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19367. THE UAE AND EMPIRATIZATION FROM TWO PERSPECTIVES: THE GOVERNMENT AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR. This paper draws on the scholarly literature on Emiratization, as well as recent government and press reports, to look at Emiratization and decision-making from two viewpoints: 1) the perspective of the UAE government as it establishes Emiratization policies, laws and quotas, and as it adjusts policy in response to organizational and other pressures; and 2) the perspective of UAE organizations (especially those in the private sector where Emiratization has met with the greatest resistance) charged with implementing Emiratization. In terms of the UAE government and Emiratization decision-making, the analysis considers the government’s rationale behind the initial decision to push for Emiratization, as well as examines the government’s decision-making process as it has expanded on and modified Emiratization policies. In terms of individual UAE organizations and Emiratization decisions, the analysis examines organizations’ decision-making process in terms of hiring/promoting Emiratis versus expatriates, as well as organizations’ decision-making process regarding how they decide to comply (or not comply) with Emiratization policies and objectives. The analysis also takes into account a third key decision-making perspective: that of the Emirati citizen. Harvard Style. 20 pages, 211 footnotes, 61 bibliographic sources, 5,301 words.
TAGS: United Arab Emirates, labor policy, Emiratization, native workers, migrant labor, security issues, economic development, government-business relations.
19250. EXPAND THE MENU? HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW CASE STUDY SOLUTION (R1606K) NEW, FALL 2016. This paper provides a case study analysis and solution to a Harvard Business Review strategy case study by Sandeep Purl, Kirti Khanzode, Alison Beard, Rajiv Meherish, and Anthony Ackil. The case focuses on the pros and cons of expanding the menu line at Yolk-ay, a United Arab Emirates chain specializing in traditional Indian egg dishes. This brief case study analysis includes problem identification, analysis, discussion of alternatives, and recommendations. APA Style, 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: Menu expansion Harvard case study solution, brand management, competitive advantage, family business, strategy, growth, restaurant business

19239. THE TRANSFORMATION OF MUDO HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL CASE STUDY 416015 SOLUTION. NEW, FALL 2016. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School organizational behavior case study by Anthony J. Mayo, Esel Cekin, and Cigdem Celik on Turkish retailer Mudo. The case focuses on Mudo’s CEO’s efforts to lead Mudo’s transition from a family business to a more institutionalized, corporate structure. The case analysis and solution includes problem identification, problem analysis, identification and evaluation of alternatives, and recommendations. APA Style, 11 pages, 4 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: Mudo Harvard case study, organizational change, leadership, growth strategy, risk, strategy, family business, emerging markets, organizational culture, retail, entrepreneurial vision, competition, customer service, retail, values, organizational transformation, Turkey, culture and management

19221. HASSINA SHERJAN HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL CASE STUDY 112029 SOLUTION. This paper provides a Berkeley Research analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School social enterprise case study by Robert G. Eccles, George Serafeim, and Phillippa Eccles on Afghani Hassina Sherjan and her efforts to educate, train and employ Afghan women through organizations such as Aid Afghanistan for Education and Bourni. The case focuses on the purpose and organization of non-profit companies auch as Bourni. The case solution includes problem definition, problem analysis, discussion of alternatives, and recommendations. APA Style. 10 pages, 3 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: Hassina Sherjan case solution, entrepreneurship, leadership, non-profit organizations, social responsibility, women in business, women’s education third world muslim country, Afghanistan, Afghani women, Harvard business case solution.

About Berkeley Research Case Solutions: Berkeley Research has offered authoritative case solutions to Harvard Business School case studies since 1984. We also feature solutions to case studies from other leading graduate business schools including Stanford, Darden, Wharton and Ivey. Our case solutions feature in-depth analysis drawing on appropriate analytical tools including S.W.O.T., P.E.S.T. and Five Forces analyses, and include secondary references from scholarly journals and leading business periodicals. We do not offer student-written essays; all of our case solutions are professionally written by MBA and DBA –degreed writers with proven aptitude and long experience in writing insightful case solutions. Unlike other case solutions made available on the Internet without competent evaluation of their merits, Berkeley Research case solutions are peer reviewed by a panel of case analysts prior to being offered on our website. The strongest and most gratifying endorsement of the quality of our case solutions comes from our customers: over two-thirds of our case study sales are made to repeat customers, graduate students and executives enrolled in some of the most distinguished and selective graduate business programs, and who necessarily set a high bar for analytical rigor and expository clarity. The Berkeley Research case study solution is a premium product intended for a discerning audience.
18776. THE “MUHAMMAD CARTOONS.” This paper discusses the controversy that arose when the Danish newspaper, Jyllands-Posten, published twelve cartoons depicting Muhammad in 2005. The cartoons resulted in Muslim protests around the world and self-censorship among Danish journalists. Analysis of the case includes use of the Potter Box, with its four dimensions: definition, values, principles and loyalties. It is concluded that the newspaper’s editor, Flemming Rose, made the right decision in publishing the cartoons because of the importance of seeking tolerance and open debate in society. TAGS: journalism, censorship, Potter Box, Islam, Muhammad cartoons, blasphemy. APA Style. 16 pages, 44 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,802 words.   $112
18765. STYLE AND CONTENT IN THE QUR’AN(KORAN) AND THE BIBLE. This paper compares the ideas and literary styles of two religious texts: the Bible of Christianity and the Qur’an of Islam. It is argued that the texts help to explain the different cultural viewpoints that exist between Christians and Muslims in the contemporary world. TAGS: Christian culture, Muslim culture, scriptures, Bible, Koran, religious texts. MLA Style. 7 pages, 26 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,772 words.   $49
18755. THE CULTURE OF THE UAE This paper analyzes the culture of the UAE by using Trompenaar’s six dimensions (universalism versus particularism, individualism versus collectivism, neutral versus affective relationships, specific versus diffuse relationships, achievement versus ascription, and time orientation). The results of the analysis provide implications for companies that wish to do business in the UAE. KEYWORDS: culture management business Trompenaar United Arab Emirates. APA Style. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,335 words.   $35
18725. THE ART OF SHIRIN NESHAT. This paper is concerned with Shirin Neshat, an Iranian-American artist who is known for her work in photography, film and video installations. Neshat uses paradoxical images and ideas to create a powerful emotional impact. Her work often focuses on themes about the condition of women in Islamic societies and the misconceptions that Westerners have about women in Middle East cultures. Includes 10 images. TAGS: art film photography women Islam Iran. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,325 words.   $70
18683. ARTICLE REVIEW: “ETHICAL CONSISTENCY IN MANAGERIAL DECISIONS.” This paper reviews a 2008 article from the journal Ethics & Behavior, entitled “Ethical Consistency in Managerial Decisions” (by Hopkins, et al.). The article is concerned with a study of differences in ethical decision making by male and female managers. The study finds that managers are generally not consistent in their ethical decisions and that female managers are especially inconsistent. It is noted that there are limits to the researchers’ arguments (for example, the arguments are based on stereotypical assumptions and conflicting hypotheses). The paper includes a discussion of the extent to which the information in the article is relevant to business requirements in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). KEYWORDS: business ethics decision making gender differences article review UAE. APA Style. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 2,206 words.   $63
18547. THE PYRAMIDS OF ANCIENT EGYPT. This paper discusses the historical development of the Egyptian pyramids and the modern-day speculations about how they were built. The paper also argues that the size and shape of the most famous pyramids are a reflection of the religious and cultural values of ancient Egyptian society. Specifically, the pyramids were designed to reflect the power and divinity of the pharaohs entombed in them, and to assist the pharaohs on their journey through the afterlife. There is also evidence that the pyramids were symbolic of the Egyptian sun cult, which was associated with the pharaohs. KEYWORDS: Religion Egypt pharaohs pyramids. APA Style. 9 pages, 31 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,297 words.   $63
18546. SUICIDE TERRORISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST. This paper is concerned with suicide terrorism, with an emphasis on the problem as it exists in the Middle East. Suicide terrorism is perpetrated by terrorist organizations, in reaction to the perception of being occupied. Certain individuals agree to act as suicide bombers on the basis of incentives that might be economic, psychological or spiritual in nature. Terrorist organizations continue to use the tactic because they believe it is effective. The paper concludes with a consideration of the alternatives that have been proposed for dealing with the problem. TAGS: terrorism suicide bombers Middle East international cooperation suicide terrorism. MLA Style. 12 pages, 30 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,753 words.

