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  • How old is my paper? The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written.
  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
  • Page lengths, footnotes and bibliographic references: The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length (NOT including the bibliography or endnote pages), number of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references.
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18851. Nixon’S Role the Watergate Scandal. This term paper addresses the Watergate scandal that broke out in 1972 and eventually led to the resignation of President Nixon. Some researchers have argued that the scandal occurred because the Nixon Administration was an “imperial presidency” and others have argued that Nixon’s staff took unlawful actions without his knowledge. These claims are rejected and it is argued that Nixon was ultimately responsible for Watergate because of his ruthless ambition and his view that he had to win the 1972 election in order to save the nation from its domestic “enemies.” TAGS: President Nixon, Watergate scandal, presidential impeachment, culpability, argumentative essay, enemies list, research paper.. MLA Style. 20 pages, 52 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 4,737 words.   $133
18536. Wartime Rape and Murder by Us Soldiers in Iraq. This paper discusses a 2006 criminal case in which five U.S. Army soldiers, stationed in Iraq, raped a fourteen-year-old girl and then killed her and her family. The paper argues that the case can be explained by combining the views of five theoretical perspectives on crime causation: feminist theory, biosocial theory, opportunity theory, psychological theory and social learning (or differential association) theory. KEYWORDS: criminology theory war Iraq us soldier rape murder Iraqi family. APA Style. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 1,796 words.   $49
18529. The War in Iraq. This paper argues that military intervention was not the best option for the U.S. to follow in responding to the Iraqi situation that existed in 2003. The “preemptive” war of the Bush Administration was based on flawed intelligence and the nation created problems in international relations by taking a unilateral approach rather than a collective security approach. Furthermore, the intervention in Iraq has not gone as smoothly as planned. KEYWORDS: war Iraq U.S. policy international relations. APA Style. 5 pages, 17 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,250 words.   $35
18522. American Attitudes Toward the Chinese. This paper argues that American attitudes toward the Chinese have been influenced by stereotypical dualistic thinking and the perception of the Chinese people as an opposite “Other.” This argument is supported by reference to the theoretical views of Edward Said and Richard Madsen, the views of American writers such as Eva Jane Price, Bret Harte and Pearl Buck, a 2007 opinion poll, and Cold War perceptions of Communist China as an opposing force to American democracy. It is concluded that Americans need to focus more on their common humanity with the Chinese, rather than emphasizing conflicting traits. KEYWORDS: international relations culture american attitudes Chinese stereotypes China United States. APA Style. 11 pages, 21 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 2,683 words.   $77
18311. Three Books on Immigrant Experiences in u.s. History. This paper compares and contrasts From the Other Side (Donna Gabaccia), Rebirth (Douglas Monroy), and Reinventing Free Labor (Gunther Peck). The first book concerns immigrant women, the second is about Mexican immigrants in Los Angeles, and the third discusses the “padrone” labor system and its impact on migratory patterns in the West. It is argued that all three books are scholarly and contain valuable information, but Monroy’s book is the most successful in bringing its topic to life for the reader. KEYWORDS: book review American history immigration. MLA Style. 10 pages, 28 footnotes in text, 3 bibliographic sources.   $70
18082. Immigration and Future Race Relations. This termpaper discusses the massive influx of immigrants to America and the potential future impact that this might have on national identity and ethnic/racial relations. The issue of assimilation (or lack thereof) is addressed, with special attention to the situation of Mexican immigrants in California. The growing trends of intermarriage and the adoption of multiracial identities are also discussed. It is predicted that racial/ethnic differences won't disappear in the upcoming future, but there will probably be a diminishing of the differences in life chances that currently exist. KEYWORDS: immigration race ethnicity national identity future. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes and Separate Bibliography. 14 pages, 22 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $98
18022. From Margin to Mainstream (Susan Hartmann) and Suburban Warriors (Lisa Mcgirr). This paper compares two books on important social-political movements in the U.S. in the late twentieth century. Hartmann's book is concerned with the women's movement and McGirr's book is concerned with the conservative ("New Right") movement. The paper first discusses the content of each book separately, and then compares and contrasts them. It is concluded that both books are useful as informative historical texts; however, Hartmann's book is more engaging and it provides broader coverage of its specific topic. KEYWORDS: comparative book review history women's movement feminism new right conservatism. MLA Style. 11 pages, 17 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources. 2,582 words.   $77
17717. The Naacp and the Cold War. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People’s (NAACP) positions on Cold War issues and its responses to the challenges and controversies emerging from Cold War politics and policies. The analysis includes a discussion of the NAACP’s links to and position on Communism, its stance on the major Cold War initiatives, and its position on decolonization and the emerging African nations within the context of the US-Soviet struggle for international dominance. It is argued that the Cold War and charges of Communist influence within the organization put the NAACP on the defensive and ultimately limited its effectiveness as an organ for civil rights. It will be seen that in its struggle to define itself as unequivocally pro-American and anti-communist, the NAACP retreated from efforts to advance human rights abroad and economic and social rights at home, instead focusing on more narrowly proscribed civil rights for African-Americans in the US. KEYWORDS: cold war civil rights naacp communism colonialism red-baiting mccarthyism. Turabian Style with Bottom of Page Footnotes & Bibliography. 18 pages, 41 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 4,535 words.   $126
