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10A. U.S. HISTORY TO 1865

How to interpret the catalog entries:
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18852. Notes on the State of Virginia (Thomas Jefferson). This term paper discusses Thomas Jefferson’s 1785 book, Notes on the State of Virginia, in which he refutes the argument that the natural environment of America is inferior to that of Europe. Although Jefferson makes a sensible argument, his findings are criticized for being based on observation rather than scientific methods. In addition, Jefferson is criticized for having stereotypical views about Native Americans and African Americans. TAGS: Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, book review, essay, natural environment, racial stereotypes, Native Americans, African Americans. Thomas Jefferson. MLA Style. 7 pages, 5 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,726 words.   $49
18699. American Origins and the Principle of Limited Government. This paper discusses how America’s Founding Fathers (in the late eighteenth century) sought to create a government with sufficient power to carry out the nation’s interests, yet a government in which centralized power is limited at the same time. This effort was related to the abuses of centralized power that had occurred under British imperial rule. In making its argument, the paper refers to the views of Tom Paine and James Madison, as well as the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. TAGS: founding principles abuse of power centralization of power, American history independence movement founding fathers. MLA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,453 words.   $42
18500. The Transatlantic Slave Trade. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the transatlantic slave trade and its impact on both Africa and the Americas. Following an overview of the purpose, scope and character of the slave trade in the 16th to 19th centuries, the consequences of the slave trade are discussed. It is argued that the slave trade had important economic, social and cultural consequences in the New World. KEYWORDS: slave trade America transatlantic African-Americans slavery. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 2801 words.   $84
18209. The Battle of Cowpens. This paper is concerned with the Battle of Cowpens (January 1781), which resulted in a significant victory for the Americans near the end of the Revolutionary War. The paper covers the background of the battle, the events of the battle, the leaders on both sides, strategies and tactics, and the historical importance of the battle’s outcome. KEYWORDS: military history Revolutionary War battle. MLA Style. 9 pages, 31 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
18007. “Chickamauga and Chattanooga” by John Bowers. This paper critically reviews Bowers' book on two battles in East Tennessee in 1863, which Bowers claims were a turning point in the American Civil War. Although the book is entertaining and informative, the reviewer criticizes Bowers for lack of scholarship, use of speculative and unsubstantiated claims, failure to address the "Big Picture," and having too much of a personal interest in the topic. KEYWORDS: book review civil war battles. MLA Style. 8 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,916 words.   $56
17766. “All God's Dangers” by Theodore Rosengarten. This termpaper provides a review Rosengarten’s book on the life of Nate Shaw, a black sharecropper in the Old South. The paper focuses on the economic and psychological causes for the disunity of the oppressed black peoples of the Old South. The limits of rebellion and the fear of change are discussed. KEYWORDS: book review all gods dangers term paper nate shaw rosengarten black sharecroppers old south racial oppression. Turabian Style with Endnotes. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
17641. Social Change in America, 1789-1861. This paper provides a brief analysis of social change in America during the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th centuries (1789-1861). The analysis focuses on what are argued to be the three most significant social changes during this period: 1) the dramatic increase in the size of the nation’s population; 2) the westward expansion; and 3) the rise of the first American feminist movement. KEYWORDS: american social change late 18th 19th century feminist population growth westward expansion. MLA Style. 5 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,321 words.   $35
17611. Slavery in Pre-Revolutionary America. This paper provides an overview and analysis of slavery and slave society in pre-revolutionary America, focusing on the differences and similarities in slavery as found in the Southern or “low country” colonies and the Northern middle colonies. Concludes while slavery was found throughout the colonies in the pre-revolutionary period, the transformation to a slave society was much more complete in the south because slave labor there was regarded as vital to the plantation economy. KEYWORDS: slaves slavery early America north south differences. Turabian/Chicago bottom-of-page footnotes with separate bibliography. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,480 words.   $42
17610. Political Culture & Institutions of Early America Versus Political Culture & Institutions in Great Britain. This paper compares and contrasts the political culture and institutions of early America with those of Great Britain, detailing their similarities and differences. Concludes that major differences in political culture included the lack of a strong aristocratic class in America, the growing diversity and factional conflicts in different regions of the colonies, and the American view that members of their representative assemblies had the right to make changes in local constitutions. The paper details similarities and differences between the British House of Lords and the early American representative assemblies. KEYWORDS: colonial America political culture institutions british political heritage. Turabian/Chicago style with bottom-of-page footnotes and separate bibliography. 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,492 words.   $42