Suicide Terrorism Research Paper

Terrorism and the Foreign Policies of Libya, Turkey & Saudi Arabia Research Paper

Defining Terrorism Research Paper

Bioterrorism: Biological Terrorism, Anthrax, Smallpox, Botulism, Plague, Tularemia Research Paper
18365. SAUDI ARABIA: MODERN REFORM, ENDURING STABILITY HARVARD BUSINESS CASE STUDY 709042. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School case study by Richard H.K. Vietor and Nicole Forrest on economic development and modernization strategy in Saudi Arabia. The case study looks at Saudi Arabia’s efforts to modernize without Westernizing and compares economic development policy in Saudi Arabia with the more global approach in Dubai. The paper includes problem statement, problem analysis, identification and assessment of alternatives, and recommendations. Also see paper 18364 Dubai: Global Economy Harvard Business Case Study 709043, designed as a companion to this case study. KEYWORDS: case studies case solution community development economic policy energy consumption energy resources modernization Saudi Arabia politics and government. APA Style. 11 pages, 9 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
18364. DUBAI: GLOBAL ECONOMY HARVARD BUSINESS CASE STUDY 709043. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School case study by Richard H.K. Vietor and Nicole Forrest on economic development strategy in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The case study focuses on Dubai’s development strategy, comparing its global outlook with Saudi Arabia’s efforts to modernize without Westernizing. The paper includes problem statement, problem analysis, identification and assessment of alternatives, and recommendations. Also see paper 18365 Saudi Arabia: Modern Reform, Enduring Stability Harvard case 709042, designed as the companion to this case study. KEYWORDS: case studies case solution economic development policy community development energy conservation energy resources business and government united arab emirates dubai globalization. APA Style. 12 pages, 6 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 3161 words.
About Berkeley Research Case Solutions: Berkeley Research has offered authoritative case solutions to Harvard Business School case studies since 1984. We also feature solutions to case studies from other leading graduate business schools including Stanford, Darden, Wharton and Ivey. Our case solutions feature in-depth analysis drawing on appropriate analytical tools including S.W.O.T., P.E.S.T. and Five Forces analyses, and include secondary references from scholarly journals and leading business periodicals. We do not offer student-written essays; all of our case solutions are professionally written by MBA and DBA –degreed writers with proven aptitude and long experience in writing insightful case solutions. Unlike other case solutions made available on the Internet without competent evaluation of their merits, Berkeley Research case solutions are peer reviewed by a panel of case analysts prior to being offered on our website. The strongest and most gratifying endorsement of the quality of our case solutions comes from our customers: over two-thirds of our case study sales are made to repeat customers, graduate students and executives enrolled in some of the most distinguished and selective graduate business programs, and who necessarily set a high bar for analytical rigor and expository clarity. The Berkeley Research case study solution is a premium product intended for a discerning audience.
18328. JEWISH FAMILIES IN ISRAEL AND THE UNITED STATES. This paper compares Jewish families in Israel and the U.S. in terms of demographic factors, marriage and divorce patterns, family structure, and relationships within the family. There are similarities because of common religious background, as well as differences due to unique traits in the laws, cultures, and societies of the two nations. In particular, family matters in Israel are influenced by religious-based laws while Jewish families in America are influenced by secularism, multiculturalism, and the “Americanization” of values. KEYWORDS: religion sociology culture Judaism Israel United States. APA Style. 11 pages, 40 footnotes in text, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
18232. THE IMPACT OF TERRORISM ON BUSINESS IN THE MIDDLE EAST. This paper describes the negative impact of terrorism and the threat of terrorism on foreign investment, tourism, airlines, oil prices, consumerism, and economic growth in the Middle East. There is evidence that business in the region is gradually rebounding from the devastating global impacts of the 9/11 terrorist attacks against the United States in 2001. Despite this, risks continue to exist and thus businesses and governments need to remain vigilant. KEYWORDS: business terrorism Middle East 9/11. APA Style. 7 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $49
18218. PARVANA’S JOURNEY (DEBORAH ELLIS). This paper reviews Parvana’s Journey, a book for young readers, which is concerned with the experiences of a 13-year-old girl and her companions in war-torn Afghanistan. The book is recommended because it is well-written and it teaches important lessons about cultural tolerance, ethical issues, the rights of females and persons with disabilities, and the difficulties of life in wartime (especially for children). KEYWORDS: children’s literature multiculturalism ethics gender disabilities war Afghanistan. MLA Style. 5 pages, 21 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
18203. SUICIDE TERRORISM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of suicide terrorism. Following a discussion of the definition of suicide terrorism, the paper traces the history of suicide terrorism from ancient times through the development of modern suicide terrorism in the latter 20th century. Focusing primarily on modern suicide terrorism, the paper then discusses the main features and characteristics of suicide terrorism and suicide terrorists (individuals and organizations). Another section examines some of the major theories or explanations of suicide terrorism, considering the influence of individual, social, and organizational motives and factors. The concluding section briefly considers steps that might be taken to slow or stop the continued expansion of suicide terrorism. TAGS: suicide terrorism suicide bombers terrorist motivations theories terrorism middle east islamic terrorist organizations. APA Style. 20 pages, 165 footnotes, 50 bibliographic sources. 6,650 words.

Suicide Terrorism in the Middle East Research Paper

Terrorism and the Foreign Policies of Libya, Turkey & Saudi Arabia Research Paper

Defining Terrorism Research Paper

Bioterrorism: Biological Terrorism, Anthrax, Smallpox, Botulism, Plague, Tularemia Research Paper
18176. THE BANGLADESHI IMMIGRANT COMMUNITY IN THE UNITED STATES. This term paper provides a profile and ethnography of Bangladeshi immigrants in the United States. The essay traces the history of Bangladeshi immigration, describes their geographical distribution, and notes variations in the rate of immigration since Bangladesh independence in 1971. The extent and importance of the immigrants’ remittances to Bangladesh is discussed. Drawing on the few scholarly studies of this immigrant community which have been published to date, the essay then sketches a profile of the Bangladeshi immigrant community. Conservatism, religiosity, loyalty to community, and patriarchy are among the key characteristics noted. Although the value of respect for elders is deeply imbedded in the culture, Bangladeshi immigrant youth sometimes rebel and, to the dismay of their parents, adopt American customs and habits. Concludes that this conservative Muslim community is likely to remain fairly insular and will assimilate only gradually over the coming decades. KEYWORDS: immigrant ethnography Bangladesh Bangladeshi immigrants insular communities. Turabian Style with endnotes. 25 pages, 51 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 5,952 words.   $133
17753. TURKEY’S PLANNED ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU). Based on a review of both primary (European Commission and European Council documents related to Turkey’s accession, statements and speeches by principals involved in the negotiations) and secondary (scholarly analysis in books and journals, as well as recent newspaper reports), this paper provides an overview and analysis of Turkey’s planned accession to full membership in the European Union (EU). The prospects of Turkey’s success in its pursuit of full EU membership are evaluated based on an analysis which considers resistance and support for Turkey’s EU accession; the arguments for and against Turkey’s accession; the impact of Turkey’s accession (should it occur) on the EU organization and EU members, considering potential advantages and disadvantages of Turkey becoming a full member of the EU; and a brief consideration of Turkish government and public opinion on its accession to the EU, focusing on the perceived benefits for the EU. It is argued that Turkey’s prospects for successful completion of the EU accession process seem highly improbable, based primarily on the unlikelihood that Turkey will meet EU political and legal criteria as they relate to Cyprus, human rights, and fundamental freedoms. It is recommended that the EU shift the strategic objectives of its negotiations with Turkey from the current focus on full membership to an alternative focus leading to a “special” or “privileged partnership”. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes. 13 pages, 59 footnotes, 40 bibliographic sources. 3,244 words.