17410. National Parks and Land Management. This paper provides an overview and analysis of America’s national parks and their system of land management and nature conservation. The paper traces the history the parks system from the founding of the first park in 1872, through the founding of the National Park Service in 1916, and to the continued expansion of the park system during the 20th century. The factors leading to the creation of the park system are identified and the evolving mission of the national park system described. The role that the national parks have had in protecting lands, forests, waterways, species and habitats are explored. Although this analysis focuses primarily on the history of the national parks, a concluding section briefly considers some of the contemporary challenges facing the national parks. KEYWORDS: National Parks, conservation, habitat protection, land management. 15 pages, 34 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,783 words.   $105
17374. Review and Critique of Bernard Wong’S Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship: The New Chinese Immigrants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The New Chinese Immigrants in the San Francisco Bay Area. A favorable review, analysis and evaluation of Wong’s ethnographic study of post-1965 Chinese immigrants in the Bay Area. Finds that Wong has met his objective of showing how the new immigrants make their living in the Bay Area and provided considerable evidence to support his central argument that ethnicity acts as a key resource for the new Chinese immigrants. Despite an overall favorable assessment, the reviewer faults the author for failing to make clearer comparisons between the “old” and “new” Chinese immigrant groups and for maintaining a consistently uncritical view of the immigrants’ adaptive strategies and stance within the larger community. KEYWORDS: Chinese immigration san Francisco bay area immigrants post-1965 ethnography book review. 11 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 2,981 words.   $77
17351. America’S Involvement in the Vietnam War. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the early history of the Vietnam War and the factors leading to the U.S. decision to send military forces to Vietnam in an effort to determine the main reasons for the initial American involvement in the war in Vietnam. Traces U.S. foreign policy towards Vietnam (IndoChina) back to the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Finds that the shift in policy (favoring intervention) occurred in the 1950s primarily as a result of Cold War pressures. Provides an overview of Kennedy’s decision to send military assistance to South Vietnam, discusses escalation following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident and Johnson’s policies in the war. Concludes that America’s initial involvement was an outcome of the Cold War and the effort to contain communism. Once Johnson received congressional authorization to escalate the war, it became increasingly difficult for America to remove itself from the war, even when things went badly and antiwar demonstrations grew more violent on the domestic front. Includes an annotated bibliography. KEYWORDS: US Vietnam War policy cold war containment communism Gulf Tonkin. 14 pages, 41 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 3,866 words.   $98
17335. Two Oral Histories of America. This paper presents the results of an interview study which examined the views of two women regarding their memories of major events in American history. In open-ended interviews, two Caucasian women (“Edith” and “Ann”) were asked the same twenty-one questions [included as an appendix] which centered on four themes: power and politics, the economy, war in American history, and the voices of dissent or protest. Edith’s views were used to illustrate the major themes of the 1930s through the 1950s, while Ann’s views were used to illustrate the major themes of the 1960s through the 1990s. An appendix includes all 21 questions asked both women. KEYWORDS: oral history interviews 20th century America. 11 pages, 6 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 3,019 words.   $77
17272. “the Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test” by Tom Wolfe. . This paper provides a review of Wolfe’s 1968 book about Ken Kesey and his “Merry Pranksters” and their cross country bus trip and experiments with L.S.D. Notes that the book provides an interesting and insightful perspective on the 1960s counterculture. Dismisses criticisms suggesting that Wolfe’s unusual stylistic techniques makes the book unreadable, arguing instead that Wolfe’s style adds a great deal to the text, especially in terms of recreating what it must have been like to have been with the Pranksters while they were using LSD. KEYWORDS: 1960s counterculture LSD Kesey. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,476 words.   $42
17140. The Great Migration and Race Relations in America. This paper considers the history, scope and impact of the Great Migration of blacks from the rural south to the urban north beginning in 1915. Following an overview of the forces driving the Great Migration and a discussion of the status of race relations prior to the migration, the analysis draws on examples from various northern and western cities and the South in general to examine how the Great Migration changed race relations in both the North and the South. Demonstrates how the Great Migration turned race into a national, versus just a southern issue. The argument is made that the migration, and more specifically, the pattern of settlement in the migration (with blacks clustered in geographically segregated areas of the cities) set the stage for increased racial conflict. KEYWORDS: black migration southern us northern cities racial conflict us american migratory patterns african americans. APA Style. 21 pages; 39 footnotes; 17 bibliographic sources. 4,908 words.   $133
17115. The Green Party of the United States. Traces the history, ideology and politics of the Green Party of the United States. Examines the Green Party's role as “spoiler” in the 2000 Presidential election and the 2002 mid-term elections. Contrasts the Green Party ideology with that of the Democrats and Republicans. Discusses factional splits within the Green Party and consider the future of the Greens in U.S. politics. Keywords: political parties Greens elections politics. 12 pages; 25 footnotes; 18 bibliographic sources. 3,181 words.   $84
17108. A History of the Chrysler Corporation. This paper provides a history of Chrysler Corporation. The analysis examines the events leading to the founding of the company; traces the early history and accomplishments of the company through the 1920s and 1930s; considers Chrysler’s contributions to the war effort in WWII and the Korea; reflects on Chrysler’s activities and difficulties in the 1950s-1990s; profiles the history and importance of the company’s major automobile divisions (Dodge, Plymouth, Jeep/Eagle, etc.); looks briefly at labor relations at Chrysler; considers Chrysler’s activities outside of the automotive sector (aerospace, real estate, marine, etc.); and comments on the Chrysler legacy. KEYWORDS: Chrysler company history automobile industry. 26 pages; 54 footnotes; 31 bibliographic sources. 6,827 words.   $133
17049. William L. Langer (1896-1977) and His Contribution to the Field of History. This paper discusses Langer’s life, the phases of his career as a historian, and how he expanded the scope of historical inquiry. Also discusses Langer’s influential use of high standards in research and writing, and his controversial views on the use of psychotherapeutic techniques in historical analysis. Keywords: Langer historians historical analysis techniques. 16 pages; 31 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $112
