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19374. Inefficiencies and Adverse Aspects of Medical Malpractice Law. This paper provides an overview, analysis, and critique of the current tort-based medical malpractice system in the United States. The first part of the paper provides an overview of the current system, including a discussion of the three main theoretical objectives underlying the system, a discussion of malpractice insurance, an overview of patient injuries, and a discussion of how patients file medical malpractice claims. The second part of the paper discusses problems in the system in terms of patient and provider incentives. Concludes the medical malpractice system is burdened by a broad range of perverse incentives. APA Style 12 pages, 45 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources, 3,320 words.
TAGS: medical malpractice, perverse incentives, patient injuries, malpractice insurance, torts, malpractice law, healthcare costs, malpractice claims.
19359. Occupational Safety in the Cherokee Nation: An Argument for Cherokee Adherence to Osha Regulations. The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma is a sovereign governmental entity located in the northeastern part of Oklahoma. The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma is the sole proprietor of Cherokee Nation Businesses, LLC a conglomerate of Cherokee corporations, which is a billion dollar enterprise. Most businesses located within the United States are subject to regulation by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which implements guidelines for at-work safety procedures and environmental standards. However, since the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma is a sovereign state, Cherokee Nation Businesses, LLC is not subject to OSHA regulations, because it is considered to be located outside of the United States. This paper considers what Cherokee Nation would have to do to implement OSHA regulations, including what degree of sovereignty it would be required to concede to the US government and what changes it would have to make to avoid penalties from non-compliance. The paper then analyzes the benefits and costs of coming under the jurisdiction of OSHA, including providing a better and safer job environment to the Cherokee Nation’s workers, increased productivity, but also scrutiny from the US government, which would have both economic and cultural implications. The goal of becoming OSHA compliant would be to require the Cherokee Nation to provide a safe and working environment free from hazardous conditions and illnesses. APA Style. 37 pages, 154 footnotes, 47 bibliographic sources. 9,960 words.
TAGS: Cherokee Nation, Native Americans, American Indians, Sovereign Nations, Federal law, Occupational Safety Health Administration, OSHA, regulatory compliance, work safety.
19306. The Legal, Social, and Political Fight Against Sex Trafficking in the United States New, Winter/Spring 2017. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of sex trafficking in the United States, focusing on the efforts taken by the U.S. government and its agencies as well as various nongovernmental organizations to address the problem of sex slavery and trafficking. Following a definition and overview of the essential components of human trafficking in general and sex trafficking in particular, the analysis presents an overview of the sex trafficking problem in the United States. The next section looks at U.S. government law, policy and practice regarding sex trafficking and considers the role played by key non-governmental organizations. Concluding sections present an analysis of the primary obstacles to solving the problem of sex trafficking in the United States. MLA Style. 19 pages, 67 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources, 5,440 words.

TAGS: sex trafficking, prostitution, Trafficking Victims Protection Act, TVPA, Palermo Protocol, immigration, social attitudes, politics and sex, sex crimes, women and children, sex exploitation, sex slavery

19298. The Tobacco Control Negotiations of 1997-1998. This paper provides an analysis of the tobacco control negotiations of 1997-1998 that initially led to an historic global settlement agreement (GSA) in June 1997. The GSA tobacco control negotiations were followed by negotiations with legislators to draft implementing legislation for the agreement. These efforts concluded in June 1998 with a defeated bill, effectively also killing the GSA forged a year earlier. Drawing on Fisher et al.’s (2011) and Camp’s (2007) theories of negotiation, this paper analyzes the multiparty tobacco control negotiations of 1997-1998, with a special focus on the conflict among tobacco control organizations and public health officials about how to (or how not to) negotiate with the tobacco companies and the impact of this conflict on the negotiation outcomes. Information on the tobacco control negotiations is drawn from Wheeler & Levenson’s (2002) and Heymann’s (2004) case studies of the tobacco control negotiations. APA Style. 15 pages, 51 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 4,097 words.

TAGS: tobacco settlement, negotiations, public policy, tobacco control negotiations, addiction, negotiating strategy, health hazard, public health, special interests, Liggett.

19261. Google in Europe: Competition Policy in the Digital Era Harvard Business School Case Study 717004 Solution. NEW, FALL 2016. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case study analysis and solution to a Harvard Business School business and governmental relations case study by Laura Phillips Sawyer on Google’s position with respect to competition policy and business-government relations in the European Union. The case analysis includes problem identification, problem analysis, discussion of alternatives, and recommendations. APA Style, 12 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: Google in Europe case study solution, international business, competition policy, antitrust, business-government relations, tech industry, European Union