TAGS: eu enlargement turkey european union accession eu membership islam muslim europe christian, sovereignty, supranationality, supranational organization.


Democracy in the EU Research Paper

Regional Disparities and Infrastructure Investment in the European Union Research Paper

Suprantionality and the Decline of State Sovereignty: The Case of the European Union Research Paper

European Unification and US Federalism Research Paper

Eastern European and European Union (EU) Expansion Research Paper

Sovereignty: Changing Norms in a New World Order Research Paper

Supranational Organizations

17619. “VERNACULAR POLITICS” AND ‘LOW-KEY POLITICS” AS FOUND IN TWO AREAS OF THE MIDDLE EAST. This paper compares and contrasts discussions in two books concerned with local-level politics in the Middle East: 1) Low-Key Politics by Richard T. Antoun examines political practices and behaviors in a Jordanian village and 2) Islamist Mobilization in Turkey by Jenny B. White describes the role of “vernacular politics” in the rise of Islamist politics among Turkish urban residents. Considers the methodologies and theoretical approaches in each book, compares the main ideas found in each text, and concludes with a critical comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of each text. KEYWORDS: book review non-fiction comparative middle east politics turkey Jordan. Chicago Parenthetical Style. 14 pages, 21 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 3,275 words.   $98
17603. BEFORE TALIBAN BY DAVID B. EDWARDS. This paper provides a critical review and analysis of Edwards’ book which seeks to uncover the circumstances that led to the rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan and focuses on Afghan politics and society between 1978 and 1996. Summarizes the major arguments, considers Edwards’ methodology, and identifies the major strengths and weaknesses of the book. Concludes that Edwards’ book is useful and explains a complicated topic for the reader who is not already deeply familiar with the historical background of the current situation in Afghanistan. KEYWORDS: book review nonfiction Taliban Afghanistan Afghan politics society. MLA Style. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,232 words.   $42
17505. JORDAN & MOROCCO: A PROFILE OF TWO MIDDLE EASTERN MONARCHIES. This paper provides a profile of the constitutional monarchies in Morocco and Jordan, tracing the history of the monarchy in each state, describing the political structure, and considering the power of the king and how/why the monarchy has retained its strong position in each country. Argues that both the Moroccan and Jordanian monarchies made the most of political opportunities, exploiting both domestic and foreign issues to secure their positions. KEYWORDS: politics Middle East constitutional monarchy kings. APA Style. 13 pages, 47 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,119 words.   $91
17459. DOES WESTERNIZATION EQUAL MODERNITY? THE CASE OF TURKEY. Eighty-two years ago, Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, set Turkey on a course of Westernization intended to bring Turkey into the modern era. Looking at the case of Turkey, this paper considers the question of whether Westernization equals modernity. It is argued that the rigid stricture of Kemalist doctrine, which holds that the secular Western model is the only path to modernity, was not realistic. Despite progress towards modernity, Turkey has not completely succeeded at either modernization or Westernization. While Westernization and modernity are closely linked, and while it is doubtful that a state would achieve modernization without also becoming more Western, movement towards Westernization does not necessary equal modernity and there may be other paths to modernity. KEYWORDS: Kemalism Turkey Westernization modernization democracy clash of civilizations. 9 pages, 45 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 2101 words.   $63
17447. WHAT HAPPENED AT ABU GHRAIB? A SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE. This brief essay argues that U.S. soldiers’ abuse of Iraqi prisoners held at Abu Ghraib is not surprising from the perspective of social psychology. The soldier guards at Abu Ghraib were not very different from the “guards” in Zimbardo’s 1971 prison experiment. Morale problems, threat of attacks from insurgents, lack of training as prison guards, cultural and language differences, and the soldiers’ position of absolute power over prisoners explains their behavior. KEYWORDS: Iraq prisoner abuse Zimbardo Stanford prison experiment power dynamics. 2 pages, 8 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 537 words.   $14
17443. TURKEY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. This paper presents an overview and analysis of Turkey’s planned accession to full membership in the European Union (EU). The history of EU-Turkish relations and Turkey’s bid for membership in the EU is traced. The potential advantages and disadvantages of Turkey’s EU membership from the perspective of both Turkey and the EU are considered. Likely barriers to Turkey’s accession are identified and discussed. The paper concludes with predictions on the probable course of the accession negotiations. KEYWORDS: Turkey European Union enlargement terrorism Islam secularization. 14 pages, 46 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 3298 words.   $98
17440. INTERCULTURAL TEAM BUILDING. This paper compares and contrasts Middle Eastern and Western cultures and considers how team building between the two cultures can be achieved. In considering Middle Eastern culture, this paper focuses primarily on Arab culture, while in considering Western culture, the primary focus will be on America and Western Europe. Following a definition of culture and an overview of Geert Hofstede’s (1997) framework of culture along four dimensions as well as Hall’s (1976) framework of high- and low-context cultures, the paper identifies and discusses the main similarities and differences between the two cultures. The concluding part of the paper then considers how team building can be achieved to reach a new cultural understanding. KEYWORDS: comparative culture management communication joint ventures. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 2,962 words. Section 5a, 5a1, 25d   $91
17398. THE SCOPE AND LIMITS OF MEDIA POWER. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the scope and limits of media power in modern societies. The first section provides theoretical background, defining and describing power as it applies to media. The next section examines media power in contemporary Western society, drawing on examples from the United States, U.K., and Europe. Another section examines media power in a very different society – the countries of the Middle East, particularly the Arab states. A concluding section summarizes the findings on the overall limits of media power. KEYWORDS: media power media influence western society arab society. APA Style. 23 pages, 92 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources. 6,454 words.   $133
17396. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EU AND POST-WAR LEBANON. This paper profiles and analyzes the economic, political, and social relations between the European Union (EU) and Lebanon in the years following the end of the Lebanese Civil War through the present day. Since current relations between Lebanon and EU occur within the framework of the larger Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), the investigation focuses on the EMP and its related Association Agreements as they pertain to the EU-Lebanon relationship. The first section provides an overview of the EMP framework and examines the objectives of the EU and Lebanon in the partnership. The next section focuses on the trade and other economic components of the EU-Lebanon relationship. Another section looks at the political, social, and legal components of the EU-Lebanon partnership. KEYWORDS: european union middle east relations mediterranean europe partnership lebanon economy trade politics. 29 pages, 112 footnotes, 45 bibliographic sources. 7,144 words.   $133
17386. INTERNATIONAL EXPANSION OF AT&T BROADBAND TO KUWAIT: COUNTRY RISK ASSESSMENT & BUSINESS PLAN. This paper presents a country/market risk analysis and business plan for AT&T Broadband expansion into Kuwait. The investigation begins with a country risk analysis, looking at the economic, political, legal, social, and cultural environment in Kuwait. This is followed by a market analysis which provides an overview of the broadband market in general and considers the particular potential of the broadband market in Kuwait. Subsequent sections provide recommendations for mode of entry; currency and financial risk management; marketing; general operations; and management. The investigation concludes with preliminary financial projections related to initial capital requirements, operating expenses, and projected revenues. KEYWORDS: county risk assessment Kuwait broadband market plan. MLA Style. 22 pages, 71 footnotes, 39 bibliographic sources. 6,704 words.   $133
17255. TERRORISM AND THE FOREIGN POLICIES OF LIBYA, TURKEY & SAUDI ARABIA. This paper provides a comparative overview and analysis of the foreign policies of three Muslim countries – Turkey, Libya, and Saudi Arabia – with respect to the global issue of terrorism. Following a brief definition and overview of the problem of global terrorism, the paper examines and compares Libya’s, Turkey’s and Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy initiatives and approaches regarding terrorism. Specific consideration is given to terrorism and foreign policy in Turkey’s bid for EU accession, Libya’s drive to escape the strictures of economic sanctions, and Saudi Arabia’s relations with Western states. The three foreign policies are analyzed through various contemporary analytical lenses, including the psychological approach, decision-making analysis, international political economy approach, and others (Braveboy-Wagner & Snarr, 2003; Renshon & Duckitt, 2000; Holsti, 2001; Kegley & Wittkopf, 1995). This analysis draws especially on Mohamedou’s (2003) state-centered approach to examining foreign policy. Keywords: Islamic fundamentalism terrorism foreign policy analysis Muslim states Libya Turkey Saudi Arabia suicide terrorism suicide bombers. 12 pages; 51 footnotes; 38 bibliographic sources. 3,144 words.