15961. Supreme Court Decisions and the Spirit of the American People. This paper discusses how the Supreme Court, in the years following World War I, has reflected the shifting conservative and liberal opinions of the nation as a whole. References are made to various decisions, and the trend toward “moderate conservatism” is noted. 11 pages; 36 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources. 2,457 words.   $77
15955. The Impact of Television on u.s. History. This paper examines how television has impacted American life and culture, political campaigns, ethnic perspectives, religious practices, video games and Internet technologies. Also refers to the controversies over the possible negative impact that TV might have on children and society as a whole. 6 pages; 8 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources. 1,344 words.   $42
15920. The 1970'S in u.s. History. This paper provides a response to the claim that “nothing happened” in the 1970s. Although the decade was somewhat calm and conservative in comparison to the 1960s, many important changes and events actually occurred in this decade. 5 pages; 19 footnotes; 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
15897. "The New South" by Numan v. Bartley (Book Review). This paper provides a chapter-by-chapter summary of this book about changes in the U.S. South between 1945 to 1980. Discusses political developments, changes in race relations, and the shift from a mainly rural and agricultural economy to a more diversified urban economy. Keywords: American South urbanization civil rights. 6 pages; 13 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $42
15890. The Use of Precision Weapons and the Just War Doctrine. This paper describes the just war doctrine and the types of precision weapons that have been developed, noting that the Persian Gulf War (1990-91) was a turning point in the use of such weapons. Argues that since precision weapons are more accurate and thus minimize civilian casualties, they provide a better approach to the just war doctrine than the alternatives suggested thus far. 11 pages; 22 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
15885. Jimmy Carter and u.s. Relations With Nicaragua. Using primary sources, this paper discusses President Carter’s support of the corrupt and repressive Somoza regime, his efforts to create a moderate government in Nicaragua and his decision to support the leftist Sandinistas when they took over. It is noted that the issues were not fully resolved by the time Carter’s presidency ended. 16 pages; 27 footnotes; 10 bibliographic sources.   $112
15867. Why the u.s. Became Involved in the Vietnam War. This paper argues that the U.S. entered the Vietnam War because of unrealistic concerns over Communist expansion, and remained in the war in order to maintain credibility in the eyes of the world. In the end, the nation failed to meet its objective of stopping a communist takeover in South Vietnam. KEYWORDS: vietnam war term paper. 8 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
15866. The Evolution of u.s. Foreign Policy During the 1970'S. This paper describes how at the start of the decade, the U.S. was mainly concerned with the Vietnam War and relations with China and the Soviet Union. By the end of the 1970's, however, foreign policy issues had become more diverse and included concerns regarding such places as Latin America and the Middle East. Argues that while there were some notable successes during the decade, there were more failures overall and thus the nation ended the 1970's at a low point in global influence. 8 pages, 23 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $56
15851. Three Books on the Vietnam War (Book Review). This paper provides a comparative review and critique of three books about America's involvement in the Vietnam War: 1) "America's Longest War" by George C. Herring; 2) "In Retrospect" by Robert S. McNamara; and 3) "Vietnam, the Necessary War" by Michael Lind. Concludes that while all three books have value, Herring's book is the most thorough and objective. 11 pages; 17 footnotes; 3 bibliographic sources.   $77
15848. "From Front Porch to Back Seat" by Beth L. Bailey. This paper reviews Bailey's book on the evolution of American courtship and dating patterns during the course of the 20th century. 7 pages; 31 footnotes; 1 bibliographic sources.   $49
15845. America's Involvement in the Vietnam War. This paper examines how the policies and actions of successive presidential administrations had a 'snowball effect' and contributed to the escalation of the war in Vietnam. Traces America's involvement in Vietnam beginning with the Cold War concerns of the Truman administration and looks at how Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon all expanded on Truman's basic Vietnam policy. 14 pages; 53 footnotes; 6 bibliographic sources.   $98
15787. The Cold War: History and Evolution. This essay traces the history of the Cold War between the United States (and its allies) and the Soviet Union (and its allies), noting its World War II antecedents and focusing on its initial development in the post-war years and its early history through the 1950's. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
15719. American Intellectuals and African Nationalists, 1955-1970 (Martin Staniland). Staniland's book concerns the role of American intellectuals in the African nationalist movements, and he discusses such things as the assumptions and misconceptions of the intellectuals and the growing radicalism of the 1960's. Although the book has weaknesses as well as strengths, it is argued that overall it is useful for the study of this particular aspect of history. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
15694. Desert Shield/Desert Storm: The Military History of the Persian Gulf War of 1990-91. This paper provides a retrospective overview and analysis of Desert Shield-Desert Storm. The analysis focuses on logistical aspects of the operation (scope of the challenge, problems associated with the operation, etc.), the role of the coalition in the successful outcome, the unique aspects of the war, the attention given to the principles of war, and the measures of effectiveness and war termination goals. A concluding section assesses Desert Shield/Storm's legacy and its implications for the "American way of war." KEYWORDS: persian gulf war iraqi war 1991 military strategy desert storm george bush. 15 pages, 35 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources. 5,155 words.   $105
15673. Western Media Portrayals of Arabs and Muslims During the Gulf War Crisis of 1990/91. This paper examines the media-filtered American interpretations of the Arab world through an analysis of Western (mainly U.S.) media portrayals and interpretations of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab women (especially Saudi, but also Kuwaiti, and other women of the Gulf) during the Gulf War and surrounding period of Gulf Crisis (a period defined as extending from August 1990 through the spring of 1991 and the withdrawal of U.S. forces following the end of the Gulf War). The investigation begins with a brief overview of the historical problems and distortions involved in media coverage of wars or other military conflicts, and the specific position of the media in the Gulf War. Also considered is the U.S. media's tradition of foreign news coverage. Following this, the analysis examines U.S. newspaper coverage and post-war published analyses of media (broadcast and print) coverage of the Gulf War and crisis in an effort to present a profile of U.S. media portrayals of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab/Muslim women in particular, with a special focus on media images and interpretations of Saudi men and women. KEYWORDS: newspaper coverage arab gulf war western media portrayal arabs muslims. 25 pages, 55 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources. 7,291 words.   $133