17588. Social and Political Cohesion in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. This paper provides an overview and analysis of social and political cohesion in Puritan Massachusetts, the challenges to that cohesion and the reasons why such cohesion was ultimately unable to endure. Argues that the key to social and political cohesion in Puritan Massachusetts was found in the dominance of the Puritan ideology. KEYWORDS: puritans Massachusetts colony social political cohesion. MLA Style. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references. 1,756 words.   $49
17587. Land and Labor in the Virginia Colony. This paper discusses the significance of land and labor in the development of Chesapeake society. The Virginia colony was founded as an agricultural enterprise, and labor was needed to cultivate the land and make the enterprise profitable. Induced by promises of land in exchange for labor, settlers came to the Chesapeake region with high expectations. While the system of land grants initially contributed to social stability, over time, as good lands became scarce, and landowners increasingly exploitative of laborers, conflict increased. KEYWORDS: Chesapeake society Virginia colony land labor social conflict. MLA Style. 8 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,917 words.   $56
17580. Social and Political Differences Among the American Colonies. This paper discusses the social and political differences among the American colonies in the period leading up to the Revolutionary War. Significant differences in economic base and religious affinity associated with the three major geographic divisions (New England, Middle, and Southern). Virginia is seen as unique for its relative lack of factional conflict prior to the war and total dominance of the elite in positions of power, while Massachusetts is notable for its extreme level of political conflict. KEYWORDS: American revolution colonies economic social religious differences. MLA Style. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $56
17579. Constitutional Issues of the American Revolution. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the central constitutional issues of the American Revolution and the way those issues were resolved by the nation’s Founding Fathers. Among the issues discussed are taxation without representation, abuse of power, and impingement on fundamental rights (right to liberty, right to property). KEYWORDS: American Revolution constitution taxation abuse power fundamental rights liberty property. MLA Style. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,992 words.   $56
17578. American Revolution: Struggle for Power or Principle? A fundamental question about the American Revolution is whether it was a struggle for power or based on principles. This paper argues that the American Revolution was a struggle for principle, and that it was made against the abuse of power. KEYWORDS: American revolution abuse of power. MLA Style. 8 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,972 words.   $56
17577. Social & Political Changes Associated With the American Revolution. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the internal social and political changes caused by the American Revolution. Argues that the most important social changes caused by the American Revolution were those that were related to the new thinking about the concept of “liberty” and the guarantees to individual rights provided in the new Constitution. KEYWORDS: American Revolution social change social class individual rights equal rights. MLA Style. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $56
17563. America’S Frontier Past. This paper considers the merits of the “frontier thesis” – the argument that America’s frontier past contributed to the unique character of the American people – and examines some of the major effects of the frontier past on the development of the American character. Concludes that while Turner’s “frontier thesis” can be rightly faulted as geographically inaccurate, culturally biased and potentially racist, the notion that the nation’s frontier past helps to explain the American character retains validity. KEYWORDS: frontier legacy American character frontier mentality frontier thesis controversy. MLA Style. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,673 words.   $49
17553. American Civil War: Factors Contributing to Its Outbreak. This paper discusses the five events that most contributed to the outbreak of the American Civil War: 1) the 1832 Nullifcation Crisis; 2) the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854; 3) the 1857 Supreme Court decision in the Dred Scott case; 4) John Brown’s 1859 raid on the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia; and 5) Abraham Lincoln’s victory in the 1860 Presidential race. KEYWORDS: us civil war causes dred scott harper’s ferry raid nullification crisis Lincoln presidency. MLA Style. 4 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 944 words.   $28
17509. Book Review: The Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, and the Rush to Colorado by Eliot West. This paper provides a favorable review of Eliot West’s book on the Colorado Gold Rush. Notes that West moves beyond the usual interpretation of the Gold Rush, casting an insightful light on the plights of both the Anglo settlers who journeyed out West as well as the Cheyenne who made their home on the plains. The reviewer finds that “even the plains themselves become a significant character in West’s exploration, and the reader comes away with a keen understanding and appreciation for a misunderstood period of American history”. KEYWORDS: : book review nonfiction Colorado gold rush plains Indians native Americans wild west settlers. MLA Style. 10 pages, 25 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources. 2,632 words.   $70
17408. Northern Dissent in the Civil War: The Case of the “Copperheads”. Drawing on both primary and secondary sources, this paper provides an overview and an analysis of the Copperhead movement during the Civil War era. The emergence of the movement is traced and the principal socioeconomic groups involved in the movement identified. The major leaders in the movement are identified and discussed, although the focus of the analysis is on the Copperhead movement in general rather than individuals. The analysis considers the reasons behind the emergence of the movement and looks into the motivations of the Copperheads as the Civil War progressed. The analysis profiles the main objectives, positions and activities of the Copperheads and evaluates the Republican response to the Copperheads. The concluding section looks at the fate of the Copperheads in the aftermath of the war and assesses the legacy of the Copperheads as traitors or dissenters. The starting point for the analysis is the revisionist historian’s rejection of the traditional view of Copperhead as southern sympathizer and traitor and the redefinition of Copperhead as northern Democratic dissenter. KEYWORDS: US civil war dissent copperheads peace democrats northern dissenters. 25 pages, 69 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources (including 8 primary sources). 7,553 words.   $133