18850. Vacco v. Quill 521 u.s. 616 (1997): Assisted Suicide. This paper provides an overview and analysis of this landmark U.S. Supreme Court case which held that New York’s statute banning assisted suicide was in compliance with the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. The analysis considers the Court’s rationale, and looks at assisted suicide laws in other jurisdictions, notably, the State of Oregon (where physician assisted suicide is legal). The analysis also briefly considers the ethical, medical, and political issues involved in assisted suicide and patients’ right to self-determination. TAGS: assisted suicide, equal protection, state’s rights, fourteenth amendment, dying patients’ rights, US supreme court ruling. APA Style. 7 pages, 22 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 1,610 words.   $49
18849. Reynolds v. United States 98 u.s. 145 (1878): Supreme Court on Polygamy. SUPREME COURT ON POLYGAMY. This paper provides an overview and analysis of social and legal responses to 19th century polygamy practices of members of the Church of Ladder Day Saints (Mormons). Following an overview of plural marriages among Mormons and the link between polygamy and the rise of anti-Mormonism, the analysis focuses on the 1878 Supreme Court case of Reynolds v. United States which addressed the issue of whether or not religious belief can excuse a criminal act and concluded it could not. TAGS: polygamy, landmark case, supreme court, religious freedom, Mormons, anti-Mormonism, church of ladder day saints. APA Style. 7 pages, 35 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources. 1,734 words.   $49
18847. Suppression of Political Speech: Gitlow v. New York, 268 u.s. 652 (1925). This paper provides an overview and analysis of the 1925 Supreme Court case (Gitlow v. New York) involving a communist labor organizer convicted of anarchy in the state of New York. The U.S. Supreme Court case considered Gitlow’s First and Fourteenth Amendment rights to free speech, considering in particular political speech. It is argued that Gitlow advanced an important rule about free speech in America, that the government can suppress political speech only if it can show that the speech creates a “clear and present danger.” As this rule evolved in cases after Gitlow’s, it requires two showings: the danger must be so grave that it justifies repression of speech; and danger must be imminent. TAGS: free speech, First Amendment rights, labor movement, unions, state’s rights, Fourteenth Amendment rights, political speech, landmark Supreme Court case. APA Style. 7 pages, 23 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,645 words.   $49
18846. Duncan v. Louisiana 391 u.s. 145 (1968): Sixth Amendment Right to Trial by Jury. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the 1968 Supreme Court case of Duncan v. Louisiana. Following a review of the circumstances leading to the filing of the case, the paper provides a summary and analysis of the Court’s opinion in the case, including the concurring and dissenting opinions of the individual justices. It is argued that while the court’s opinion was important in that it made the right to jury trial binding on the states, more important over the long term were the separate opinions of Justices Harlan and Black for their articulation of two distinctive theories of the basis of individual rights and the role of the Supreme Court in the American government. TAGS: landmark Supreme Court case, right to jury trial, 6th amendment, legal theories individual rights, Justice Harlan, Justice Black, Duncan v. Louisiana. APA Style. 8 pages, 33 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources. 1,822 words.   $56
18845. Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 530 u.s. 640 (2000): The Fight Over Homosexuals in the Boy Scouts. Eagle Scout James Dale was expelled from the Boy Scouts because of his homosexuality. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that this violated New Jersey state law (Dale v. Boy Scouts of America, 1999). In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, the Supreme Court ruled that this ruling violated the Boy Scouts' right of “expressive association” protected by the First Amendment and overturned the New Jersey court’s ruling. This paper provides an overview and analysis of this controversial Supreme Court ruling, considering its implications for private association memberships and gay rights in America. TAGS: Boy Scouts, discrimination homosexuals, gay rights, landmark case, membership restrictions, Supreme Court ruling. APA Style. 7 pages, 27 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 1,625 words.   $49
18844. Reverse Discrimination Case: Johnson v. Transportation Agency of Santa Clara County, 480 u.s. 616 (1987). This paper explores the controversial issue of “reverse discrimination” using the Supreme Court case of Johnson v. Transportation Agency (involving a male road dispatcher’s claim that a woman had been unfairly promoted based on her gender and his employer’s policy of reverse discrimination). The analysis first reviews the facts of the case and the ruling by the Court, including Justice Scalia’s vehement dissent. The second part of the paper considers the political implications of the case and offers an argument and opinion favoring the Court’s ruling. TAGS: reverse discrimination, supreme court ruling, landmark case, employment discrimination gender, women in transportation. APA Style. 7 pages, 17 footnotes. 7 bibliographic sources. 1,588 words.   $49
18843. Board of Education of the City School District of the City of New York v. Tom F., 2005 u.s. Dist. Lexis 49 (s.d.n.y., Jan. 4, 2005). This paper provides a legal brief of an education-related Supreme Court case involving a School District’s contention that a disabled student who had attended private school was NOT entitled to tuition reimbursement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. TAGS: IDEA, disabled students, private school, tuition reimbursement, legal challenge US Supreme Court. Legal Style. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,115 words.   $35
18842. Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F., 526 u.s. 66 (1999). This paper provides a legal brief of a case concerning a School District’s appeal a court’s ruling that the school district was required under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) to pay for the costs of providing continuous one-on-one nursing services for a student (Garret F.) throughout the school day. The brief states the facts of the case, poses the central legal question of the case, states the court’s decision, and discusses the rationale for the court’s decision. TAGS: education law, legal brief, severely disabled students, IDEA individuals with disabilities. Legal format. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. 1,079 words.   $35
18841. Branzburg v. Hayes: Supreme Court Case on the Protection of News Sources. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the 1978 U.S. Supreme Court case, Branzburg v. Hayes, which stands today as the leading case on journalists’ right to protect their news sources versus the government’s need to protect the safety its citizens. Following an analysis of the four separate opinions in the case, it is argued that the Branzburg court was wrong to reject the newsmen’s claims that the first amendment required the recognition of privilege for journalists. The Branzburg ruling jeopardizes the freedom of the press and the public. TAGS: us supreme court, freedom of the press, first amendment rights, protection news sources, branzburg. APA Style. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,420 words.   $42
18840. A. E. V. Independent School District No. 25, of Adair County,936 F.2d 472 (10th Cir. 1991) This paper presents a legal brief of a case involving a school district’s refusal to classify a learning disabled student with behavioral problems as “seriously emotionally disturbed”, thereby disqualifying the student for coverage under the Education for All Handicapped Children’s Act. In this case, the 10th Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the trial court’s ruling in favor of the School District’s decision to exclude the student from coverage. The brief states the facts of the case, poses the central legal question of the case, states the court’s decision, and discusses the rationale for the court’s decision. TAGS: education law, legal brief, learning disabled, education for all handicapped children, emotional disturbance, children behavior. Legal format. 5 pages, 1 footnote, 1 bibliographic source. 1,092 words.   $35
18795. Arguments for the Death Penalty. This term paper describes and refutes the major arguments in favor of the death penalty (deterrence, incapacitation and retribution). Then, the paper argues against the death penalty because of the risk of wrongful convictions, concerns about discrimination, the cost of death penalty cases in contrast to lifelong incarceration, and the trend among democratic nations of rejecting the practice. Includes an annotated bibliography. TAGS: criminology, argumentative essay, death penalty, crime deterrence retribution. APA Style. 12 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,792 words main text, 3,645 words including annotated bibliography.   $84
18679. Identity Theft. This paper discusses the problem of identity theft, including its prevalence rates and costs. The problem has grown as a result of computer hackers; however, various low-tech methods can also be used to steal personal information and put it to fraudulent use. Law enforcement and legislators are challenged with finding effective ways to deal with the problem. The paper concludes with some policy recommendations. KEYWORDS: identity theft crime fraud computer hackers. APA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,600 words.   $42
