affairs. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
08424. DOING BUSINESS IN SOUTH AFRICA. Examines the arguments for and against divestiture of American business holdings in South Africa. Divestiture is viewed as a moral question, rather than as a primarily political or economic issue. 15 pages, 10 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $105
 
08251. CHOCOLATE. An overview of the problems Third World cocoa producing nations face. Environmental problems, internal political and economic problems, external political and economic problems are assessed. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
08174. CHRISTIAN ETHICS AND THE POWER STRUGGLE IN SOUTH AFRICA. The relationship between political power and Christian ethics is reviewed in this study of the apartheid crisis in South Africa; historical church policies and the mission of the church in South Africa are looked at, and a positive role for the Church in promoting change is envisioned. 15p. l3f. 5b.   $105
 
08049. U.S. POLICY IN SOUTH AFRICA. A survey of four articles dealing with U.S. policy towards South Africa which considers the effect economic sanctions, a possible trade embargo, and moral persuasion would have in brining about change. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
 
07706. MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS FOR THE SUDAN. A qualitative overview of the factors facing a hypothetical international trading company considering an investment in the Sudan. Basic problems of investing in poor Third World countries, reasons for investing in the Sudan, the number and functions of expatriate staff, function of the Sudanese operation in the international company, development of local staff, need for the good government relations, need to apply modern management techniques as far as possible. 9 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $63
 
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