17406. The Texas Rangers in the Mexican-American War. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the role of the Texas Rangers in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). Drawing on a wide range of primary (memoirs, letters, journalistic reports) and secondary sources, the motivations and activities of the Texas Rangers during the war are described and explained. The relations between the Rangers and the regular Army, state volunteers, and the Mexican enemy are explored. The Rangers’ contributions to the war effort are described and assessed. The analysis also takes a critical look at the widely accepted image of the Rangers as honorable citizen soldiers and unbiased dispensers of even-handed justice. Related to this is an exploration of the Rangers’ role in committing atrocities. The concluding section makes an appraisal of the Rangers’ overall role in the war and considers the merits of the legend of the Texas Rangers. KEYWORDS: Texans rangers Mexicans Texas Rangers war. 24 pages, 46 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
17343. The Slavery Debate and the Civil War. This paper examines some of the major documents and speeches pertaining to the slavery debate in the period immediately preceding the Civil War. It is found that, even when the debate was cast in terms of states’ rights or the balance of power, the central concern prior to the onset of the war was always the issue of whether slavery (or its expansion) should be permitted. KEYWORDS: US civil war slaves slavery debate states’ rights. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,760 words.   $49
17327. The Native Americans of Moundville. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the society, politics, economy and culture of the indigenous peoples known as the Moundville Indians. Home to thousands of Native Americans, the site known as Moundville in central Alabama was one of the many ceremonial centers associated with the Mississippian culture, which flourished in the southeastern region of the United States between 750 AD and 1500 AD. This paper reviews the extant archeological literature on these mound-building societies and describes the social structure, economic life, religious beliefs, agriculture, and structures of everyday life of the Moundville Indians who reached the peak of their influence between 1200-1500. KEYWORDS: American Indians mound building societies. 9 pages, 37 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,160 words.   $63
17311. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall. This paper provides a profile of the life and career of John Marshall, who served for 34 years (1801-1835) as the fourth Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. The paper begins with Marshall’s early years, including his military service in the Revolutionary War and his work as a lawyer in Virginia. The next section profiles Marshall’s career on the bench and includes a discussion of some of the most significant cases under his tenure. A concluding section looks at Marshall’s impact on the judicial system and on the American people as a whole. Marshall was responsible for establishing the concept of judicial review and thereby giving the Supreme Court the power to rule on the constitutionality of acts created by the executive and legislative branches of government. Marshall also advanced the concept of federal supremacy, established the concept of appellate power, and played a role in the development of other important legal ideas, such as the honoring of contracts, the importance of private property rights, and having the Supreme Court issue a single majority opinion rather than numerous individual opinions. KEYWORDS: US Supreme Court chief justice john marshall judicial review. 28 pages, 51 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 7,042 words.   $133
15896. "Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Harriet Beecher Stowe (Book Review). This paper provides an overview and analysis of Stowe’s novel which illustrates the cruelty and inhumanity of slavery. Some of the characters in the novel provide justifications for slavery and others express their reasons for opposing it. Stowe’s novel also demonstrates how slaves were kept disunited and powerless, and how some slaves acted to resist authority. Stowe’s personal views on the issue are also revealed in the novel, as well as the role of lawmakers and the church in allowing slavery to persist. 13 pages; 24 footnotes; 1 bibliographic sources.   $91
15886. Thomas Jefferson and the Embargo of 1807. Using primary sources, this paper discusses the embargo that President Jefferson imposed in response to British and French interference with the right to conduct free oceanic trade. Argues that Jefferson erred in judgment because the embargo had more of a negative impact on US merchants than on the European nations. 16 pages, 19 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $112
15880. "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" (Book Review) This paper presents a summary and analysis of Franklin’s autobiography. Following a summary of the basic contents of the book – the events of Franklin’s life his philosophy of success – the paper considers how Franklin combined the ideas of entrepreneurship and American capitalism with a quest for moral perfection. It is argued that the practical guidelines of the book are still useful to today’s readers. Despite its historical context, the book contains a good deal of timeless wisdom. 9 pages; 8 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $63
15861. Harriet Beecher Stowe. This paper provides an overview of the life and work of the author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." Includes a discussion of Stowe's views on 'moderate feminism,' and the ways in which her work is still relevant to contemporary women. 13 pages; 32 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $91