15672. Casino Gambling: Growth and Impact. Focusing closely on Indian casinos and to a lesser extent riverboat casinos, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the growth and impact of the recent rapid expansion of the non-traditional casino legal gambling sector, with consideration of the implications for hospitality operators. The role of state budgetary shortfalls and the 1988 Indian Gambling Regulatory Act (IGRA) in driving casino growth is discussed and the general scope and pace of the casino development pattern is considered. The empirical and anecdotal literature examining the economic and social impact of casino expansion is reviewed and analyzed. The implications of rapid casino development - both in terms of threats and in terms of opportunities - for the hospitality industry are discussed. KEYWORDS: casinos gambling social impact indian casino gamblers compulsive. 14 pages, 34 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources. 3,972 words.   $98
15658. The Trial and Conviction of Sirhan Sirhan: Warped Justice and the Assassination of Rfk. Without reference to Sirhan's ultimate guilt or innocence, this term paper provides an overview and analysis of the performance of Sirhan's defense team during his 1969 trial for the murder of Robert F. Kennedy. The essay argues that the defense team's strategy and performance had a profoundly negative impact on the outcome of the trial and that the shortcomings in the defense team's performance were so significant as to render the legitimacy of Sirhan's conviction questionable. KEYWORDS: rfk assassination sirhan sirhan murder trial defense strategy assessment essay. APA Style. 17 pages, 32 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 4,486 words.   $119
15642. Foreign Affairs and Domestic Civil Rights: Civil Rights Leaders of the 1960'S and the Vietnam War. This paper explores how foreign affairs and U.S. foreign policy affected the civil rights movement during the Cold War period of the 1960's. Following a background summary of the civil rights movement in the 1950's and 1960's, and a discussion of the bi-directional link between foreign affairs and the seemingly purely domestic affair of civil rights, the analysis looks more closely at the impact of the Vietnam War on the civil rights movement in the 1960's, focusing on the responses of two of the major African-American leaders of the era - Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr., -- but also considering the general impact of foreign affairs of the civil rights movement and its major leaders and organizations during the 1960's. It will be argued that the escalation of the Vietnam War in the mid-1960's was a fateful turning point in the history of the civil rights movements. KEYWORDS: naacp civil rights foreign policy martin luther king racial discrimination foreign affairs. 22 pages, 43 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources. 6,160 words.   $133
15624. The Counterculture of the 1960'S. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the 1960s counterculture. The analysis begins with an effort to define the 1960's counterculture and to describe its general scope and central features. The next section explores the etiology of the 1960's counterculture (i.e., what led its development in the 1960's) and examines its central driving forces throughout the era. The final section examines the influence of the counterculture. KEYWORDS: 1960s sixties counterculture movement hippies protest movements rebellion youth social change 1960s. 15 pages, 24 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 4,120 words.   $105
15593. The Failure of 1960'S Liberal Reforms. This paper examines the governmental efforts at liberal reform (such as the "Great Society" programs of the Johnson Administration). The flaws in such programs led to riots among disenchanted minority groups, the creation of a radicalized "New Left," and a reaction among "Neo-Conservatives" who were opposed to the "welfare state" and the neglect of "middle Americans." 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
15555. Dr. Martin Luther King's Views as Seen in His Final Speech ("I See the Promised Land"). How the basic themes of King's 1968 speech reflected the major concerns of his career, particularly his dream to attain unity of all people and his belief in using non-violent methods to protest discrimination and injustice. References to some of King's other speeches and writings are also made. 6 pages, 21 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $42
15544. Clare Boothe Luce (1903-1987). The life and career of this active and sometimes controversial woman. During the course of her life, she was a playwright, journalist, magazine editor, conservative politician. 7 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
15516. The Reputed Sexual Affairs of American Presidents. A paper on the alleged extramarital affairs of various presidents, including (among others) Jefferson, Cleveland, Franklin Roosevelt, Eisenhower, and especially Harding, Kennedy and Clinton. In addition, the differing views of historians on these alleged affairs are discussed. 14 pages, 35 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $98
15513. America's Longest War (George C. Herring). A review of Herring's book on the causes and consequences of the Vietnam War. Discusses how Herring emphasizes the political aspects of the nation's involvement in the war (the "containment policy" for example), as well as how the war divided the nation between anti-war protesters ("doves") and war supporters ("hawks"). 6 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $42
15464. Jack Ruby: Conspirator in the Kennedy Assassination. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of Jack Ruby's personal and criminal background, and considers his associations with mobsters and law enforcement officials. The essay considers Ruby's motivations for killing Oswald and examines theorists' view of Ruby's potential role as a co-conspirator. The term paper concludes that Ruby was not part of a larger conspiracy and finds that Ruby's motivations for killing Oswald were linked with his emotional instability. KEYWORDS: jfk president kennedy assassination jack ruby conspiracy lee harvey oswald term paper. APA Style. 16 pages, 35 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $112