18539. Does the Government Have the Right to Limit Free Speech? The First Amendment guarantees the right to free speech, but some people believe the government should limit this right in cases where it might result in harm to individuals. This paper reviews the pro and con arguments on the issue and concludes that the government should generally not interfere with the vital democratic right of free expression. Even though words and symbols can cause emotional harm in some cases, more harm would occur in the long run if freedom of speech were to be tampered with. This is true even in cases of hate speech and Internet pornography, since there are alternative solutions available for dealing with these kinds of issues. KEYWORDS: Constitution First Amendment free speech government right to limit speech. APA Style. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,779 words.   $77
18526. Television in the Courtroom. This paper argues in favor of allowing TV coverage in court cases. Rebuttals are made of the claims that television has a negative impact by reducing impartiality in trials or influencing the behavior of participants. Instead, it is argued that TV coverage of trials increases transparency and accountability, relates to Constitutional rights, and is part of a growing trend toward the use of technology in court proceedings. KEYWORDS: justice court trials media television. APA Style. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,329 words.   $42
18503. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act. This paper is concerned with the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act and its intended purpose of improving corporate ethics. Although some improvements have been made in this area, the Act is flawed because of the costs of compliance, the complexity of its rules, its lack of incentives, and its neglect in providing protection to whistleblowers. It is argued that the Act is having a negative impact on U.S. economic competitiveness and therefore certain changes are needed to increase its effectiveness in the future. KEYWORDS: business ethics Sarbanes-Oxley accounting practices scandals whistleblowers. APA Style. 9 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,266 words.   $63
18333. Government Use of Torture in the War on Terrorism. This paper describes three perspectives on how governments should respond to the threat of terrorism and violence. Jonathan Alter believes “psychological interrogation” may sometimes be needed to save lives, while Henry Porter provides a contrasting opinion on the issue. These post-9/11 views are compared with Martin Luther King’s argument that violence should never be used to fight violence. Contrary to King’s view, it is argued that terrorism poses a threat to innocent lives and thus methods associated with “torture” may sometimes be needed in dealing with terrorists (but only as a last resort and only if it is non-physical and approved by a court). KEYWORDS: terrorism 9/11 government torture article review Martin Luther King. MLA Style. 4 pages, 0 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $28
18302. The Duty to Protect Suicidal Clients. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the mental health professional’s duty to protect clients from suicide or attempted suicide. The analysis describes the current scope of the mental health professional’s duty to protect suicidal clients within the context of professional ethics and applicable case law. The therapist’s duty to protect suicidal clients is analyzed in the context of patient confidentiality issues and patient-therapist privileged communications. Included in this analysis is a discussion of confidentiality issues that may arise in the aftermath of a completed patient suicide. KEYWORDS: patient suicide risk therapist duty to protect. Strict APA Style. 10 pages, 35 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources plus legal references. 3,589 words.   $70
18301. Duty to Warn and Protect in Mental Health Care. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the mental health care professional’s duty to warn and protect someone else from any imminent dangerous actions of the client. The legal and ethical scope of the professional’s duty to warn and protect is described with reference to Tarasoff and other relevant case law. The professional’s duty to warn and protect is analyzed in terms of its impact on issues of patient confidentiality and the privileged communications between therapist and patient. KEYWORDS: tarasoff psychiatric patients duty to warn. Strict APA Style. 12 pages, 46 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources plus legal references. 4,417 words.   $84
18175. Extraordinary Renditions: Legality. This paper presents an overview and legal analysis of the Bush Administration’s post-911 counterterrorism practice of having the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) detain and deliver suspected terrorists to foreign governments for interrogation and possibly torture. After briefly describing extraordinary renditions and discussing the Bush Administration’s justifications and claims of legality versus critics’ contention that the practice is illegal, this paper reviews the various treaties, conventions, covenants, and other international legal documents to assess the legality of the US programs of extraordinary renditions. The essay concludes that the US program of extraordinary renditions represents a clear violation of international law in that such renditions violate the provisions of a number of different international treaties and covenants (including the Geneva Conventions, the International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights (ICCPR), and the Convention Against Torture) to which the United States is party. KEYWORDS: terrorists counterterrorist policy us war on terror bush extraordinary rendition torture guantanamo prisoners international law treaty. Turabian with Endnotes. 19 pages, 70 footnotes, 28 bibliographic sources. 4,505 words excluding footnotes.   $133
18136. Triumph of Justice (Daniel Petrocelli) and the Good Black (By Paul M. Barrett). This paper is concerned with two books on the issue of race in American society and justice. Petrocelli's book is about the wrongful death suit against O.J. Simpson and Barrett's book is about a black lawyer (Lawrence Mungin), who filed a racial discrimination suit against the firm where he worked. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each book, their messages and critical implications, and the extent to which their content is typical of American justice and society. KEYWORDS: race justice society legal system trials. MLA Style. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 1,991 words.   $56
18057. “One L” by Scott Turow & “Barman” by Alex Wellen. This paper discusses the perspectives in these two books on law school and preparation for a career as a lawyer. Turow attended Harvard Law School (a "Tier-1" school) and he writes about his experiences as a first year law student. Wellen attended Temple Law School (a "Tier-2" school) and his book is about his experiences in preparing for the bar exam and his first job in a law firm. In both books, the reader learns about the intense specialized training that lawyers receive. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the books, their implications, and their reflection of the realities of American justice and society. The conclusion of the paper describes how the material in the books can be used to teach young students about the concepts of justice. KEYWORDS: teaching justice law school lawyers comparative book review. MLA Style. 11 pages, 18 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,602 words.   $77
18056. Executioner's Current by Richard Moran & May God Have Mercy by John C. Tucker. This paper discusses these two books on the death penalty in the U.S. and how they can be used to teach concepts of justice to young students. Moran's book is about the development of the electric chair, including the role played by the inventor Thomas Edison. Tucker's book is about how a procedural error in a death penalty case resulted in possibly exonerating evidence being deemed inadmissible in court. The paper also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each book, their critical implications, and how the ideas and events depicted in each are typical of American justice and society. KEYWORDS: comparative book review death penalty teaching justice. MLA Style. 10 pages, 10 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,471 words.   $70
18028. Miranda Rights. This essay addresses the question of whether or not the Miranda Rights really protect the rights of the accused, as they are meant to. The paper covers the history of the rights, the Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination, the right to silence and the presence of counsel, and the waiver of one's rights. Based on the findings in various specific court decisions, it is argued that the Miranda Rights are not effective in every case. Judicial interpretations have resulted in a weakening of the rights and a limiting of their protective power; this is especially true for certain members of society (such as persons of diverse cultural backgrounds and people who are easily intimidated by police interrogations). KEYWORDS: miranda rights fifth amendment self-incrimination argumentative essay. Notes at end of paper, no separate bibliography. 12 pages, 17 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2,952 words.   $84