15822. The Presidency and the Framing the u.s. Constitution. The framers of the U.S Constitution were concerned with three issues regarding the presidency: unity, selection, and the distribution of powers. This paper claims that the framers may have reconsidered their decisions if they had known how the presidency would have subsequently developed. 7 pages; 20 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources. 1,505 words.   $49
15814. Constitutional Issues in the Jacksonian Era. This paper provides an overview and analysis of three important constitutional issues which arose during the era of President Andrew Jackson: 1) equal rights for individuals; 2) states’ rights versus national government rights; and 3) the power of the president. The analysis looks at the debate over these issues during the Jacksonian era as well as considering the extent to which the issues were resolved, concluding in each case that they were only partially resolved at the time. KEYWORDS: Jacksonian era Andrew Jackson administration us constitution equal rights states rights presidential power dual federalism nullification crisis. MLA Style. 6 pages, 10 footnotes,3 bibliographic references. 1,390 words.   $42
15734. Democracy and the Philosophy of Pragmatism. American democracy has been influenced by pragmatism despite the fact that the Founding Fathers emphasized the importance of natural law and pragmatism rejects absolute principles. This paper describes the pro and con views on pragmatism's influence, and argues that the pragmatic view is the correct one to take because there is a need for the acceptance of pluralism and tolerance in contemporary democracy. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $77
15713. Thomas Jefferson and Equality. Jefferson's claim that "all men are created equal" contrasts the inequalities that exist in reality (in fact, Jefferson himself owned slaves). This paper discusses the interpretations of what Jefferson really meant by his claim and argues that although the claim does not describe the truth, it provides an ideal for the government and the law to strive toward. 9 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $63
15708. The Writings of Captain John Smith and William Bradford. A comparison of the works of these two figures of American history. Both writers used a "plain style" and emphasized the opportunities to be "self-made" in the New World, yet the style and content of their writings also differ because Smith was an adventurer and Bradford was a religious refugee and settler. 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
15700. A Comparison of the American and Russian Revolutions. This paper compares and contrasts the American Revolution and the Russian Revolution in terms of their causes, course, and impact. The analysis draws on Crane Brinton's Anatomy of Revolution as a guide for comparing the two revolutions. Specifically, the analysis considers the extent to which each revolution fits within Brinton's stages of a revolution and examines the differences between the two revolutions using Brinton's framework. In addition to Brinton's work, information on each revolution is drawn from scholarly monographs and journal articles. KEYWORDS: american revolution russian revolution comparative analysis revolutionary theory brinton. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes. 13 pages, 32 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 3,644 words.   $91
15584. Lincoln's Views on Slavery. In his speeches and writings throughout his career, Lincoln showed that he was opposed to slavery and believed that it was contrary to the wishes of the Founding Fathers. In addition, although he had a conservative (and cautious) political viewpoint, Lincoln hoped that his Emancipation Proclamation would lead to change in the nation's race relations. 11 pages, 21 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
15573. The Declaration of Independence as an Expression of the "Revolutionary Spirit." This paper discusses the sources of Jefferson's political theory and how the Declaration represents his views on governmental power and human rights. It is argued that the purpose of the Declaration was to stir up and maintain a revolutionary spirit, and to unite the Colonists in a common cause, the ultimate purpose of which was to create a new nation built on the principles of equality. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $70
15561. The American Revolution-a Comparison of Two Books by Countryman and Ward. This paper compares The American Revolution (Edward Countryman, 1985), and The American Revolution: Nationhood Achieved (Harry M. Ward, 1995). Although Countryman has a more clear-cut and specific argument than Ward has, it is argued that Ward's book is better overall because it is more informative and persuasive. 13 pages, 18 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $91
15559. Black Odyssey (Nathan Irvin Huggins). A chapter-by-chapter summary and discussion of Huggins' book on American slavery. The topics covered include: the culture and lives of the slaves, treatment by masters, the slave community, free Blacks, the value of slavery to the Southern economy, and how some slaves adapted while others resisted. 9 pages, 25 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
15532. Causes of the American Civil War. Argues that the view of historian Howard Zinn (that the war was caused by economic conflicts rather than concerns about the morality of slavery) is limited. Compares this view with those of other historians and concludes that the war was due to multiple causes; these included cultural and political differences between the North and South, and especially divisiveness over the issue of the abolition of slavery. Includes outline. 12 pages, 28 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
15507. A Historiography of American Slavery. Eight books regarding the topic of slavery are compared and discussed; in this way the reader is shown how the views and methodologies of historians have changed over time. The eight authors discussed in the paper are: Phillips, Aptheker, Stampp, Genovese, Starobin, Blassingame, Gutman, and Levine. 18 pages, 45 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $126