15430. Irish-Americans & Jewish-Americans. A Comparison of Two American Ethnic Groups. This comparative analysis of one of the nation's biggest majority groups (Irish-Americans) and one of the country's smallest minorities (Jewish-Americans) considers the similarity and differences in their respective experiences in terms of the timing and context of arrival, cultural traditions, discrimination, society mobility, and ethnic identity. The first part of the analysis provides a summary of the general scope and pattern of each group's settlement in America. The second part of the analysis compares and contrasts the experience of the two groups from the time of their arrival in America up until the present. KEYWORDS: irish americans jewish americans ethnic minority culture history term paper. APA Style. 17 pages, 87 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources. 5,883 words.   $119
15304. Affirmative Action in Higher Education. This term paper presents an overview and analysis of the history and current state of affirmative action in higher education within the context of the history of racial discrimination in the United States. Following a brief overview of the Supreme Court’s changing views on racial discrimination and race classification and towards the interpretation of a “color blind” Constitution in the 20th century, the paper examines the history and current status of affirmative action in higher education. The essay includes a close focus on some of the key Supreme Court rulings – notably Brown v. Board of Education, Bakke, Adarand, and Hopwood – which have shaped the character of affirmative action in higher education. The concluding section considers the recent move away from affirmative action by some universities and the future prospects for affirmative action in higher education. KEYWORDS: affirmative action higher education term paper race based university college admissions african americans discrimination. APA Style. 13 pages, 76 footnotes, 32 bibliographic sources. 4,784 words.   $91
15303. History of Racial Discrimination in America. This term paper provides an overview and analysis of the history of racial discrimination and the slow development of federal policy responses such as anti-discrimination laws and affirmative action programs to the problem. Following an overview of definitions of racial discrimination and a brief discussion of the cultural and historical roots of racial discrimination in the United States, the paper traces the history of racial discrimination in American from Colonial times through the 1950s. The essay also discusses some of the seminal Supreme Court cases – including Dred Scott, Plessy, and Korematsu – shaping formal policy responses to the problem of racial discrimination in America. KEYWORDS: racial discrimination blacks jim crow segregation race relations anti-discrimination laws supreme court rulings dred scott plessy korematsu brown v board education research paper. APA Style. 15 pages, 52 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 5,302 words.   $105
15139. Irish-Americans and Jewish-Americans. A Comparison of Two American Ethnic Groups. This comparative analysis of one of the nation's biggest majority groups (Irish-Americans) and one of the country's smallest minorities (Jewish-Americans) considers the similarity and differences in their respective experiences in terms of the timing and context of arrival, cultural traditions, discrimination, society mobility, and ethnic identity. The first part of the analysis provides a summary of the general scope and pattern of each group's settlement in America. The second part of the analysis compares and contrasts the experiences of the two groups from the time of their arrival in America up until the present. 15 pages, 87 footnotes, 21 bibliographic reference.   $105
15093. Historical Issues in Three 1960s Films. This paper analyzes Dr. Strangelove, A Hard Day's Night, and Easy Rider, and what they say about the events of the time, with special reference to the themes of Cold War anxieties, escapism, and the youth counterculture. 8 pages, 19 footnotes, 7 bibliographic references.   $56
15047. American Pow's in the Korean War. Covers the "death marches," the terrible camp conditions (including lack of adequate food, shelter, cleanliness and medical care), brainwashing, how the prisoners coped, and their symptoms of post-traumatic stress. 12 pages, 45 footnotes, 8 bibliographic references.   $84
15003. Irish Americans as an Ethnic Group. This paper examines the controversy over whether Irish Americans are a unique ethnic group or have assimilated into American culture. Argues that they are a unique group, on the basis of self-definition and shared attitudes and beliefs. 15 pages, 44 footnotes, 12 bibliographic references.   $105
14803. . Coming of Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody. . This paper provides a review and analysis of the author’s best-selling autobiography describing her experiences growing up in the white dominated Deep South in the 1940s and 1950s. The analysis explores the major themes and high points of Anne Moody’s story and discusses how Moody’s book can be used in the teaching of several important dimensions of American history – as a biographic account of southern poverty, a personal history of the civil rights years, and as an example of the lifelong development of an activist. KEYWORDS: book review autobiography southern life 1950s civil rights. 5 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source. 1,204 words.   $35
14034. New Media & Youth Culture. Focusing especially on the Internet, both in terms of its emergence as a new communications medium (e.g. email, chat rooms, news and information source) in its own right and on the blurring of boundaries between the Internet and more traditional mass media, this paper investigates how technology-driven communications and entertainment media are influencing popular youth culture. The investigation focuses in particular on the interrelationships between new media and youth culture in the United States and the United Kingdom. An important theme explored will be the extent to which the new media has arguably both “globalized” and “Americanized” youth culture. KEYWORDS: internet youth new media forms adolescent culture. 45 pages, 165 footnotes, 54 bibliographic sources. 12,575 words.   $133
14005. The Cultural Attitudes of Americans in the 1800s and the 1950s. Based on the books 60 Miles From Contentment (Dunlop) and As Seen on TV (Marling), it is argued that cultural attitudes have changed because Americans have more leisure time and live more home-based lifestyles than before. The paper emphasizes the ways these changes have impacted the lives of women. 7 pages, 13 footnotes, 2 bibliographic references.   $49
13928. Woodstock: Political Rally or Musical Happening? A political and social analysis of the 1969 Woodstock festival and the subsequent documentary film. Argues that while Woodstock was not organized as a political event, and although the filmmakers were not trying to send a political message with their film, Woodstock remains a seminal political symbol of the heyday of the peace and love, or "hippie" movement. 10 pages, 12 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $70
13896. Socialism and Communism in America. Traces the historical roots and rise of the American Socialist and Communist parties in the early 20th Century through the McCarthy era. Examines the parties' links with labor unions and radical politics. Traces the political and legal campaign against the parties, citing the influence of seminal cases such as Whitney v. California and Keyishian v. Board of Regents. 14 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic references.   $98