18021. No Child Left Behind Act. This paper discusses the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, including its philosophical assumptions, and its proclaimed intention of improving quality and equality in U.S. education by tying school funding to the results of standardized tests. It is argued that the No Child Left Behind Act is ineffective because it results in "teaching to the test" and a narrowing of the curriculum. In addition, it is overly punitive and it does not provide national-based testing standards for schools in different states to follow. KEYWORDS: education standardized testing federal laws nclb bush administration argumentative essay education policy reform. APA Style. 11 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,791 words.   $77
18010. Pro Death Penalty Argument. This paper looks at the controversial issue of capital punishment and argues in favor of the practice. Based on expert opinions and study evidence, it is argued that the death penalty is an appropriate punishment for the crime of murder (retribution), it prevents an offender from murdering again (incapacitation), and it helps to prevent others from committing murders (deterrence). The paper also rebuts some of the arguments in opposition to the death penalty. KEYWORDS: death penalty capital punishment controversy argumentative essay. MLA Style. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,450 words.   $42
17712. Ethical Considerations in Care-Giving for the Older Adult & Elderly. This paper provides an overview and analysis of ethical considerations in care-giving for the older adult and elderly person. The analysis addresses the older adult’s right to autonomy and self-determination and considers ethical and legal concerns surrounding the older person’s capacity to make decisions regarding their own care along with ethical and legal concerns for surrogate decision-makers. The importance of the federal patient Self-Determination Act, informed consent, guardianship, legal capacity, best interest standard, and Durable Power of Attorney for Healthcare Decisions in care-giving for the older adult are also considered. KEYWORDS: aging healthcare ethics autonomy legal capacity informed consent patient self-determination act best interest standard care giving surrogate decision making. APA Style. 10 pages, footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 2,430 words.   $70
17709. Ethical Concerns in a Case of Dementia. This paper presents a fictionalized account involving an older adult who appears to be suffering from early Alzheimer’s Disease and is caring for a spouse recently incapacitated by a series of strokes. There is a dispute over a DNR (Do Not Resuscitate) order and a niece is threatening to put her apparently demented uncle on a guardianship. The analysis discusses the ethical issues inherent in the situation and then makes recommendations on an ethical course of action. KEYWORDS: elder care ethics dementia alzheimer’s disease dnr orders autonomy guardianship. APA Style. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 2190 words.   $63
17705. International Watercourse Agreements: The Case of the 1995 Mekong Agreement in the Context of the 1997 u.n. Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. This paper provides an overview and analysis of two recent significant multilateral international water agreements. Specifically, the 1995 Agreement on Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin (hereinafter, “Mekong Agreement”) is described and analyzed in the context of the background and provisions of the 1997 U.N. Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses (hereafter, “UN Convention”). The 1995 Mekong Agreement governs water sharing and cooperation among four lower riparians – Thailand, Vietnam, Lao PDR, and Cambodia – on the Mekong River, the largest and most important river in Southeast Asia and the world’s tenth largest river in terms of annual water. Building on more than two decades of work by the International Law Commission, the 1997 UN Convention, which has not yet come into force, represents a move to codify customary international law governing management of use and conflict of international freshwater watercourses. The UN Convention aims at establishing “general principles for the use and management of international watercourses and to assist in the resolution of disputes. KEYWORDS: international water agreements river states Mekong river Vietnam Thailand laos Cambodia china Myanmar united nations convention navigational uses. Blue Book Legal Style. 28 pages, 82 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources. 6,729 words.   $133
17627. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. . This paper provides an overview and analysis of the impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (passed in the wake of the Enron accounting scandal) on publicly traded companies and on the accounting and auditing profession in general. Sarbanes-Oxley resulted in the formation of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, regulated by the SEC. This oversight, in combination with new audit standards passed by various standards board in the US, Canada, and internationally, will affect all auditors and has resulted in more assurance of independence and more likely detection of fraud in corporate audits. KEYWORDS: Sarbanes-oxley act accounting fraud corporate corruption corporate scandals auditing enron. Strict APA Style throughout. 12 pages, 17 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources. 3,320 words.   $84
17620. Digital Millennium Copyright Act (Dmca) of 1998. This paper analyzes the aspect of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act that deals with the problem of Internet users illegally downloading and sharing copyrighted music and movie files. The paper examines four specific cases (along with other general legal actions) that are relevant to this effort: 1) the pre-DMCA case of Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios; 2) A&M Records v. Napster; 3) MGM v. Grokster; and 4) RIAA v. Verizon Internet Services. In addition, the paper discusses the RIAA’s strategy of targeting individual users, as well as the implications of the rulings that have been made in the various cases. KEYWORDS: digital millennium copyright act dmca 1998 illegal downloading music movies business law. APA Style. 11 pages, 28 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2,572 words.   $77
17590. Human Organ Sales. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of human organ shortages (for the purpose of transplants) and the extensive black market that has developed as a result of this shortage and the illegality of human organ trading. This paper argues that the best solution to the problem is to create a system for the legalized, regulated marketing of human organs. KEYWORDS: human organ sales black market kidneys. MLA Style. 8 pages, 32 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,948 words.   $56
17507. Right to Work Laws. This paper traces the history and provides an overview of state “right to work” laws, which prevented businesses from demanding that workers join unions and pay union dues in order to be hired. Examines the history of states’ right to work laws and considers the impact of Section 14(b) of the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act on workers, labor unions, and businesses. Looks at efforts to repeal 14(b) and the conflict between right-to-work proponents and labor unions during the 1960s and 1970s; challenges to right-to-work laws in the 1990s, and the current status of these laws. KEYWORDS: labor legislation right to work law unions open closed shop nlra Taft Hartley act. MLA Style. 9 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2,230 words.   $63
17450. Protection of Children From Sexual Predators, p.l. 105-314 Following a summary of the main provisions of the 1998 Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act and a short discussion of some of the forces that led to the Act’s passage, this paper looks closely at the case precedence, constitutional basis and constitutional issues surrounding the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act. 11 pages, 63 footnotes; 31 bibliographic sources. 2590 words.   $77
17436. The War on Drugs. This paper provides an overview and analysis of America’s “war on drugs”. Looking at both the domestic and foreign aspects, the paper profiles the history, goals, strategies, results and consequences of the decades-long drug war. The essential conflicts (e.g., criminalization versus medicalization, enforcement versus treatment, prohibition versus legalization, etc.) in the debate over what to do about the nation’s drug problem and the major controversies (e.g., hidden foreign policy objectives, environmental issues, racial aspects, impact on prison crowding, costs, overall effectiveness, etc.) in the war on drugs are considered and discussed. Recent trends in the drug war, including the federal government’s opposition to medical marijuana and the Bush Administration’s efforts to merge the war on drugs and the war on terror into a broad-based, far-reaching war on narco-terrorism are also explored. KEYWORDS: drug war mandatory minimums prison overcrowding foreign policy narco-terrorism drug abuse policy. 14 pages, 78 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources. 3,386 words.   $98
17390. Social Disorganization Theory of Crime and Delinquency. This paper describes and analyzes the social disorganization theory of criminology as developed from theorists in the Chicago School. Considers how the more recent work of Robert Sampson and William Julius Wilson has extended and refined Shaw & McKay’s work to have application in the contemporary era, particularly with regard to urban crime and racial differences in crime. Finally, the analysis looks at Sampson, et al’s construct of collective efficacy as an explanatory variable in why people in socially disorganized communities commit crime. APA Style. 9 pages, 25 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 2,273 words.