15303. History of Racial Discrimination in America. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the history of racial discrimination and the slow development of federal policy responses such as anti-discrimination laws and affirmative action programs to the problem. Following an overview of definitions of racial discrimination and a brief discussion of the cultural and historical roots of racial discrimination in the United States, the paper traces the history of racial discrimination in American from Colonial times through the 1950s. The essay also discusses some of the seminal Supreme Court cases – including Dred Scott, Plessy, and Korematsu – shaping formal policy responses to the problem of racial discrimination in America. KEYWORDS: racial discrimination blacks jim crow segregation race relations anti-discrimination laws supreme court rulings dred scott plessy korematsu brown v board education research paper. APA Style. 15 pages, 52 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 5,302 words.   $105
15076. Portugal in the Slave & Spice Trades. Why did Portugal, pioneering founder and unequivocal European leader of the spice and slave trades through the sixteenth century, drop to the margins of these trades in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? That is the central question under investigation in this comparative study of the European-Asian spice trade and Atlantic slave trade of the 15th-18th Centuries. The analysis looks at the major reasons for the decline and eventual diminution of the Portuguese role in these two major trades, considering political, organizational, cultural, economic, competitive and other factors. KEYWORDS: portugal history economic decline spice trade slave trade. APA Style. 14 pages, 40 footnotes, 17 bibliographic references. 5,421 words.   $98
15073. The Significance of the African Slave Trade to Economic Development in the European Maritime Nations, 1440-1860. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the economic impact of the transatlantic slave trade on the major European slave-trading nations. Argues that despite huge losses and inefficiencies, the major European slave traders of the 17th and 18th Centuries (Dutch, British, French) benefited economically from the trade in terms of increased exports, improvements in the shipping industry, the slave labor efficiencies of the plantation economies in the colonies, and the stimulation of development and innovation within certain industries. The effect is most dramatic for Great Britain. KEYWORDS: colonial powers slave trade history economic development commerce slaves britain france netherlands portugal. APA Style. 15 pages, 45 footnotes, 15 bibliographic references. 5,216 words.   $105
15051. The Role of Railroads in the Development of Illinois. Historical overview of the use of railroads in the state, showing how they contributed to economic development, population growth, and the creation of new towns. In particular, the city of Chicago benefited by becoming a meeting point for the rail lines of the region. 14 pages, 42 footnotes, 11 bibliographic reference.   $98
15050. Pope Urban Ii and the First Crusade (1095 Ce). Discusses the role of the pope in starting the crusade to help protect the Byzantine Church from Muslim invaders. Also looks at the arguments regarding the extent to which the pope's actions were meant to increase the power and status of the Church of Rome in relation to the Byzantine Church and the Holy Roman Empire. 10 pages, 31 footnotes, 9 bibliographic references.   $70
15033. Irish Immigrants in New York City, Circa 1837. Describes the various experiences that an Irishman would probably have in the city at the time. Covers such topics as Irish neighborhoods, economic problems, types of employment, communal bonds and support, alcohol use, role of charity organizations, and conflicts with other ethnic groups. 18 pages, 48 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $126
15029. Causes of the American Civil War. A paper on the various economic and social issues causing sectionalism between the Northern and Southern states. Includes a discussion of the central issue of slavery, as well as the roles played by Northern and Southern leaders. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $70
14048. The Life and Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Comprehensive portrayal of the life and works of this fascinating 19th Century writer. Includes a biographical sketch which considers how the solitude and loneliness in Hawthorne's personal life affected his work. Discusses Hawthorne's marriage and his experience with communal living. Profiles Hawthorne's relationships with other writers of the era. Discusses his major works, and provides an expanded analysis of a few of his more popular works such as The Scarlet Letter. 17 pages, 45 footnotes, 1 bibliographic reference.   $119
13990. Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant. In this paper on Grant’s memoirs of his military career, emphasis is placed on the idea that the Battle of Vicksburg was a decisive turning point in the Civil War. In this regard, it is argued that Grant’s strategic success in that battle was mainly due to the fact that he took risks and went against conventional military wisdom. 11 pages, 29 footnotes, 1 bibliography.   $77
13968. Slavery in Haiti and the United States. Compares the conditions of slavery in the two locations and argues that the different conditions help to explain why a successful slave revolt occurred in Haiti but not in the U. S. In particular, the Haitian slaves were treated more harshly, they were more likely to have been born in Africa, and they represented a larger percentage of the Haitian population than the colonists did. 15 pages, 47 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $105
13654. The American Revolution and Its Aftermath. The essay examines the American Revolution and its immediate and long-term impact. Considers the causes of the American Revolution (economic, political) and looks at how the new Constitution restructured American civil and political society. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
13596. The History of Free, Universal Public Education in the United States. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the history of free, universal, public education in the United States. Following a brief review of education in Colonial and Revolutionary America, the analysis traces the development of public education in the aftermath of the War of 1812 during the first six decades of the 19th century and through the development of compulsory education and the establishment of the "modern" system of education by the end of the 19th century. The analysis considers the theoretical underpinnings of American public education as well as the political, economic, and social factors which encouraged the development of a system of public education. 16 pages, 40 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $112