Suicide Terrorism Research Paper

Suicide Terrorism in the Middle East Research Paper

Defining Terrorism Research Paper

Bioterrorism: Biological Terrorism, Anthrax, Smallpox, Botulism, Plague, Tularemia Research Paper
17210. KIM JONG IL: NORTH KOREA'S 'DEAR LEADER'. This paper provides a brief biography of North Korea’s enigmatic leader, President Kim Jong Il. The paper profiles Kim’s early life, traces Kim’s rise to power; discusses the role of the hereditary presidency, the Juche ideology and the cult of personality in maintaining Kim’s power; and provides an overview of Kim Jong Il’s personality, habits and leadership style. Keywords: North Korea presidents leaders politics foreign Kim Jong Il personality. 11 pages; 42 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 3,201 words.   $77
17141. GLOBALIZATION AND KUWAIT. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the meaning and processes of globalization in Kuwait. Following a discussion of the meaning of the term and an overview of the major forces underpinning globalization, the analysis examines the internal (e.g., political history, political structure, economic structure, social factors, religious factors) and external (e.g., reality of globalization, regional conditions and relations, relations with the West) forces encouraging and inhibiting globalization in Kuwait. Specific factors considered include the development of Kuwaiti media (including new media such as the Internet), the role of women in Kuwaiti society and politics, the need for economic restructuring, social conflicts, the challenges posed by Islamism and political factors. TAGS: globalization Islam Kuwait women media politics change international political economy. APA Style. 22 pages; 65 footnotes; 27 bibliographic sources. 5,380 words.

International Political Economy and Globalization Research Paper

Arguments Against Globalization Research Paper

Theories of Globalization: Cultural, Economic and Political Dimensions Research Paper