13771. The Korean War: Outcome and Aftermath. Reviews the historical and geopolitical outcome of the Korean War, examining the impact on the U.S., Korea and the Asian region. Argues that while the U.S. failed to achieve a strategic or tactical victory, the willingness to engage in a "hot war" with a communist foe gave validity to the West's military alliances, from NATO in Europe to SEATO in Southeast Asia, and drew an important line in the sand against unbridled Communist aggression. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
13769. The Kent State Massacre: Who Was to Blame? Meticulous analysis of the May 4, 1970 anti-war protests at Kent State University which culminated in National Guardsmen firing on protesting students, killing four and wounding nine others. Provides background on the political climate of the era; explores the apolitical aspects of the protests and looting; considers local government responses to control the situation; explicates the details of the shooting; and considers the subsequent political and legal fall-out. 10 pages, 12 footnotes in text, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
13751. The Failure of u.s. Policy on Illegal Immigration. Investigates the "problem" of illegal immigration from the perspective of U.S. immigration policy history. Provides background information on U.S. immigration policy history and on the political and social conflict between legal and illegal immigration. Chronicles the failure of U.S. policy to stop illegal immigration, particularly as it applies to immigrants from Mexico and Central America. Argues for the implementation of a new policy that would include the creation of a new category of alien resident workers, a coordinated plan of economic development and population control in Mexico, and removal of arbitrary political and economic requirements for legal immigration. 18 pages, 26 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.   $126
13674. The Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955. An analysis of the Montgomery bus boycott from the perspective of Jo Ann Robinson, an early civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in organizing and directing the boycott. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $35
13542. Pragmatic Imperialism, and Other Lessons of the War in Kosovo, 1999: Sharp, well-informed, balanced assessment of the Kosovo war in international relations theory and practice. Includes why the current period remains one of uncertainty and ambiguity, and how this is reflected in assessments of the war; American world supremacy, and the limits to this; the effects of the 'information age', and how this contributes to an erosion of previous concepts of state sovereignty; and recommendations by leading scholars for a type of pragmatic American Imperial leadership in world affairs, with more clear criteria for when, where, and how America should intervene in future crisis. 15 pages, 44 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $105
13422. Public Attitudes in World War Ii and the Vietnam War. Discusses how the American antiwar sentiment of World War II was overcome by patriotism. By contrast, the antiwar movement during the Vietnam War grew to unprecedented heights as it became increasingly apparent that the war was not a worthy cause. 11 pages, 42 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
13393. The Clinton Scandal and Impeachment. Analyzes the impact of these events on government conduct and public perceptions. Includes the problems of using an independent counselor for criminal investigations of a standing president, and shows that Clinton's enemies came to be seen in a more negative light than Clinton himself. 12 pages, 39 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $84
13325. The Global Appeal of Communism. Examines factors contributing to communism's appeal in the twentieth century: social idealism, anti-imperialism, post-colonial politics and the atmosphere of the cold war. The collapse of the Soviet state is seen as marking the demise of communism's appeal worldwide. 9 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
13305. Khrushchev and the Cuban Missile Crisis. This term paper examines one aspect of the aftermath of the Cuban missile crisis. Specifically, the analysis considers the main impact/effect Khrushchev had on international relations as a consequence of the Cuban missile crisis. The principal focus of the essay is on how the Cuban missile crisis and its settlement impacted Soviet foreign policy and Soviet relations in the international arena, particularly relations with the United States and, to a lesser extent, China. KEYWORDS: soviet leaders chrushchev cuban missile crisis us-ussr relations soviet foreign policy term paper. APA Style. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
13275. The Clash of Civilizations (Huntington) and Visions of the Future (Heilbroner). Evaluates the ideas of these two authors, and argues in favor of Heilbroner's holistic and optimistic view in contrast to Huntington's divisive and ethnocentric view. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $56
13191. Media Coverage of the Clinton Sex Scandal. Emphasizes how economic and structural factors of the media (specifically, the Internet and competitive pressures) had an impact on the direction and tone of the coverage. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
13176. Cold War Containment: Korea and Vietnam. The role of geopolitical strategy and the containment doctrine on U.S. prosecution of the two wars is examined. The wars are seen as "losing battles" in a longer, larger global struggle against communist, with eventual U.S. victory only coming in the 1980s. 10 pages, 11 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $70
13152. Operation Rolling Thunder. Strategic analysis of the Vietnam War, focusing on the U.S. air bombing campaign from 1965-1968. Looks at prior history of the war, tactics and missions of the campaign, and the lack of clearly defined objectives among U.S. policy makers. Includes Appendix "Nine Points of War." 20 pages, 33 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
12681. Roots of the Cold War. This paper traces the roots of the superpower struggle to World War II. U.S. containment and deterrence policies are discussed, as well as confrontations between the superpowers and reasons why World War III never happened. 5p, 17f. 6b.   $35
12680. Challenges of the Kaiserreich and Nazi Dictatorship. The political and economic factors in Germany in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that led from Prussian imperialism to Hitler's rise to power. 9 pages, 37 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $63
12662. Marshall Plan & European Recovery. Summary of what the Marshall Plan was, focusing on statistics of how it aided European progress. Includes background to and development of the Plan, implementation and institutional structures, use of the Plan to create and strengthen institutions of national economic planning and regulation on Keynesian models, the wide-ranging scope of activities financed and promoted, promotion of person-to-person links within various industries, resistance to special interests and protection requests from the U.S. Congress, use of Marshall Plan funds for CIA and covert political activities, statistics on European GNP and investment growth showing how the Marshall Plan coincided with significant increases. Conclusion stresses Marshall Plan as perhaps the greatest act of altruism in human history. 10 pages, 22 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 2 additional pages containing 3 statistics tables.   $70