13545. Native American Influences on u.s. Politics. How the Iroquois Confederacy and similar groups influenced the founding fathers and thus U.S. politics as practiced today. Includes such concepts as the unity of states under a federal government, representative government, the use of compromises, and the power to impeach, among others. 7 pages, 25 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
13336. The u.s. Constitution. Discusses the conditions that led to the creation of a new Constitution in 1787, as well as the ways the Constitution provides "checks and balances" in order to limit the powers of government. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
13224. The American Revolution and Challenges to the British Government. Compares the Stamp Act Congress, Common Sense (Paine) and the Declaration of Independence, to show how they represent the steps taken from "humble petitions" to all-out rebellion. 6 pages, 17 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
13216. The Death of Edgar Allan Poe. Discusses the circumstances of Poe's last days and considers the theories relating to the cause of his death. Although the evidence supports rabies (more than alcoholism, brain disease or exposure), the mystery of Poe's death may never be conclusively solved. 10 pages, 41 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
13057. The Irish Immigration 1845-1921. The paper summarizes the history of Irish immigration during the period of 1845 to 1921. The paper covers topics such as the potato famine, working conditions in the textile mills of New England, the transformation of the Catholic Church in America by Irish immigrants and the success of the Irish immigrants in the spreading of Labor Unions in the 1870's and 1880's. 16 pages, 47 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $112
12677. "Duel of Eagles" by Jeff Long (A Review). Review of book that tells the true story of the Alamo and the War for Texas Independence. Long argues that the Americans at the Alamo had personal, rather than "heroic," ambitions, and that Santa Anna was not a "villain," although he went too far with his obsession for revenge. The paper also looks at the role of the U.S. government and people in encouraging war in Texas, as well as the reasons for the rise of the myths. 8 pages, 29 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
12643. The Precedents of Chief Justice Marshall. Good basic summary of Marshall's most important cases and what they meant for American history. First half of paper gives complete political and judicial summary of how Marbury vs. Madison came about, stressing Marshall's role in the political conflict and his cleverness in avoiding a political confrontation with Tom Jefferson's Republican Party and establishing a climate of political stability. Also covers powers of the Federal Govt. (Cohens vs. Virginia & McCulloch vs. Maryland), the commerce clause (Gibbons vs. Ogden), legality of slavery and land titles based on conquest of Indians, the transference of common law to America, and strict interpretation of Constitution in Burr treason trial. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
12611. Tocqueville and Beaumont on Slavery and Racial Inequality in America. This paper provides a critical analysis of Tocqueville and Beaumont's observations, comments, and conclusions regarding racial inequality in America. The focus of the analysis is on the Frenchmen's commentary on Black-White racial inequality and slavery. The main part of the analysis compares and contrasts Beaumont's and Tocqueville's perspective and opinion on racial inequality and slavery. In particular, the analysis examines the two travelers' perceptions of the condition of Blacks in America, the geographical (North-South) differences in American race relations, the factors supporting slavery in the U.S., and the prospects (and potential problems therein) in abolishing slavery and achieving equality between blacks and whites in America. A concluding section considers the validity of their assessments. 20 pages, 48 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $133
12610. Harriet Beecher Stowe and Frederick Douglass. Compares and contrasts the emotional, melodramatic style of Uncle Tom's Cabin with the calm realism of Douglass' autobiographical writings. 6 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
12450. The Status of Women in America: The View From Tocqueville's Democracy in America. This essay explores Tocqueville's vision and thoughts on the status of women in America. In addition to considering whether or not America was in fact 'democratic' as far as these women were concerned, the analysis examines to what extent Tocqueville's view on the status of women rests upon his sociological theory of democracy and/or upon his dogmatic assumptions about human nature. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
12449. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman (Carol F. Karlsen). Review of book on witchcraft trials in New England. Discusses how the trials revealed the attitudes toward women that existed at the time. Includes a personal point of views that finds the book to be both scholarly and entertaining. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
12448. A Country Made by War (Geoffrey Perret). Critical review of the first ten chapters of book on the use of military force in the rise of the U.S. as a world power. The book is found to be found to be exciting and informative, but the paper also points out some of the historical details that Perret failed to include. 9 pages, 22 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
12195. Civil Society & Democracy in America. This paper examines one of the central features Tocqueville identified as making American democracy great - the existence of a strong and active civil society. First provides an overview of Tocqueville's conceptualization of American civil society and its critical link with the consolation of democracy and then looks at some of the factors which Tocqueville believed helped to build and support that strong civil society. The concluding section examines the link between civil society. The concluding section examines the link between civil society and democracy in contemporary America. 16 pages, 29 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $112