Theories of Juvenile Delinquency Research Paper

Family Structure and Juvenile Delinquency Research paper

Childhood Deliinquency to Adult Criminality Pathways and Preventive Interventions Research Paper

Criminality Across the Lifespan Term Paper

TAGS: chicago school criminology crime theory social disorganization theory juvenile delinquency theory family peers crime.

17389. Classical and Positive Schools of Thought in Criminality. This essay describes the classical and positive schools of criminality, as illustrated by Cesare Beccaria (classical) and Cesare Lombroso (positive) and considers what policy recommendations an adherent of each school would make for dealing with crime. KEYWORDS: classical positivist criminology lombroso beccaria criminal theories. APA Style. 7 pages, 10 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,781 words.   $49
17387. Career Counseling for Persons With Disabilities. This paper provides an overview and analysis of career counseling with a population with special needs, focusing in particular on persons with disabilities. The analysis begins with an overview of the range of special needs populations in career counseling and a discussion of how these special needs might influence the career counseling process. Following this, the analysis focuses on career counseling with populations with disabilities, looking at issues such as the size and scope of this population, the special protections afforded this population through the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), how disabilities might affect career development, and strategies and interventions career counselors can use with this population. KEYWORDS: career counseling disabilities special needs populations career development disabled Americans with disabilities act ada. 12 pages, 32 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,338 words.   $84
17311. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall. This paper provides a profile of the life and career of John Marshall, who served for 34 years (1801-1835) as the fourth Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. The paper begins with Marshall’s early years, including his military service in the Revolutionary War and his work as a lawyer in Virginia. The next section profiles Marshall’s career on the bench and includes a discussion of some of the most significant cases under his tenure. A concluding section looks at Marshall’s impact on the judicial system and on the American people as a whole. Marshall was responsible for establishing the concept of judicial review and thereby giving the Supreme Court the power to rule on the constitutionality of acts created by the executive and legislative branches of government. Marshall also advanced the concept of federal supremacy, established the concept of appellate power, and played a role in the development of other important legal ideas, such as the honoring of contracts, the importance of private property rights, and having the Supreme Court issue a single majority opinion rather than numerous individual opinions. KEYWORDS: US Supreme Court chief justice john marshall judicial review. 28 pages, 51 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 7,042 words.   $133
17277. Business Law. This paper provides a definition, overview and analysis of business law and the ways that it relates to both criminal law and civil law. Following a general definition of law and a discussion of the similarities and differences between civil law and criminal law, the paper discusses various aspects of business law, with an emphasis on how business law is designed to deal with both criminal and civil matters. KEYWORDS: law business commercial law. 11 pages, 27 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,877 words.   $77
17229. Torture and International Law. This paper examines the treaties, agreements and other efforts made by the international community to ban the use of torture. Special focus is placed on the landmark 1984 United Nations agreement known as the “Convention Against Torture.” The paper also addresses unresolved issues related to the international community’s responsibility to end government’s use of torture against its own citizens. Keywords: international law agreements torture conventions United Nations. 6 pages; 21 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 1,590 words.   $42
17228. The Supreme Court, the New Deal, and the Constitution. This paper provides an overview and analysis of changes in Constitutional law interpretations as a result of events surrounding Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation and policies. When the Supreme Court blocked the New Deal legislation of President Roosevelt in the 1930s, Roosevelt responded with a scheme to “pack” the federal courts with younger, more liberal judges. This eventually led to a “constitutional revolution” in the way that the Supreme Court interprets the power of the federal government in terms of providing for the welfare of the people. Keywords: New Deal FDR federal courts Supreme Court Constitution public welfare. 11 pages; 27 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources. 2,660 words.   $77
17211. Extrajudicial Killing in Nigeria. This paper provides an overview and analysis of extrajudicial killings as a major human rights abuse in Nigeria. The paper focuses on the more recent continued problem of extrajudicial killing as it has occurred under the civilian administration since May of 1999. The investigation provides an overview of the abuse and its context, including a discussion of where, how and why the abuse is occurring. Additional sections identify and discuss the application of existing international human rights law to the problem of extrajudicial killing in Nigeria; describe and evaluate relevant United Nations procedural action against this type of human rights abuse; and describe and evaluate complementary and alternative strategies and procedures to address this serious abuse of human rights in Nigeria. Keywords: human rights abuse extrajudicial killings international law Nigeria United Nations sanctions. 15 pages; 45 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 4,229 words.   $105
17208. The International Criminal Court (Icc): A Critical Step in the Path Towards Global Governance. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the International Criminal Court (ICC) as a positive step towards the development of a system of global governance. The analysis begins with definitions and a review of relevant concepts, including global governance, sovereignty, jus cogens, international criminal law, and universal jurisdiction. The history and purpose of the International Criminal Court is traced, looking both at the history of the Rome Statute itself as well as its historical precedents. The next sections examine the structure, functions, operations, applications and underlying principles of the ICC. The analysis then looks at the opposition to the ICC, with a strong focus on U.S. objections. The conclusion summarizes the strengths and limitations of the ICC and considers the future of the ICC as a tool of global governance. Keywords: International Criminal Court ICC universal jurisdiction sovereignty Rome Statute extradition. 32 pages; 79 footnotes; 32 bibliographic sources. 8,998 words.   $133
17205. Wrongful Convictions in Death Penalty Cases. Focusing on wrongful convictions of innocent persons in death penalty cases, this paper provides a critical overview and analysis of the location and characteristics of micro and macro-level factors with the criminal justice system that seem to be the source of the errors leading to or contributing to the problem of wrongful convictions. Factors considered include problems with eyewitness identification, unreliable or duplicitous informants, prosecutorial misconduct, defense attorney incompetence, false and coerced confessions, forensic errors and fraud, judicial misconduct, systematic racism, problems with the adversarial system and the difficulties of balancing defendants’ right to due process with society’s need for crime control and the criminal justice system’s need for expediency. The concluding analysis looks at some of the steps that might be taken to remedy or reduce the error rate while still providing justice. TAGS: death penalty wrongful conviction prosecutorial misconduct eyewitness identification false confessions forensics judicial error racism crime control. 27 pages; 73 footnotes; 36 bibliographic sources. 7,134 words.