12642. Nuremburg & Other War Crimes Trials. Good basic summary of these trials, placing them in the context of new legal principles created to in an attempt to raise the standards of human behavior. Includes history of war crimes in international law, wartime discussions of how to proceed with Nazi and Axis leaders, structures and basic summary of the 1945-7 trial of 22 Nazi leaders, legal issues raised in this trial, the Tokyo trial of Japanese leaders 1946-8, additional trials by international tribunals in Europe and Asia, additional trials by national courts in Europe and Asia, subsequent history of trials of WWII criminals, evidence that these trials did establish a precedent that will be applied to all nations in the future. 11 pages, 22 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
12612. The Influence of Islam on Malcom X. This paper covers the life of Malcom X and his work with the Nation of Islam. Includes a discussion of how his views became more racially tolerant after his 1964 pilgrimage to Mecca. Concludes by examining Malcolm's inspiring influence on both the civil rights movement and the spread of "true Islam" in the U.S. 18 pages, 78 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $126
12451. Immigration to the United States. Discusses why immigrants came to America at the turn of the 20th century and why they settled mainly in the cities. Considers their contributions and notes that some of the earlier settlers accepted them while others rejected them. Also looks at the situation today, and the current problems of illegal immigration. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $49
12361. The Struggle for Black Equality, 1954-1992 by Harvard Sitkoff. Critical review and analysis of the revised edition of this important book which provides a succinct interpretation and analysis of the civil rights movement from the 1954 Supreme Court ruing in Brown v. Board of Education to the LA riots following the Rodney King verdict. Reviews the scope and subject of the book, considers the author's perspective, summarizes the major findings and conclusions, and assesses the contributions made to an understanding of U.S. history. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
12276. Three Films on the Cold War. Looks at themes of nuclear paranoia, propaganda and political ideology in Dr. Strangelove, The Manchurian Candidate, and Atomic Cafe. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
12201. The Tet Offensive of the Vietnam War. Strong sensitive summary of the week that broke America's will to win in Vietnam. Includes the peculiar circumstances of the Vietnam War and the American strategies developed through 1967, how Giap confronted the stalemate with a bold plan, the overconfidence of the White House and Pentagon, the successful diversion of Khe Sahn, the offensive of January 30th and its overwhelming success as tactical surprise & American intelligence failure, summaries of major battles and force dispositions, how Giap lost the military/tactical battle but succeeded in the overall political/psychological objective: convincing the American people that the war in Vietnam could not be won. 11p. text + 2 maps, 10b., 29 notes in text.   $77
12200. u.s. Responsibilities as a Superpower in the Post-Cold War Era. Considers the responsibilities of the U.S. as the world's only remaining Superpower in the post-Cold War era. The analysis begins with a descriptive overview of the foreign policy that the U.S. appears to be adopting in the new era- that of world leadership. Considers two alternative positions, one based on isolationism and the national self-interest, and the other based on the formation of a new bipolarity. The concluding section argues for the adoption of yet a different course for U.S. foreign policy, one which balances the two extremes of international leadership and isolation and is organized around the principles of international diplomacy and economic responsibility. 8 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $56
12198. Historiography of the Cuban Missile Crisis: A Reappraisal of New Information on a Timeless Issue. Drawing upon many recent works as well as a few older "classic" sources, this paper presents an historical analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis. After a summary overview and analysis of the history of the crisis by incorporating recently revealed new information, the paper discusses some of the key controversies and questions which have plagued (and in some cases, continue to plague) the analysis and understanding of the crisis for more than four decades. 17 pages, 33 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $119
12133. Literature of the Haight-Ashbury District. Discusses the writers associated with the 1960s "Psychedelic Scene" in San Francisco. Includes a discussion of how the scene arose from the Beat Movement and covers the work of such writers as Ken Kesey, Tom Wolfe, Hunter S. Thompson and Richard Brautigan. Also considers the rise of the alternative press (including Oracle and Rolling Stone) as well as the rise of underground comic books. 11 pages, 37 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $77
12011. Marketing to "Generation X." The basic demographic and socio-psychographic characteristics of "Xers" (people born between 1964-1977) are discussed and analyzed. To better define Generation X and differentiate its members from other generational groups, the analysis compares Xers with "baby boomers." 18 pages, 42 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources.   $126
11985. Silicon Valley: America's High-Tech Heartland. Provides a history and analysis of the geographical concentration of technology-based firms in California's Silicon Valley. Identifies the major factors (inventions of specific technologies, proximity to Stanford University, venture capital funds, unique organizational characteristics, etc.) behind the long-term success of Silicon Valley industry. Assesses the region's current condition and future prospects. 14 pages, 29 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $98
11589. Aldrich Ames: Portrait of an American Traitor. Profile of the career and personality of the famous CIA mole convicted to life in prison for selling secrets to the Soviets. Considers Ames' motivations in treason. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $42
11545. The Annexation of Hawaii. Detailed history of Hawaii since Cook, focusing on the meddling of foreign powers in Hawaiian politics, growth of haole group and the sugar interest, the Republic of 1883-8, and the American attitudes towards it including the theories of Hahan, the role of the Spanish-American war in bringing about annexation in 1898, detailed summary of that Congressional debate, and an overview of the recent history of Hawaii. 21 pages, 59 footnotes, 20 bibliographic sources.   $133