12116. The Use of Music to Boost Morale Among Soldiers in the American Civil War. Includes a discussion of drummer boys, buglers and regimental bands. Considers the use of music to keep time in drills, as a means to arouse passions either during battle or while marching to battle, and as entertainment around the campfires at night. Also discusses various songs of the time which were used to inspire troops in both the North and the South. 17 pages, 66 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $119
12034. The American Revolution and the Ideals of American Liberty. Shows how Thomas Jefferson (with the Declaration of Independence) and James Madison (with the Constitution and the Bill of Rights) contributed to creating the concept of American liberty as it exists today. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
12033. The Battle of Antietam (1862). Detailed analysis of the Civil War battle, seeking to determine why the North failed to make a decisive victory against the South. Examines perspectives (including first-person accounts) from both sides of the battle, and emphasizes the roles of the Union generals George B. McClellan and Ambrose E. Burnside. 21 pages, 68 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $133
11963. The Declaration of Independence and u.s. Constitution. Discusses the writing of the Declaration of Independence, the formation of the Continental Congress, the writing of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Examines ways the Constitution did and did not live up to the expectations of the Declaration of Independence. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
11948. The Minutemen and Their World by Robert a. Gross. Considers the spread and force of radical ideas in revolutionary Concord. Explores the unlikely role of Concord as the starting point for the American Revolution. 8 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
11930. Democracy in America: The Role of Local Government. Tocqueville's Observations on Democracy in America. Discusses the importance of public involvement in local government and the danger of individualism. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $77
11691. Great Britain: The Rise of the Modern Industrial State and the Achievement of Military Dominance. Drawing upon William McNeill's book, The Pursuit of Power, this essay uses Great Britain as an example of the identity of the modern state with the military. Traces the interrelationship of arms and empire, armies and government, and armament and economy. 8 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
11619. "Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Analyzes Stowe's novel in terms of its depiction of the operation and brutality of the Southern slavery system. Concludes that Stowe's message was that slavery brutalized all components of the society in which it was permitted to exist. 5 pages, 71 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
11549. Uncle Tom's Cabin: A Convincing Argument Against Slavery. Answers the question of what made this book an effective argument against slavery, detailing how Stowe uses all aspects of the book, from major and minor plot incidents through her constant focus on the separation of families and the un-Christian nature of slavery, to make a compelling argument against the practice of slavery. 7 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
11526. l.m. Friedman's Crime and Punishment in American Society. Favorable view of this history of the American criminal justice system, which tries to see the law and its enforcement institutions in the context of larger social changes, and as an aspect of the social power of the ruling groups. Covers American law and society from the 1600s to the 1990s. 8., 1f., 1b.   $56
11484. W. Jordan's White Man's Burden. Critical review of this book on the evolution of white attitudes towards blacks and equality. Focuses on the complexities of the evolution of white attitudes toward blacks and how these shaped behavior; reviewer faults Jordan for failing to document key points. 10p. Notes in Text. 1b.   $70
11395. Benjamin Franklin's "Autobiography". Asks how Franklin embodies the American Ideal in his book; what basic values he espouses, and how these values and the Ideal fit into contemporary society. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
11374. Slavery in Brazil and the Southern u.s. Compares slavery in colonial Brazil and the Southern U.S. up to 1865, using Degler's and Freyre's works as major sources. Differences and similarities in historical/economic factors of the two slavery systems, treatment of slaves, reliance on the slave trade, legal status of slaves, policies on manumission, attitudes toward miscegenation, and other factors considers. Concurs with Degler's thesis that the differences in slavery between the two nations were mainly the result of historical circumstances, not culture. 22 pages, 42 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $133
11087. Hawthorne's "Scarlet Letter". Images of Hawthorne's home town of Salem, Massachusetts in his novel of Puritan guilt and redemption are analyzed, with people and buildings cited. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
11079. Emerson's Early Years: Transcendentalism as Basis for Community. Analyzes Emerson's Unitarian roots, his resignation from the ministry, and the Harvard Divinity School Address of 1838. Transcendentalism is seen as containing Emerson's view that commitment to community can only be grounded authentically in radical individualism. 12 pages, 20 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
11058. Major Political, Economic and Social Changes in the u.s. 1800-60. Major political, social, and economic events and developments in the period before the Civil War are described. Democratization, immigration and the westward push are noted and the impending struggle over slavery explained. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
10624. An Observer's View of Pickett's Charge. A fictional narrator on the Federal side gives a detailed account of this crucial phase of the battle of Gettysburg. A diagram of troop deployments is included. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