Globalization and China Profile Research Paper

China and India Face the Challenges of Globalization Research Paper
17137. DO NATIONAL MEDIA STILL MATTER? Drawing on examples from the U.S., U.K., and countries of the Middle East, this paper considers the issue of whether or not national media still matter in this era of globalization. The analysis begins with an overview of the issues on globalization and media. Drawing on examples from Palestine, Iran, Kuwait, and Arab satellite TV, the changing role of national media in the Middle East is considered. Another section of the analysis considers the role of U.S. and U.K. national media in depictions of events and issues in the Middle East, looking in particular at the 1991 Gulf War, U.S. and U.K. media reports on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the U.S. -led war on Iraq. It is argued that notwithstanding extensive globalization of media, national media continue to matter – indeed, the process of globalization has in many cases heightened the importance of national media. Keywords: media globalization national Arab British US. 18 pages; 51 footnotes; 34 bibliographic sources. 5,228 words.   $126
17015. THE COLLAPSE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. This paper discusses the economic and political problems of the Ottoman Empire, the desire of European powers to divide up its territories, the Sykes-Pinchot Agreement, the Balfour Declaration, the Ottoman defeat in World War I, the establishment of Turkey as an independent state, and the French and British mandates that replaced the Ottoman Empire. Keywords: Ottoman defeat. 10 pages; 24 footnotes; 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
17014. THE OTTOMAN TANZIMAT. The Ottoman Empire underwent a period of reform between 1839-1878 (called the Tanzimat, or the reorganization), during which various social, political, and economic improvements were made. This paper discusses the Tanzimat reforms, as well as the reasons for their eventual decline. Keywords: Ottoman reform. 5 pages; 25 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,355 words.   $35
17013. THE REFORM EFFORTS OF MUHAMMAD ALI, PASHA OF EGYPT. In early nineteenth century, Egypt was a semi-autonomous state within the Ottoman Empire. At that time, Egypt’s leader, Muhammad Ali, instituted a series of modernizing reforms. This paper examines those reforms and considers how Muhammad Ali’s reform efforts were subsequently undermined during the reign of his son, Ismail Pasha. Keywords: Muhammad Ali Egypt modernization reforms. 6 pages; 21 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 1,558 words.   $42
15983. THE RISE OF RABBINIC JUDAISM. Discusses the historical and social context in which Rabbinic Judaism arose. Topics include Jewish cultural identity, the Roman occupation of Palestine, the failed Jewish revolt, and competition between the Pharisees, Sadducees and other groups. 5 pages; 22 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
15930. ISRAEL: A COUNTRY SURVEY. This paper presents an overview of the country of Israel. Provides a general survey of Israel’s geography and climate, historical background, population and society, economy, arts and culture. 11 pages; 64 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
15919. ARAB IMMIGRANTS IN GREECE. This is an exploratory study, based on observations and interviews, and grounded in the immigrant assimilation theory of Ruth Johnston, that addresses the assimilation of Arab migrants in Athens, Greece. It is noted that Lebanese migrants provide the best example of economic integration in the area. 17 pages; 13 footnotes; 16 bibliographic sources.   $119
15900. U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AND THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT. This paper argues that U.S. foreign policy toward the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been inconsistent and thus ineffective in the effort to attain peace. In this regard, the U.S. needs to take a stand and make more determined and consistent efforts to find a compromise solution. KEYWORDS: us foreign policy israel palestine term paper. 9 pages; 28 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
15878. ARCHAELOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT PETRA. This paper examines the evidence from the excavations at Petra regarding the roles played by hydraulic systems and trade in the success of the Nabataeans, who occupied the site from the 6th century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D. The data are interpreted in accordance with the cultural materialist approach. Includes an annotated bibliography. 11 pages; 34 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 3,539 words.   $77
15873. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT. This paper discusses the roots of the Arab-Israeli conflict, its historical development, and the efforts that have been made to find a peaceful solution to the conflict. Argues that the problem persists because neither side is able to agree on the terms for a peaceful solution. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources, plus table.   $35
15829. MECCA COLA. This paper provides an overview of the social and political implications of Mecca Cola, an alternative to Coca-Cola which is popular among Arabic consumers in Europe and the Middle East. Argues that consumption of Mecca Cola serves as a way to protest against American imperialism and Middle East policies. As such, the product demonstrates the process of consumers making free and rational choices and, more specifically, using their choices as a form of resistance. Includes an annotated bibliography. 11 pages; 29 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
15827. INTERNAL CONFLICTS IN THE SOCIETY OF ISRAEL. This paper explores internal conflicts in Israeli society, including religious versus secular views, right-wingers versus left-wingers, differing opinions of Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews, and efforts by politicians to form unity governments. Argues that despite multiple internal conflicts, the external conflict with the Arabs has helped to keep Israeli society united. 19 pages; 49 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
15807. REASONS FOR THE US ATTACK ON IRAQ IN MARCH 2003. Compares the view of George Soros (the war was due mainly to political and economic reasons) with the view of Thomas Barnett (the war was due mainly to military and security reasons). Concludes that the full truth is probably found in a combination of these two views. 5 pages; 0 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources. 1,377 words.   $35
15791. MUSLIMS IN AMERICA. Traces the history and contemporary development and spread of the Islamic faith in the U.S. Describes the total population size, racial/ethnic background, geographical dispersion, and SES of America's Muslim population. Includes a section of the history and current status of Black Muslims (adherents to Nation of Islam), including a discussion of Louis Farrakhan and relations between Black Christian church members and Black Muslims. 9 pages, 24 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
15782. ARABS IN AMERICAN FILM. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the depiction of Arabs in American film, from Pepe le Moko (1936) to True Lies (1994). Argues that in earlier times, the distorted and biased characterizations were influenced by Arabian Nights; more recently, it has been influenced by images from the Gulf War. 8 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
15768. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN PALESTINE. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history and current status of the education system in Palestine, focusing on the West Bank and Gaza. The analysis traces the history of the system, describing the major features of the system as it existed under the various authorities and as it exists today, and analyzing the systems in terms of equality, access, equity, and financing. The social, political, and economic factors in the region which work against the development and maintenance of an effective educational system are considered. Changes and challenges within the Palestinian educational system during the period of the first intifada (1987-1995) are considered. While the primary focus of the report is on the K-12 educational system, the analysis also includes a section on the development and status of Palestinian higher education in the occupied territories. 14 pages, 43 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $98
15730. PROPOSAL FOR A HISTORY OF THE CAMP DAVID ACCORDS. This paper describes a proposed book on the 1978 agreement and its failure to lead to negotiations for Palestinian self-rule. The perspective of the study is that of a historian who is Arab-American, but acknowledges the importance of examining both sides of the conflict to get a full objective account. Also discusses the proposed methods of the historical study, including the selection of sources and facts, the use of an eclectic approach to theory and the combined use of narrative and analytic writing techniques. 13 pages, 31 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $91
15697. ISRAEL'S WATER CRISIS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL CONFLICT. This paper provides a sociological perspective on Israel's current water crisis, examining the scope of the problem and focusing on the effect of Israel's water problem on it relations with Arab neighbors (most specifically the Arab neighbors within the Jordan River System basin - Syria, Lebanon, Jordan) and the Palestinians. The first section examines the overall importance of water to Israeli state building and survival; the next section provides an overview of the scope of Israel's water problem, examining major sources of water, current and projected demand levels, and the scope of the water quality problems and their causes. The final section focuses on water as a source of conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors and the Palestinians. KEYWORDS: water resources israel israeli palestinian conflict. APA Style. 16 pages, 42 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources. 5,567 words.   $112
15694. DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM: THE MILITARY HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN GULF WAR OF 1990-91. This paper provides a retrospective overview and analysis of Desert Shield-Desert Storm. The analysis focuses on logistical aspects of the operation (scope of the challenge, problems associated with the operation, etc.), the role of the coalition in the successful outcome, the unique aspects of the war, the attention given to the principles of war, and the measures of effectiveness and war termination goals. A concluding section assesses Desert Shield/Storm's legacy and its implications for the "American way of war." KEYWORDS: persian gulf war iraqi war 1991 military strategy desert storm george bush. 15 pages, 35 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 5,155 words.   $105