The Ethics of Police Line-Ups

The (UN)Reliability of Eyewitness Identification

Children's Eyewitness Testimony

17202. Law Versus Justice. The relationship between the idea of law as a legal concept and justice as an equitable ideal is often a contentious one when put into everyday practice. Following a brief overview of the differing and sometimes contradictory meanings of law and justice, this paper analyzes and critiques the ideals of law and justice, drawing on examples from antitrust, agency, intellectual rights and discrimination. A concluding section articulates and defends the position that laws should be derived from assumptions of justice, while arguing simultaneously that justice is inherently an evolving concept. Keywords: justice law philosophy agency discrimination intellectual property antitrust. 16 pages; 34 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 4,258 words.   $112
17199. Pre-Employment Drug Testing. This paper provides a review, analysis and interpretation of recent academic literature on pre-employment drug testing. The review of scholarly literature on pre-employment drug testing is grouped into the two main categories of process research (that which examines employer approaches, procedural issues, legal issues and ethical issues) and outcome research (that which considers the impacts, effects, and effectiveness of pre-employment drug testing). The discussion and interpretation of the literature comments on the effectiveness of pre-employment drug testing, considers its impact on employee-employer relations, stipulates a number of legal, ethical and process concerns, and makes recommendations for practice in terms of policies, procedures and safeguards. Keywords: employee drug testing pre-employment law ethics employee employer relations morale productivity effectiveness. 30 pages; 153 footnotes; 36 bibliographic sources. 7,856 words.   $133
17198. The Crash of Twa Flight 800. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the midair explosion and crash of TWA Flight 800 on July 17, 1996. Drawing on information from the National Transportation Safety Board investigation and other reports, the paper describes the accident and the resulting damages and fatalities; analyzes the causes behind the accident; and reports on the remedies and changes that were put into place as a result of the accident and subsequent investigation. The first part of the paper dissects the accident and its causes. The next section looks at the lawsuits that arose as a result of the crash. Another section details the remedies and regulations that have been put into place in response to the crash and its likely causes. A concluding section discusses how the accident could have been avoided and briefly considers some of the unresolved issues related to the crash. Keywords: Flight 800 commercial aviation accidents investigation airplane crash lawsuits air safety prevention. 15 pages; 54 footnotes; 31 bibliographic sources. 4,882 words.   $105
17197. First Central Bank of River City Harvard Case Study 9488015. This paper provides a Berkeley Research legal and ethical analysis of a Harvard Business School case study (9488015) on First Central Bank of River City involving an attempt by the International Metal Workers Union (IMU) to organize the bank’s white collar workers. The legal analysis first summarizes the relevant facts of the case and articulates the critical issues. The applicable legal rules are identified and discussed. The legal analysis concludes with recommendations on the appropriate legal action. The second part of the paper presents an analysis of the ethical issues in the case. The major ethical issues are identified and discussed. Possible ethical alternatives are identified and recommendations for appropriate ethical action stated. Keywords: banking unionization white collar workers union busting ethics labor law case study case solution. 16 pages; 33 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 3,962 words.   $112
17193. Ashland Oil Inc (A): Trouble at Floreffe Harvard Case 390017. This paper presents an analysis and a case solution to a Harvard Business School case study (390017) of a 1988 oil spill at an Ashland Oil terminal near Pittsburgh. Following a brief summary of the facts of the case, an ethical and legal analysis of Ashland’s response to the crisis is presented. Ashland’s two alternative Press Releases related to the crisis are then compared and contrasted, and the ethical and legal differences between the two release identified and discussed. The concluding section of the analysis presents a draft of a different press release which reflects the appropriate stance for Ashland to take. Keywords: oil spill ethics law crisis management strategy case study case solution communications management . 15 pages; 6 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources. 4,295 words.   $105
17192. Should the Fcc Be Given Broad Regulative Powers? Review of the Literature. Following a brief history of freedom of speech, this paper presents a review of the literature on FCC (Federal Communications Commission) regulation of speech and expression on all types of media. Key concepts and existing theories related to government regulation of media and speech are identified. Contradictions, shortcomings, and gaps in the evidence related to FCC regulation of media are discussed. Keywords: FCC regulation media broadcasting free speech ownership television radio. MLA Style. 8 pages; 49 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 1,891 words.   $56
17191. Pat Parker & Associates Harvard Case Study 9393059. This paper provides a Berkeley Research legal and ethical analysis of a Harvard Business School case (9393059) involving a small research firm specializing in opposition research for political candidates. The legal analysis first summarizes the relevant facts of the case and articulates the critical issues which revolve around copyright law, contract law, and campaign financing law. The applicable legal rules are then identified and discussed. The legal analysis concludes with recommendations on the appropriate legal action. The second part of the paper analyzes ethical issues in this case. The major ethical issues are identified and discussed. Possible ethical alternatives are identified and recommendations for appropriate ethical action stated. Keywords: campaign financing ethics political opposition research copyright contract law case study case solution. 18 pages; 21 footnotes; 12 bibliographic sources. 4,500 words.   $126
17189. Managing Product Safety: The Ford Pinto Harvard Case Study 383129. Drawing primarily on information presented in Harvard Business (1984) case 383129, “Managing Product Safety: The Ford Pinto,” by Kenneth E. Goodpaster and Dekkers L. Davidson, along with supplementary data from business, legal, and news media sources, this paper presents a Berkeley Research legal and ethical analysis of the Ford Pinto product safety case. The focus of the analysis is on Ford’s management of the product safety issues presented in the Pinto case. The first part of the paper presents a legal analysis of the case. This part identifies the relevant facts, critical issues, and appropriate legal rules in the case. Conclusions related to the appropriate legal disposition of the case are delineated. Drawing on the facts presented in the first part of the paper, the second part of the paper explores and analyzes the key ethical issues in this case. Ethical alternatives are identified and the recommendations concerning appropriate ethical action made. Keywords: product safety ethics Ford Pinto automotive product recall case study case solution. 18 pages; 19 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 4,959 words.   $126
17188. Microsoft Antitrust Lawsuit. This paper provides a summary overview and analysis of the Microsoft antitrust case (United States v. Microsoft), Civil Action No. 98-1232, U.S. District Court, D.C.). The claims and positions of both parties to the case are identified and explained. The precise charges the government raised against Microsoft are identified, and the legal basis for these charges explained. Microsoft’s responses to the charges are discussed and explained. The procedural (litigation) history of the case is summarized and the terms of the final settlement are reviewed and analyzed. The concluding section offers a personal assessment of the major issues in the case. Keywords: antitrust litigation Microsoft software windows anti-competitive bundling tie-ins. 12 pages; 32 footnotes; 20 bibliographic sources. 3,653 words.   $84
17151. Whistle-Blowing in Japan. Using a 2002 Los Angeles Times article about a Japanese company’s revenge on an employee whistle-blower as a starting point, this paper examines whistle-blowing in Japan. Differences between the Japanese and the U.S./Western approach to whistle-blowing are considered, and the legal, cultural, and other reasons for these differences assessed. The investigation looks at some corporate and government scandals broken by whistle-blowers and considers why whistle-blowing has become more common in Japan in recent years. The conclusion speculates on the future of whistle-blowing and the prospect for whistle-blower protection in Japan. Keywords: comparative politics law whistleblowing Japan US. APA Style. 12 pages; 35 footnotes; 20 bibliographic sources. 3,210 words.   $84
17139. Law and Social Control. This paper critically analyzes five basic insights generated from viewing the law through the lens of the social scientist: 1) law is not free; 2) law is delivered by actors with limited resources and interests of their own in settings where they have discretion; 3) people cannot be expected to comply passively with the law; 4) avoidance and evasion are important ways in which our society deals with conflict; and 5) law’s influence in American society tends to be indirect, subtle, and ambiguous. Each insight is analyzed from the perspective of a sociological interpretation of the law. KEYWORDS: law society us american legal system social control citizens. APA Style. 36 pages; 26 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 8,359 words.   $133
17120. Insider Trading Regulation: The Us & Eu. This paper provides a comparative analysis of insider trading regulations in the United States and the European Union (EU). The United States was selected for analysis because it was the first country to enact significant insider trading laws and today continues to lead the world ion enforcement of insider trading violations. The first part of the paper describes insider trading regulation and enforcement in the U.S. The second part of the paper compares insider trading regulation and enforcement in the EU (both in the EU as a whole and in representative Member States, including the U.K., Germany, Sweden, and Italy) with the system found in the U.S. 12 pages; 61 footnotes; 32 bibliographic sources. 5,076 words.   $84
17116. Senator Kerry and the Workplace Religious Freedom Act. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history, development, and status (as of 2002) of the Workplace Religious Freedom Act (WRFA) of 2002 (S. 2572) and its sponsorship by Senator Kerry (D-MA). The analysis begins with a brief biographical sketch of Senator Kerry. The history and development of the WRFA and its sponsorship by Senator Kerry is traced. The analysis considers the factors which led to the development of this bill and examines the intended and possible effects it will have on public policy, employees and employers. Keywords: work religion John Kerry senate bill. 25 pages; 47 footnotes; 38 bibliographic sources. 6,721 words.   $133
17102. Employee Email, Internet Use & Sexual Harassment. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the nexus between the increase in workplace based sexual harassment claims and the proliferation of work-based email and Internet use. The analysis begins with a general overview of the issue and recent trends. Following a brief review of the status of sexual harassment law as it applies to workplace settings, the investigation looks at how email and Internet technologies are implicated in sexual harassment and considers some of the reasons why these technologies have provoked harassment claims. The next section considers employer responses to the problem. The concluding section makes recommendations for addressing the problem. Keywords: sexual harassment employment email. KEYWORDS: sexual harassment employees email online pornography workplace. APA Style. 15 pages; 39 footnotes; 21 bibliographic sources. 4,542 words.   $105