10512. The Geography of Slavery in the American South. The impact of geography on the importation and employment of slaves in the American south is examined. African origins and population distribution of plantation slaves are noted. 10 pages, 20 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
10438. A Comparison and Contrast of the Interpretive Approaches of Bernard Bailyn and Edward Countryman to the American Revolution. A provocative discussion of the persuasiveness of a complex view of the causes of the American revolution versus one that emphasizes the central importance of ideology and written materials supporting that ideology. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
10432. Daniel Morgan. The American revolutionary war leader's life and career are reviewed. His capture at Quebec, his roles at Freeman's Farm and Monmouth, and his great victory at Cowpens are described. 5 pages, 10 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $35
10417. Two Ecological Histories: New England and South Atlantic Forest. Compares two studies in the ecological history of the colonies. The differences in economic and social views are noted. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
10325. Elkins on Slavery. Historian Stanley Elkins' theory of slavery as an institutional problem of American culture is contrasted with Kolchin's view of slavery as a complex and varied phenomenon in various societies. 9 pages, 9 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $63
10264. Salem Possessed and the New Social History. Explores strengths and weaknesses of the research methodology of analytical social history through a case analysis of a 1974 study using this method, Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witchcraft. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
10242. Eugene Genovese on America Slavery: Role, Jordan, Roll. Favorable review of Genovese's treatise on American slavery. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
10218. Class and Community by Alan Dawley. Reviews a radical critique of the class interests and labor organization efforts of the Lynn, Massachusetts shoemakers in the 19th century. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
10155. The Quakers From 1656-1787. A detailed examination of the origins and development of The Society of Friends in colonial times. Quaker attitudes toward politics, slavery, native Americans, and women and the family are considered, and the impact of Quaker freedom of religion on American society is noted. 25 pages, 60 footnotes, 25 bibliographic sources.   $133
09821. American Women From Colonial Times to the Civil War. Analyzes the history of American women from colonial times to the Civil War. Details how the unique conditions of American life -- the prominence of slavery in some regions, the early shortage of women, and the generally independent character of Americans in general -- influenced gender roles, race relation family life and career choices. 11 pages, 22 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $77
09804. The Concept of Aristocracy in American Politics. Considers the conflict between the values of aristocracy and the values of equality in American politics. Argues that there are forms of aristocracy in this country which continue to this day. 11 pages, 5 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $77
09771. The Salem Witchcraft Trials in the Context of Economic and Political Transition. Drawing heavily on Boyer & Nissenbaum's (1974) "Salem Possessed," the essay argues that it was chiefly economic and political factors which spurred the Salem witchcraft trials and led to the leap from Puritanism to Enlightenment among the local population. 6 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
09660. Racism and Racial Conflict in America. Traces the historical development of racism and racial conflict in America from the colonial period to recent times. The trend toward a "declining significance of race" in the modern period is noted. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
09547. Alexis De Tocqueville's "Democracy in America". Review of Tocqueville's book which assesses its historical importance as well as its applicability to modern American politics and society. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
09516. James Madison and the United States Constitution. Analyzes how Madison influenced the writing of the Constitution and how he also influenced the other delegates. Argues that it was because of Madison's deeply-held Republican instincts that the 'Federalist" approach to the unification and centralization of the American government was so successful. 8 pages, 15 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $56
09499. Slavery and Geography in the United States. Analyzes the impact of geography and climate upon the spread of slavery and survival or destruction of slavery populations. Argues that slavery became essential to the Southern economy not because Southerners were inherently more predatory and inhuman than Northerners, but because land, climate and agricultural economy of the south required a different system of labor than that of the north. 10 pages, 16 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $70
09426. Henry Clay: Man of Compromise and Contradiction. The 19th Century American politician's life is examined in detail. Clay's accomplishments in the art of political compromise are analyzed. His flexibility is seen as helping to preserve the Union in the period 1812-1850. 25 pages, 33 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $133
09326. Thomas Jefferson, Democrat or Hypocrite? A semantical debate presenting two contrary positions: 1) Jefferson was a democrat; 2) Jefferson's behavior was antithetical to the democratic beliefs he espoused. Concludes that overwhelming evidence suggests Jefferson was a democrat. 8 pages, 9 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 1977 words.   $56
09325. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. A review of Franklin's autobiography which focuses on his early life in Philadelphia and England. Considers three major themes: 1) Franklin's reverence for books; 2) Franklin's pervasive thriftiness; and 3) Franklin's lack of humility. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
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