15679. THE FREE OFFICERS MILITARY COUP OF 1952. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history, objectives, scope, accomplishments and implications of the Free Officers' movement of 1952. The analysis draws on English-language primary sources such as the memoirs and political tracts of the key members of the Free Officers (Naguib, Nasser, Sadat) and a range of scholarly secondary sources. The first section outlines the history of the movement, defines its central players, and describes its general scope and activities. The next section explores the objectives of the movement, both as originally conceived and as they evolved through the course of the coup, and examines the key factors which precipitated action on the part of the Free Officers. A final section examines the main outcomes and accomplishments of the Free Officers movement. KEYWORDS: nasser egypt military coup egyptian revolution 1952. 17 pages, 25 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 4,629 words.   $119
15678. MARYAM (MARY) IN THE QUR'AN AND IN ISLAMIC TRADITION. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the significance and depiction of Maryam (Mary) in the Qur'an and in Islamic doctrine, and its comparison with Mary in Christian doctrine. The analysis begins with a brief overview of the role and importance of the Virgin Mary in Christian doctrine. Following this, the analysis traces the story of Mary (Maryam) as it appears in the Qur'an, comparing and contrasting the presentation of the major events and focal points (e.g., Mary's own birth, Mary's childhood and adolescence, Mary's immaculate conception, the birth of Jesus, Mary's purity, Mary's relationship with Joseph, and Mary's assumption into Heaven) with their presentation in Christian doctrine. The concluding sections examine the uniquely Islamic aspects of the Maryam theology and summarize the overall significance of Maryam in Islamism, including a consideration of the relative importance of Maryam versus other important women in Islam (e.g., Fatima, Khadija, and Asiya). 17 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $119
15673. WESTERN MEDIA PORTRAYALS OF ARABS AND MUSLIMS DURING THE GULF WAR CRISIS OF 1990/91. This paper examines the media-filtered American interpretations of the Arab world through an analysis of Western (mainly U.S.) media portrayals and interpretations of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab women (especially Saudi, but also Kuwaiti, and other women of the Gulf) during the Gulf War and surrounding period of Gulf Crisis (a period defined as extending from August 1990 through the spring of 1991 and the withdrawal of U.S. forces following the end of the Gulf War). The investigation begins with a brief overview of the historical problems and distortions involved in media coverage of wars or other military conflicts, and the specific position of the media in the Gulf War. Also considered is the U.S. media's tradition of foreign news coverage. Following this, the analysis examines U.S. newspaper coverage and post-war published analyses of media (broadcast and print) coverage of the Gulf War and crisis in an effort to present a profile of U.S. media portrayals of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab/Muslim women in particular, with a special focus on media images and interpretations of Saudi men and women. KEYWORDS: newspaper coverage arab gulf war western media portrayal arabs muslims. 25 pages, 55 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources. 7,291 words.   $133
15652. A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE ISLAMIC FAITH. This investigation provides a multi-dimensional, blended perspective on the Islamic faith drawing on elements from the three major sociological paradigms of structural-functionalism (functionalism), social conflict, and symbolic interaction. The investigation begins with a brief overview of the major tenets and structures of Islamism and a comparison of how Islamism versus Christianity or Judaism fits within a sociology of religions framework. The analysis then examines the structures and functions of Islamism and Islamic society. 13 pages, 24 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $91
15637. ARABS AND ARABIA IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY: THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN TRAVELER. This paper examines European perceptions of Arabs and the Middle East in the early 20th Century through the lens of three early European Arabists: T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), Gertrude Bell, and Muhammad Asad. Drawing on Bell's Syria: The Desert and the Sown, Asad's Road to Mecca, and Lawrence's Seven Pillars of Wisdom, this paper seeks to answer the following questions: 1) What did these Europeans see in the lives of Arabs and Arab tribes of northern Arabia in the early decades of the 20th Century; and 2) what do their observations tell us about European perceptions of Arabs and how can we use their observations and information they supply us as a source for the history of northern Arabia, if indeed we can? KEYWORDS: arabs history arabia 1900s tribal history. MLA Style. 22 pages, 61 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 6,295 words.   $133
15580. MILITARY HISTORY: OPERATION DESERT STORM AND THE USE OF INFORMATION WARFARE. This paper discusses how Desert Storm was a turning point in the use of Information Warfare (IW). The operation was the first major testing of information-based weapons, strategies and tactics. In addition, the quick Coalition victory was attributed in part to the successful use of IW, in contrast to the failure of Iraq's information-based systems. 8 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $56
15564. OATHS IN THE QUR'AN. The oaths have been interpreted in different ways; for example, they provide a sense of solemnity, they evoke reverence and awe for the spiritual in nature, and they draw attention to certain phrases and ideas in order to give moral lessons. It is also noted that the oaths appear to have roots in pre-Islamic utterances of soothsayers; however, they are also different because Muhammad was a Prophet, not a soothsayer. 12 pages, 31 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
15563. MARRIAGE IN ISLAM AND THE WEST. Both cultures view marriage as important to the social order, forbid marriage between blood relations, and advocate similar sex roles for husbands and wives. However, Islam places more emphasis on spirituality and the control of sexuality in marriage than is found among the often-secularized views of the West. It is also argued that many of the elements of Islamic marriage regarded as "bad" by Westerners are due to patriarchal traditions, not to Islamic beliefs themselves. 11 pages, 25 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
15503. SOURCES OF FIGURAL IMAGERY IN ISLAMIC ART. Three examples of Islamic art depicting figures are discussed: Samarra art, Fatimid luster pottery and the city walls of Konya. It is shown that classical culture and location traditions influenced the use of figural representation. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
15502. ISLAMIC CALLIGRAPHY. Discusses the reasons for the importance of Arabic letters and Qur'anic phrases in Islamic art and culture, including the view that such writing represents the visual expression of the Word of God. The styles of Islamic calligraphy are also discussed, as well as the concepts of the Divine Pen and the Guarded Tablet. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
15499. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: FOCUS ON THE MIDDLE EAST. This paper provides an overview and analysis of international terrorism, with a focus on Middle Eastern terrorist groups (including Al-Qaida, Hamas, Hizbollah and the Egyptian Jihad) and the U.S. and international response to the terrorist threat from these groups. The analysis begins with a brief history and overview of international terrorism. The next section describes a few of the most significant Middle East terrorist organizations now posing a threat to the international community (particularly the U.S. and its interests abroad). The final section examines the international and domestic policy and legal responses to international terrorism, looking at the most significant U.N. conventions and treaties as well as specific U.S. policies, executive orders, and legislation. 20 pages, 71 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources.   $133
15498. THE TALIBAN AND AFGHANISTAN. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the Taliban and their use of Islamic fundamentalism to influence and control the people of Afghanistan. Following a brief background overview of Afghanistan and its strategic importance, the first section details the Taliban's rise to power in Afghanistan. The second section focuses on the Taliban's strategy and actions after coming to power, with particular attention to the regime's subjugation of women's rights and basic human liberties. The Taliban's relations with foreign powers - including the U.S. - are discussed within the context of this topic; broader foreign policy concerns related to September 11th and its aftermath are not considered within this analysis. KEYWORDS: afghanistan taliban human rights status women us intervention 911. APA Style. 15 pages, 47 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $105
15496. BIN LADEN AND THE AL QAEDA TERRORIST NETWORK. A profile of the terrorist group believed to be responsible for the September 11th attacks. The analysis includes a review of the history of Al Qaeda and its leader, including an exploration of the group's origins, general motivations, organization/strength and previous actions against the U.S. and U.S. interests abroad. The analysis considers the evidence linking Al Qaeda to the September 11th attacks and examines the organization's purposes in making the attack. Finally, the analysis examines how the U.S. has responded to-date by the threat posed by Al Qaeda. The concluding section makes suggestions about strategies that might be useful in fighting this organization. KEYWORDS: osama bin laden terrorists al qaeda al qaida terrorism terrorist cells networks. 14 pages, 42 footnotes, 31 bibliographic references. 4,114 words.   $98
15488. SAUDI ARABIA AND ISLAMIC LAW. Discusses the development of Islamic law in the country, and the dominance of the relatively strict views of Wahhabism and the Hanbali school. Also addresses the criticisms of Western observers, arguing that the country's legal system is not as inflexible as many have assumed it to be. 16 pages, 54 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.   $112