17017. Mediation and the Resolution of International Conflicts. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the mediation process in resolving international disputes and conflicts. Considers ways to strengthen mediation effectiveness. Also discusses the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in settling international disputes. Keywords: political mediation international disputes. 9 pages; 17 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $63
15969. Non-Judicial Organizations in Juvenile Diversion and Restorative Justice. This paper describes the advantages of juvenile diversion and restorative justice programs being handled by community-based organizations and agencies, rather than by the courts and traditional juvenile justice institutions. Examples of various successful programs are noted. 17 pages; 33 footnotes; 11 bibliographic sources. 3,964 words.   $119
15961. Supreme Court Decisions and the Spirit of the American People. This paper discusses how the Supreme Court, in the years following World War I, has reflected the shifting conservative and liberal opinions of the nation as a whole. References are made to various decisions, and the trend toward “moderate conservatism” is noted. 11 pages; 36 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 2,457 words.   $77
15935. Separation of Church and State as a Constitutional Issue. This paper examines Constitutional issues in church-state separation. Discusses the First Amendment, Thomas Jefferson’s views, Supreme Court decisions over the years, and the recent trend of using a less strict interpretation of the law requiring church-state separation. Also refers to cases on the matter that were pending in the Supreme Court in the fall of 2003. 7 pages; 16 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources. 1,770 words.   $49
15914. The Supreme Court and Affirmative Action. This paper examines to Supreme Court cases involve reverse discrimination charges at the University of Michigan (Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger). In one decision, the Court held that race can be used as a factor in the effort to attain diversity in higher education. In the other decision, the Court held that race cannot be used as a basis for awarding ‘points’ to qualify for admission. 10 pages; 26 footnotes; 8 bibliographic sources.   $70
15895. The Protection of Children From Sexual Predators Act (Pl 105-314). This paper discusses this 1998 federal law designed to protect children from sexual predators, providing an overview of the components of the law and the problems which prompted its passage (e.g., child pornography on the Internet, access to online porn by children, and sexual predators online). The political, economic, and administrative feasibility of the law is also discussed. 24 pages; 56 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources.   $133
15872. The Usa Patriot Act. This paper discusses the Patriot Act, hastily passed in response to the events of September 11, 2001. Although the Patriot Act provides certain benefits regarding the ability of the government to fight terrorism, it also raises serious concerns about depriving U.S. citizens of their civil liberties. In addition, some have argued that the Act may be ineffective in the long run. KEYWORDS: Patriot Act anti-terrorism policy domestic security civil liberties privacy rights. APA Style. 11 pages; 31 footnotes; 9 bibliographic sources. 2,877 words.   $77
15870. "A Civil Action". This paper discusses how the 1998 film (director Steven Zaillian) "A Civil Action" demonstrates the legal adversary process, including the problems faced by the main character, plaintiff attorney Jan Schlictmann. Argues that the system does not always work in terms of revealing the truth or attaining justice. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
15814. Constitutional Issues in the Jacksonian Era. This paper provides an overview and analysis of three important constitutional issues which arose during the era of President Andrew Jackson: 1) equal rights for individuals; 2) states’ rights versus national government rights; and 3) the power of the president. The analysis looks at the debate over these issues during the Jacksonian era as well as considering the extent to which the issues were resolved, concluding in each case that they were only partially resolved at the time. KEYWORDS: Jacksonian era Andrew Jackson administration us constitution equal rights states rights presidential power dual federalism nullification crisis. MLA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes,3 bibliographic references. 1,390 words.   $42
15813. Constitutional Amendments During the Reconstruction Period. A paper on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, and how each raised issues of constituionality in the period immediately following American Civil War. Differing theories of Reconstruction are discussed, as well as the implications of the Amendments in regard to governmental power. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
15812. Supreme Court Decisions and the Shift in Political Power in the Late 19th Century. This paper looks at how Supreme Court decisions of the 19th century contributed to giving the federal government more regulatory control while at the same time increasing the economic power of industry and big business. In addition, some of the decisions resulted in creating a more powerful position for the Supreme Court itself. KEYWORDS: Supreme Court history 19th century major decisions federal government big business. 6 pages; 19 footnotes; 4 bibliographic sources. 1,419 words.   $42
15804. Nursing Ethics and Causing Death in a Non-Dying Patient. This paper provides an analysis of an amici curiae brief filed by a group of nurses in the case of Christian Busalacchi, a non-dying patient in a vegetative state. The paper summarizes the nurses' arguments and the precedents they cited to support these arguments; analyzes the effectiveness of the nurses' arguments and the conflict of laws or rights imbued in the briefs; and then takes the position of a member of the court and renders a decision and an explanation of the rationale for same. The case concerns Ms. Busalacchi's Guardian's (her father's) petition to the court to have her feeding tube removed and the nurses' opposition to any nursing involvement in "causing the death" of this patient by denying food and water and hence facilitating death by starvation and dehydration. KEYWORDS: nursing case study ethics vegetative state dying patients. 11 pages. Internal citations to legal cases. 3,195 words.   $77
15771. Georgia's Anti-Sodomy Law. Discusses the paternalistic and moralistic arguments that were used to support the law before it was overturned in 1998. The views of Patrick Devlin, H.L.A. Hart, J. S. Mill and Gerald Dworkin are included. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
15756. Women Who Kill Their Husbands and the Battered Woman Defense in the u.s. And u.k. This paper provides a comparative analysis of how the criminal justice systems in the United States versus England and Wales treats women accused of killing their husbands. The analysis begins with a general overview of spousal homicide, and its central features in the U.S. and the U.K. Following this, the historical treatment of women murderers and the legal evolution of self-defense law will be examined. This is followed by an examination of the current and evolving legal status of women who kill their husbands in the U.S. and the U.K., with a close focus on the expansion of the battered woman's syndrome self-defense strategy in the U.S. and the reliance on provocation defenses in the U.K. KEYWORDS: battered women syndrome spouse abuse victim retaliation female killers. 15 pages, 36 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 4,185 words.   $105
15749. Criticisms of the Community Notification Requirement in Megan's Law. Three major criticisms are discussed: 1) Community notification is a form of "punishment" and thus a violation of the Constitutions' Ex Post Facto clause; 2) there are problems with using "balancing tests" to balance the "common good" against privacy and other individual rights; 3) the evidence indicates that community notification is not effective in reducing recidivism rates among sex offenders. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $49
15723. The Role and Adequacy of Punishment. This paper argues that punishment is a complex issue and the views on its adequacy are relative. This is shown by comparing the views of such writers as Michel Foucault, Hannah Arendt (on the Adolf Eichmann trial) and Marcia Clark (on the O.J. Simpson trial). In addition, the views in various works of literature are referred to such as To Kill a Mockingbird, The Scarlet Letter and Measure for Measure. 11 pages, 21 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
15685. Alfred Rosenberg: Crimes or Misdemeanors? Did Rosenberg deserve his Nuremberg death penalty and his conviction on the four criminal counts, or was he merely a hapless pawn of the more cunning and politically adroit leaders in the Third Reich? This paper explores this question through an examination of Alfred Rosenberg's rise in the German National Socialist Party, his role as the Nazi ideologue, his role and duties in Hitler's Third Reich, and his activities as Delegate of the Fuhrer for the Supervision of the Entire Spiritual and Ideological Teaching and Education of the NSDAP and as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories. The analysis includes an assessment of the case made against him during the Nuremberg Trial and the defense put forward on his behalf. Concludes that while Rosenberg was a relatively unimportant and certainly ineffectual Nazi policymaker, he nevertheless should have been held culpable for the consistent promulgation of an ideology which inexorably led to the commission of the Nazi atrocities. KEYWORDS: nazi war criminals rosenberg nazi trials nuremberg nazi. MLA Style. 25 pages, 38 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources. 6,337 words.   $133
15664. Research Design Proposal: Examining Mandatory Minimums in Drug Sentencing. This paper presents a proposal for a criminal justice research design. The proposed study would examine how federal judges, federal prosecutors, legislators, and the general voting public view mandatory minimum sentencing laws in drug offenses. Reviews the literature on the impact of mandatory minimums and the disparate views of these laws taken by judges, prosecutors, legislators and the public. States five hypotheses for testing and describes the methodology (study design, samples and sampling procedures, instruments) for the study. Includes sample questions from the proposed survey instrument. KEYWORDS: mandatory minimums judicial sentencing policy research design criminology deterrence theory punitive justice. 22 pages, 58 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources. 5,778 words.   $133
15658. The Trial and Conviction of Sirhan Sirhan: Warped Justice and the Assassination of Rfk. Without reference to Sirhan's ultimate guilt or innocence, this term paper provides an overview and analysis of the performance of Sirhan's defense team during his 1969 trial for the murder of Robert F. Kennedy. The essay argues that the defense team's strategy and performance had a profoundly negative impact on the outcome of the trial and that the shortcomings in the defense team's performance were so significant as to render the legitimacy of Sirhan's conviction questionable. KEYWORDS: rfk assassination sirhan sirhan murder trial defense strategy assessment essay. APA Style. 17 pages, 32 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 4,486 words.   $119
15650. Women in the Criminal Justice System of the United Kingdom. This paper provides an overview and analysis of how women are treated within the criminal justice system in England and Wales. The investigation begins with a general overview of women's status in British crime statistics and of the general orientation of the criminal justice system towards women offenders. The analysis then takes a closer look at how the CJS treats women by examining the position of two distinct groups of female offenders: 1) women of color, and 2) female killers and/or perpetrators of serious violent crime. Another major section examines the status of women in the prisons of England and Wales. The concluding section considers the implications of the treatment of women for the implementation of justice in Britain. KEYWORDS: female killers uk criminal justice women prison essay. APA Style. 21 pages, 87 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources. 5,904 words.   $133