11535. Albania's Economic Development and Political Stability in the Balkans. Argues that in the interest of political stability in the Balkans, U.S. foreign policy should focus on Albanian economic development and on improving Greek-Albanian relations through the facilitation of trade and investment. Profiles the Albanian economy and the current status and future prospects of Greek-Albanian and U.S.-Albanian trade and investment. 13 pages, 40 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $91
11526. l.m. Friedman's Crime and Punishment in American Society. Favorable view of this history of the American criminal justice system, which tries to see the law and its enforcement institutions in the context of larger social changes, and as an aspect of the social power of the ruling groups. Covers American law and society from the 1600s to the 1990s. 8., 1f., 1b.   $56
11485. Views of History After e.h. Carr. Discussion of the problems of meaning and interpretation in historical work, after the views of E.H. Carr in his "What is History?" and applying these to various examples. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
11467. "Save Our State" and the Anti-Immigration Movement in Historical Perspective. Examines the recent passage of California's Proposition 187, and its historical precedents. Looks at the pros and cons of Proposition 187, considers its rationale, and compares it with the 19th century laws restricting Chinese immigration. 11 pages, 28 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $77
11449. American Political System & Political Institutions. This paper provides a brief overview of the U.S. political system and political institutions. Discusses the importance of the Constitution in the framework of the political system, considers the impact of the doctrine of separation of powers, describes the party system and discusses the reasons for the dominance of the two-party system, discusses the electoral college and the process of indirect presidential elections. Argues that the worst aspect of the American political system is campaign financing and the best aspect is the existence of a balance of power. KEYWORDS: two party system political parties electoral college constitution separation of powers. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,247 words.   $35
11410. The New South: Its Past and Its Future. An analysis of social and political transformation and "Southern identity" in the contemporary American South. Examines lingering distinctions between the North and the South, considers the need among Southerners to hold on to "Southern identity," examines how the politics and society of the Old South continues to exert influence on the New South, makes projections about demographic, economic, social and political changes in the south in the 21st Century. 19 pages, 33 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
11402. Vietnam and the Protest Song. History of war themes in 20th Century American music, focusing on the development of the protest song in the Vietnam era. Examines songs of WWI, WWII and Korea, the development of the folk-rock movement, the range of differentiation from generalized feel-good peace songs to specific anti-war songs, pro-war songs, and rock'n'roll as breeding ground of the counterculture. 10p., 21f. ,8b.   $70
11401. The War Powers Act in the 1980s. Review of the application of the War Powers Act in various crises of the Middle East and Iran-Iraq War, with a basic review of its history and much attention to structural-situational conflict of Congress and President in theory and practice. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $63
11400. The Leadership of Eleanor Roosevelt. Investigates Eleanor Roosevelt as a leader. Following a profile of her early life and influences, the analysis considers some of her specific leadership roles (Women's Trade Union, the Office of Civil Defense, the United Nations) as well as looking at her particular style of leadership and its effectiveness. 16 pages, 23 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $112
11398. Andrew Young, His Foreign Policy Principles and Their Application to Haiti. Following a brief (5-page) biography of Young, the analysis looks at his distinct formulation of a foreign policy model based on positive but Western free-trade-oriented economic development for African nations, and then takes up the question of what Young would propose for the situation of Haiti following the restoration of Aristide in October 1994, questioning the practicality of applying his models in this situation, but nonetheless giving a favorable appraisal of Young and his ideas. 20 pages, 38 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $133
11312. Sperm - Egg Interaction. Detailed discussion of composition of sperm and fertilization process. Research literature is surveyed and implications of research for facilitating fertility or in vitro procedures are discussed. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
11297. The Watergate Scandal. Looks at the motives and beliefs of the architects of the "dirty tricks" campaign that led to Watergate and the resignation of Richard Nixon. The study argues that Nixon led his underlings and advisors down to disgrace by refusing to shoulder the blame or admit his part. 11 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
11268. Opposition to the Vietnam War. Considers the opposition to the Vietnam War among Americans other than the student protest movement. The evolution of anti-war positions among the Democratic party leadership, African Americans, organized labor, and media are discussed. Details process whereby Americans who did not identify with the student movement came to reject the war for reasons of their own. 14 pages, 36 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $98
11130B. The Cold War: Could It Have Been Won More Cheaply? Analyzes the economic impact of the arms race on the U.S. and Soviet Union. Discusses force levels and equipment purchased. Considers Reagan-era "spend-up" (few weapons passed R+D). Concludes Soviet Union was already doomed but offers varying reasons why and suggests American buildup was inevitable. 8 pages, 6 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $56
11126A. Yosemite National Park. Looks at the impact of mass tourism on one of America's most important national parks. The history, attractions, activities and economic impact of the park and its concessions are reviewed. Recommends limiting automobile entry to the park, protecting fragile ecosystems, and avoiding the overt commercialization of in-park facilities. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
11057. Continuity in American Experience. Elements of political, cultural, and social continuity in America over the last two hundred years are examined. Religious revivals, trade and foreign involvement issues, and the political and electoral process are examined. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
10655. The Watergate Affair. An investigation and analysis of the events of leading to and circumstances surrounding the June 17, 1972 Watergate break-in which eventually led to the indictment and conviction of top Nixon aides and the resignation of President. Includes a summary of the outcomes of Watergate for those directly involved. 21 pages, 31 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $133
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