15487. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. An overview of the civilization, including a discussion of the role of the Nile River and other natural resources. Also discusses the art and religious beliefs of the Egyptians, and notes that although a similar culture persisted throughout the civilization's 3000-year history, changes and variations can be seen as well. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $49
15452. MULTIPLE VIEWS OF ARAB FEMINISM IN "FOUR WOMEN OF EGYPT." This paper utilizes Tahani Rached's 1997 documentary film, "Four Women of Egypt" as the starting point for a discussion of the heterogeneity of contemporary Arab feminism and Egyptian women's role in politics. The analysis focuses on some of the key issues and/or points of ideological differences between these four Egyptian women portrayed in the film. Specifically, the analysis considers the differences between Western and Arab feminism and the link between Arab feminism and nationalism in Egypt; religious differences (in this case, Muslim, Christian and atheist), the debate over the secular versus religious state, women's role in Islam, and the meaning of the veil. It is argued that the film effectively debunks Western stereotypes about Arab feminism and Egyptian women's role in political life. Keywords: arab feminists women islam term paper women arabia essay. APA Style. 14 pages, 28 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.   $98
15451. IRAN AND REFORM IN AN ERA OF GLOBALIZATION. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the constraints of globalization on the political economy of modern-day Iran. The essay considers the prospects for Iranian globalization from both the political (i.e., democracy and Islam) and economic (i.e., integration with the Western-dominated global economy) perspective. Following a brief background discussion of Iranian political economy in the pre- and post-revolutionary period, the main focus of the term is on the period following the 1997 elections. The investigation profiles the major supporters and opponents of globalization in the current regime, examines the reasons behind Khatami's focus on political versus economic reforms, and considers some of the major problems in implementing reform. KEYWORDS: Iran politics economy Iranian reform khatami term paper. APA Style. 22 pages, 69 footnotes, 30 bibliographic sources.   $133
15216. POLITICAL ISLAM IN TURKEY. This paper looks at the role of the nation's military leaders in maintaining a secular government over the years. Although Islam-based political parties have competed for power since the 1950s (such as the Welfare Party and the Virtue Party), the military has consistently undermined the efforts of these parties and has caused them to be banned. As such, it is argued that Turkey has failed to establish a true representative democracy. 12 pages, 43 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $84
15215. ROLE OF THE U.S. IN THE THIRD (1967) AND FOURTH (1973) ARAB-ISRAELI WARS. Cold War concerns caused the U.S. to counteract the Soviet Union's support of the Arabs by siding with Israel. This paper discusses the initial reluctance of the U.S. to take a stand, the subsequent arms shipments to Israel, and the various efforts by U.S. diplomats to negotiate a peaceful settlement, which culminated in the "shuttle diplomacy" of Secretary of State Kissinger. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $84
15205. ROLE OF THE U.S. IN THE PERSIAN GULF WAR (1990-1991). Discusses U.S. political and economic interests in the region, U.S. reaction to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the rhetoric used to win over the public and Congress, and the role of the U.S. in the passage of UN resolutions in leading Coalition forces. Also discusses the postwar controversy over earlier U.S. arms transfers to Iraq. 11 pages, 37 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $77
15188. RUMI'S VIEWS ON WOMEN. This paper looks at the life and work of the Persian mystic and poet, and finds that his views on women are ambiguous. Some passages in his work reflect the sexist attitudes of the time; however, there are other passages that treat women as equal in the spiritual quest, and even equate the qualities of women to those of God Himself. 14 pages, 42 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $98
15185. LAWRENCE OF ARABIA'S ROLE IN WORLD WAR I. Traces the history of Lawrence's involvement in the Arab Revolt, including his successful use of guerrilla tactics. Also discusses the conflict between British leaders, with their effort to use the Revolt to their wartime advantage, and Lawrence's sincere desire to help liberate the Arabs. 12 pages, 35 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $84
15180. EROTIC ART IN PRE-COLUMBIAN PERU. Covers the historical development of erotic ceramic art in Peru, from the earliest artifacts through the high point in Mochica (or Moche) culture, to its decline by the time of the Incas. Also describes the works and their style and the use of various themes. 12 pages, 40 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $84
15170. WOMEN IN ISLAM. Argues for the need to view the situation from the perspective of Islamic women rather than from a Western feminist point of view. As such, it can be seen that it is not Islam, but rather traditions of patriarchy, that causes women to be treated poorly in certain societies. Among other things, female genital cutting, the veil, the Qur'anic passages are discussed. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
15169. THE INFLUENCE OF ISLAMIC CULTURE ON THE WEST. Argues that Western culture has borrowed more from Islamic culture over the centuries than the other way around. The West has borrowed medical, scientific, mathematical and philosophical ideas; by contrast, Islamic culture has mostly rejected Western ideas, with the exception of those relating to technological developments. 7 pages, 19 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
15157. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. An overview of the civilization, including a discussion of the role of the Nile River and other natural resources. Also discusses the art and religious beliefs of the Egyptians, and notes that although a similar culture persisted throughout the civilization's 3000-year history, changes and variations can be seen as well. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $49
15154. THE 1979 IRANIAN REVOLUTION. This paper discusses the various social groups that were involved in the revolution that led to the creation of an Islamic state. Also discusses how these groups protested against the shah's regime, with its political repression, economic problems and Western influences. Footnotes in text. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $70
15067. FRENCH FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Presents an overview an analysis of French foreign policy in the Middle East, focusing on policy since World War II. Traces the changes in the French position on the Arab/Israeli conflict, noting the shift in policy under de Gaulle, moderation among his predecessors, and then the re-emergence of a strong pro-Arab, anti-Israeli policy under Chirac. Considers French motivations behind the policy shifts. KEYWORDS: France Middle East French policy arab-israeli conflict term papers. APA Style. 13 pages, 41 footnotes, 19 bibliographic references. 4,637 words.   $91
15064. LANGUAGE AND CLASS IN ARABIC. This paper provides a descriptive survey overview of class (as indicated by socioeconomic indicators such as income, occupational category, and education level) differences in Arabic. In an effort to understand and illuminate class differences, the analysis also takes into account how other social indicators (such as urban/rural residency, gender, religious sect, country of residence, etc.) impacts these class distinctions among Arab speakers. The primary purpose of the paper is descriptive. The analysis moves from the general to the particular. The first section outlines the major varieties of Arabic as noted by Arab language scholars and then considers class differences within these varieties. The remaining sections examine more particular aspects of class differences, looking at the use of honorifics and comparisons of within-country class differences in Arabic. KEYWORDS: arabic language term paper class honorifics. APA Style. 13 pages, 43 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references. 4,402 words.   $91
15041. DEPICTION OF WOMEN IN THE ARABIAN NIGHTS. A study of the role and status of women, as seen in the narrator Shahrazad, and various female characters in her tales. Argues that the overall purpose of the tales is to teach the men of the society that "women are people too"; as in the case of men, some women are unfaithful or evil, but others are good and heroic. 17 pages, 45 footnotes, 10 bibliographic reference.   $119
14053. BORDERS & THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT. This termpaper examines the components of the borders (geographical divisions) element within the Arab-Israeli conflict, discussing the origin and evolution of the issues, the contemporary elements, and the position of the parties. A concluding section of the essay presents arguments for a proposed solution to the problem. Although the territory and sovereignty of Jerusalem is ultimately an integral component of the borders issue, for the purpose of this analysis, Jerusalem is discussed only briefly and in general terms within a proposed settlement framework. KEYWORDS: Palestine arab israeli conflict disputed borders term paper. 16 pages, 44 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 4,178 words.   $112
14032. HISTORY IN ORAL AND WRITTEN FORMS OF THE JORDANIAN BEDOUIN. This paper presents an analysis of history making in the oral and written forms of the Jordanian Bedouin as depicted by Andrew Shryock (1997) in his book, Nationalism and the Genealogical Imagination. Supporting documentation is drawn from Abu-Lughod’s (1986) study of Western Egyptian Bedouin oral lyric poetry and Khoury and Kostiner’s (1990) Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East. Shryock’s 1997 work and his interpretation of the Jordanian Bedouin’s history-making process is analyzed from the perspective of significant theorists in the field of ethnography and anthropology including Bakhtin (1986), Said (1979, 1989), Clifford, and Spivak (1988). Keywords: ethnography jordan bedouin term paper oral history. APA Style. 25 pages, 34 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $133
14025. ALGERIA AND THE PROSPECTS FOR DEMOCRACY. This paper covers the nation’s politics after Independence (1962) and then discusses how the failed elections of 1991 led to a violent civil war between Islamic fundamentalists and the military-based government. The prospects for democracy appear bleak at this time, but there are also signs of hope for the future. Topics covered include the need for compromise and a change in the military’s perceived role, as well as the need to address the nation’s economic problems and to develop agreed-on rules for fair elections. 24 pages, 81 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references.   $133