15649. Deprivation of Liberty and the Psychiatric Patient: Involuntary Civil Commitment and Treatment. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the deprivation of individual liberty encompassed in the process and act of involuntary civil commitment and related involuntary treatment. The focus of this paper is confined to involuntary civil commitments arising within the community (versus involuntary treatment of prisoners or involuntary commitment of sexual predators following their completion of criminal sentence). Describes the rationale for commitment, reviews the history of commitment law in the U.S., and discusses the possible solutions to the problems posed by involuntary civil commitment. KEYWORDS: involuntary treatment psychiatry commitment psychiatric. APA Style. 15 pages, 43 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 3,853 words.   $105
15648. Online Gambling: A Socio-Legal Analysis. This paper provides a legal perspective on Internet gambling, examining the various social, political, and legal issues raised by the proliferation of this new form of gambling. Following an overview of the major political/social positions surrounding online gambling, the investigation profiles and legal position of Internet gambling, looking at state law, federal law, and proposed legislation. Concludes that existing federal and state law is adequate to prosecute Internet gambling operators, including those in foreign jurisdictions, yet notes that enforcement will remain problematic at best. KEYWORDS: internet casinos online gambling law gaming industry. APA Style. 15 pages, 43 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 4,210 words.   $105
15619. Restorative Justice in the Youth Justice System of Great Britain. This paper assesses the impact of restorative justice principles on contemporary juvenile justice policy and practice in Great Britain. The analysis explains the concept of restorative justice and its evolution in England and Wales. Practical examples of the implementation of restorative justice in the juvenile system are discussed, as are problems in the implementation of the model. Concludes that the restorative justice model will not be truly viable until the underlying culture of the youth justice system shifts away from retribution and towards the principles of restorative justice. 10 pages, 48 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $70
15597. "Megan's Law" as a Violation of the Ex Post Facto Clause. It is argued that the notification provisions of sex-offender registration laws are a violation of the Constitution's prohibition against retroactive punishments. In making this argument, various Federal Court and Supreme Court opinions, as well as the debate over how "punishment" is defined, are discussed. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
15582. Constitutional Issues and "Megan's Law." This paper concerns the laws that have arisen since the 1990's regarding registration and community notification in cases involving released sex offenders. It is argued that despite the apparent unconstitutional elements in the laws (relating to such issues as bill of attainder, the Ex Post Facto clause, double jeopardy and cruel and unusual punishment), they have been mostly upheld by the courts for the sake of "community protection." 11 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
15535. Videotaping Police Interrogations. Presents the arguments for and against the use of videotapes, and concludes that the arguments in favor of their use are more compelling. For example, they help reduce police abuse, provide strong evidence in court, and reduce the occurrence of false confessions. Includes outline. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
15509. Affirmative Action Policies. Using a managerial perspective, this paper describes both and pros and cons of affirmative action, and argues that the disadvantages outweigh the advantages. The various flaws of the policies are discussed and it is concluded that the only real solution to discrimination and inequality is for society in general to become more "color-blind" in the assessment of individual merit. 10 pages, 16 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
15501. Warrantless Searches. This paper concerns the Supreme Court cases in which exceptions have been made to the Constitutional requirement for a warrant when police officers make searches or seizures. The Court has narrowly defined the instances in which such exceptions can be made. The paper also discusses the importance of probable cause and the view that privacy is more protected in the home than in public places. 6 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
15495. Police Role in the Contemporary Era: An Administrative Law Analysis. This paper provides an analysis of the role of the police officer as viewed from the perspective of administrative law. The first section provides a brief definition and overview of the concept of administrative law and its application related to the proper role of law enforcement. The next section examines the evolution of the police role during the contemporary post-reform era, tracing the shift from the professional model to the current interest in problem-oriented and community-policing models. A concluding section summarizes the findings and speculates on the future role of the police officer. KEYWORDS: police departments officer roles community policy problem oriented model police reform. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 18 pages, 29 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references + Table of Cases   $126
15494. The Historical Role of the Police Officer. This paper provides a historical analysis of the role of the police officer as viewed from the perspective of administrative law. The first section below provides a brief definition and overview of the concept of administrative law and its application related to the proper role of law enforcement. Following this, we will consider the historical role of the police officer dating from the inauguration of municipal police departments in the United States in the mid-19th century through the 20th century "reform era" ending in the late 1960s with the passage of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 and the creation of the Law Enforcement Education Program (LEEP). KEYWORDS: administrative law justice police history law enforcement 19th century reform era omnibus crime control act. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 18 pages, 28 footnotes, 24 bibliographic references + Table of Cases.   $126
15488. Saudi Arabia and Islamic Law. Discusses the development of Islamic law in the country, and the dominance of the relatively strict views of Wahhabism and the Hanbali school. Also addresses the criticisms of Western observers, arguing that the country's legal system is not as inflexible as many have assumed it to be. 16 pages, 54 footnotes, 11 bibliographic references.   $112
15484. Sexual Harassment and Employment Law. Examines various cases in the Supreme Court and other courts, and includes a discussion of quid pro quo cases, hostile work environment claims, same sex harassment, and other types of claims. In addition, the paper discusses what the courts have determined regarding employer liability, and thus what companies can do to defend themselves against sexual harassment claims. 19 pages, 58 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $133
15481. Insanity: Legal Versus Psychiatric Viewpoints. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of legal versus psychiatric/medical views of insanity with a particular focus on the insanity defense and the legal approach to mental illness in the criminal courts. The essay begins with a historical background on the development of the insanity defense. Following this, we consider the use and components of the insanity defense in contemporary American jurisprudence, looking at the acceptance of the insanity defense as a valid legal strategy in various jurisdictions, the alternatives to the insanity defense, and the psychiatric and legal issues surrounding insanity defenses and the disposition of acquitted defendants. KEYWORDS: law psychiatry legal status mentally ill persons insanity defense term paper. APA Style. 13 pages, 48 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 5,502 words.   $91
15460. Treating Kids Like Adults: Transformation in Juvenile Justice. This research paper provides an overview and analysis of the "criminalization" of juvenile justice, examining the reasons behind and the initial consequences of juvenile defendants being treated as adults as a matter of the public policy. The analysis traces the evolution of this trend, looking at the reasons for the shift in juvenile justice philosophy and considering the range of procedures used to carry out the policy. The essay also considers apparent consequences and impact (both in terms of intended and unintended effects) of the policy so far as it can be discerned. It is argued that the policy of trying juveniles as adults (and relatedly, sentencing juveniles as adults) is contrary to the public interest. KEYWORDS: juvenile justice policy juveniles adult court punitive justice term paper. APA Style. 14 pages, 75 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.   $98
15447. Environmental Justice and the Hazardous Waste Trade. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the problem of trade in hazardous waste between industrialized nations and less developed countries. The analysis examines the Basel Convention through the lens of environmental justice by looking at issues of equity, justice and legal conflicts of trade and the environment. The analysis traces the history of toxic waste trading and the Basel Convention (providing specific case examples; examines the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of the Basel Convention; looks at the more recent debate on the amendment which would ban all hazardous waste trade between OECD and non-OECD nations; and considers the current scope of the problem in hazardous waste trade as illustrated by recent dumping cases. KEYWORDS: international environmental agreements hazardous wastes basel convention term paper. APA Style. 16 pages, 42 footnotes, 25 bibliographic references.   $112
15238. University Sexual Harassment Codes. This paper considers whether university sexual harassment policies violate the First Amendment (free speech) rights of professors' and students. Reviews existing case law on academic freedom, First Amendment rights of public employees, and applicable university sexual harassment cases. Concludes that a First Amendment challenge to the vague "hostile environment" standards in these policies is possible. KEYWORDS: first amendment free speech sexual harassment codes university academic freedom. APA Style. 15 pages, 64 footnotes, 41 bibliographic sources (including cases). 5,053 words.   $105
15237. Public Sector Labor Management Relations Law. This research paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the Federal Labor-Management Relations Statute as subsumed within the Civil Service Reform Act (CSRA) of 1978. Following a history and detailed discussion of the purpose and central provisions of the CSRA's labor law, the analysis considers the federal labor law in comparative context to the major private sector labor law (Labor Management Relations Act, also known as "Taft-Hartley Act") as well as to New York state's Public Employees' Fair Employment Act (better known as the "Taylor Law"). Included in this comparative analysis is a description and analysis of the administrative agencies which administer and enforce the respective laws (e.g. FLRA, NLRB, and PERB). The concluding sections examine recent significant agency and court decisions related to the federal labor-management relations law as well as current issues regarding the law. A final section compares the federal labor management relations law to other public sector laws and considers how the law could be improved. KEYWORDS: public sector labor law research paper. APA Style. 30 pages, 110 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $133
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