14011. SYRIAN-ISRAELI PEACE PROCESS. This paper provides an overview and critical analysis of the Syrian-Israeli peace process in the post-Oslo period. Traces the course and major issues of the Syrian-Israeli negotiation is from 1991 and the opening of the Madrid Conference through Israel’s May 2000 unilateral withdrawal from Southern Lebanon. Considers the major issues in the negotiations, including Israeli withdrawal from the Golan Heights, the status of Lebanon, water rights, and economic relations. In the explication of the Syrian-Israeli peace process, the analysis places special focus on the Syrian perspective and gives consideration to how the process has impacted Syrian liberalization and democratization. KEYWORDS: Syria Israel peace golan heights lebanon palestinians. APA Style. 30 pages, 71 footnotes, 35 bibliographic sources. 8,400 words.   $133
13992. ARAB NATIONALISM: HISTORY AND FUTURE. This investigation provides an overview and analysis of Arab nationalism, looking into its past, tracing its trajectory throughout the 20th century, and considering its future in the 21st century. Following a definition of Arab nationalism or Pan-Arabism and an explication of its central principles, the investigation traces the origins and early history of the movement. The analysis then follows the course of Arab nationalism through its heyday in the 1950s and 1960s and through its decline in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. The role of specific events—including the formation of the UAR, the Six Day War, the October 1973 War, the Egyptian-Israeli peace accord, and the Gulf War—in the decline of nationalism are considered. The concluding analysis considers the future of Arab nationalism, examining closely the extent to which it has been replaced by other ideologies including state- or regional-based nationalism, globalism and Islamism. KEYWORDS: pan-arabism arab nationalism term paper. APA Style. 30 pages, 52 footnotes, 18 bibliographic references. 8,453 words.   $133
13988. EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION & OTTOMAN EMPIRE. An analysis of the impact of the European Industrial Revolution on the Ottoman Empire, focusing on the 19th century and the economic impacts of industrialization. Considers changes in trade patterns, capital investment, mechanization, and transfer of technology. Illuminates the importance of the internal market in the Ottoman economy during this period. KEYWORDS: industrial revolution ottoman empire term paper. APA Style. 15 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references. 3,739 words.   $105
13951. ECONOMY OF CYPRUS. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the economy of Cyprus. Although the paper includes a brief background discussion of the island’s economic history and its post-independence, pre-partition economy, the focus of the essay is the economy of the Republic of Cyprus (Greek Cypriot—southern portion) during the period after the 1974 Turkish invasion. The analysis details the current economic structure and conditions, and closely examines key economic issues with specific attention to the tourism industry, the lingering effects of partition, and the special relationship with the EU. KEYWORDS: Cyprus economy Greek Cypriot economic conditions tourism partition eu relations term paper. 37 pages, 134 footnotes, 31 bibliographic references.   $133
13923. U.S. MILITARY TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: THE CASE OF IRAQ. Drawing on the case of Iraq and its acquisition of Western (primarily U.S.) military technology, examines problems and conflicts in U.S. military technology transfers, looking at potential and existing weaknesses in U.S. export control laws and military policies. Reviews U.S. policy on technology transfers, considers U.S. direct contributions to Iraqi military strength and the impact of U.S. export control programs on Iraqi weapons technology acquisition; and summarizes evidence on U.S.-Iraq transfers provided by the Gulf War. Concludes that the weaknesses which the Gulf War revealed in the export controls system were probably less critical than the glaring weaknesses in the Iraqi weapons development programs. 18 pages, 28 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $126
13822. THE PERSIAN GULF WAR. A critical appraisal of the U.S.'s and its allies "great military victory" in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Argues that the outcome of the war was largely indecisive in that it left Saddam Hussein firmly in control of Iraq and did nothing to address the Palestinian conflict. 5 pages, 5 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
13773. THE LEBANESE HOSTAGE CRISIS. Profiles the Lebanese hostage crisis of the 1980s, examining the causal factors, major players and their objectives, and British, U.S., and Israeli efforts at resolution. Includes a discussion of specific long-standing hostages, including Terry Anderson. 6 pages, 5 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $42
13757. THE ISRAELI ECONOMY CIRCA 1990. Profiles the challenges, opportunities and triumphs of the Israeli economy in the late 1980's and early 1990's. Notes the efforts to make the transition from an economic structure technically and legally limited by a political commitment to socialism to that of a genuine market economy. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $42
13735. THE GULF WAR: BACKGROUND OF THE CRISIS. An analysis of the factors and forces leading up to the 1991 Gulf War and a consideration of the extent to which the apparent military resolution of the conflict in fact left many of the region's problems and conflicts unresolved. Among the important factors cited are the region's widespread economic inequities, Iraq's historical claims to Kuwaiti territory, Kuwait's innate vulnerability, Saddam Hussein's leadership and inclination to military opportunism, and the strong U.S.-led coalition against Iraq. 9 pages, 10 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $63
13724. THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION AND ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM. Looks at the impact of the Iranian Revolution on Islamic fundamentalist movements around the world, examining the rise of Shia fundamentalism in Iraq, Syria and Lebanon as well as in Sunni-dominated states such as Egypt, Sudan, Algeria, Saudi Arabia and Southeast Asia. Argues that the Iranian Revolution demonstrated the political possibility of a theocratic Islamic state and thus emboldened the radical fundamentalist elements throughout the Islamic world. 7 pages, 7 footnotes, 39 bibliographic sources.   $49
13657. THE HISTORY OF THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT. An investigation of the history and contemporary scope of the Arab-Israeli conflict from the perspective of Israel in the 1990's. Traces the conflict to its ancient claims over land, through the first modern migration of Jews from Europe to Palestine and the rise of the Zionist movement, on to the Balfour Declaration of 1917 and the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, and through the major Arab-Israeli wars and military actions since 1948. Argues that Israel's best prospects for resolution of the Palestinian problem are through internationally mediated negotiated settlement. 24 pages, 22 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
13584. FAST FOOD FRANCHISING IN THE ARAB MIDDLE EAST. This paper provides an overview and analysis of fast food restaurant franchising in the Arab countries of the Middle East. The report begins with a brief overview and discussion of the franchising in general and fast food franchising in particular. Following this, a brief overview of the Middle Eastern fast food franchise market is presented. The next section examines some of the factors which have encouraged franchise systems to expand in the region as well as some of the potential benefits that franchising can bring to the region. A fourth section looks at some of the known and potential obstacles and/or barriers to franchising in the Arab Middle East. A concluding section focuses on franchising recommendations for the region and includes a directory and brief analysis of high-potential franchise systems for the region. 20 pages, 42 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources.   $133
13565. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN SOCIAL DISTANCE: ARABS AND AMERICANS. Drawing on Edward Hall's 1959 theory of social relations based on proxemics (the structure of personal space), this paper explores the differences between the non-verbal and social behaviors of Arabs and Americans, to see how Hall's theory has faired over the quarter-century in which relations between the two groups have greatly increased. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $42
13537. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR THE GULF STATES. Focusing closely on economic issues, this report provides an overview and analysis of problems and prospects for the GCC member states over the next decade. The first section presents an overview of the major problems and issues now facing the GCC member states. The second section first provides a summary of the "critical issues" and then presents a ten year plan to address the problems and take advantage of emerging economic opportunities. 6 pages, 38 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $42
13535. FINANCIAL SECTOR IN THE ARAB GULF. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the financial sector in the Arab Gulf States. It includes a unified discussion and analysis of the financial systems (banking system, stock market, investment climate); financial strategies; intra- and extra- GCC economic relations; and threats, opportunities, and plans within the GCC system. KEYWORDS: financial sector kuwait bahrain uae qatar saudi arabia gulf cooperative council. 12 pages, 53 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $84
13481. ALIENATION AND MODERNIZATION IN ARAB SOCIETY: SHE HAS NO PLACE IN PARADISE BY NAWAL EL SAADAWI. This paper explores the theme of alienation in Arab society through a discussion and analysis of Nawal El Saadawi’s (1987) work, She Has No Place in Paradise. In this novel, Saadawi (1987), an Egyptian feminist writer and physician, focuses on the private realm of gender relations (e.g., relations between friends, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and husband-wife relations) and illustrates how the process of modernization and the conflict between traditional and modern values creates a sense of alienation in both women and men. KEYWORDS: book review arab feminist gender relations arab society term paper. APA Style. 19 pages, 43 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $133
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