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19299. New Media and Evolution of Communication. Focusing especially on social networking media (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube), this essay examines the expansion of interactivity and user participation in media creation, information dissemination, and the globalization of communication as well as considering the broader impact and importance of these new media communication forms on real world activities and relations. The essay includes an overview of new media and a discussion of theories of how social media disseminates information. The examination of the impact of new social media on private citizen participation in the public forum and in playing an active role in political and/or social activism suggests that the new social media have become important tools of political/social communication and information dissemination and political/social activism. APA Style. 16 pages, 105 footnotes, 36 bibliographic sources. 4,650 words.

TAGS: new media, Web 2.0, social networks, social networking, Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, communication theory, social media theory, citizen action, politics and media, social activism.

19074. Global Communications. This brief essay discusses how the advancement of technology (notably, the spread of Internet-based communications and mobile technologies) has resulted in global communication becoming increasingly important and is causing the entire world to be seen as a single, interconnected market. Developed/developing world differences in global communication access and usage are discussed. APA Style. 4 pages, 9 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,110 words.

TAGS: global communications, globalization, mobile technology, Internet, developed/developing world divide, media and globalization

18424. The Graham Family and the Washington Post Company Harvard Business Case Study 9498031. This paper provides a case analysis and case solution to a Harvard Business School case study on succession planning and other strategic issues at the family-owned Washington Post Company. The case is set in 1997. The paper considers succession planning from Eugene Meyer through Donald Graham and the changing role of generations (ownership stages); leadership values and competence; communication problems; the challenges and rewards of managing relationships in families and family business conflicts; governance in a family business; the challenges for the Graham family and their media company as they face a rapidly changing business environment; and the role of creativity and innovation in the Washington Post Company. KEYWORDS: case studies succession planning family business newspapers Washington post leadership. APA Style. 24 pages, 23 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources. 6,323 words.   $133
18400. Organizational Communication: Leadership, Culture & Climate. This paper consider some of the key factors influencing organizational communication. Following a discussion of the influence of organizational culture and organizational climate on organizational communications, the analysis consider the critical role of the organizational leader in shaping organizational communications. Concludes that leaders have the capacity to use communications in a way which improves organizational effectiveness by increasing worker satisfaction, productivity, motivation, and even innovation. KEYWORDS: organizational communications motivating language theory leadership organizational culture organizational climate. APA Style. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,485 words.   $42
18307. Social Marketing Through Entertainment Media. This paper reviews the literature on the use and effectiveness of entertainment media as a vehicle to accomplish social marketing. After examining social marketing through entertainment media in the United States, the paper considers entertainment media-based social marketing in the United Kingdom and in a variety of countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa. It is argued that entertainment media (especially TV) can serve as an effective vehicle for achieving social marketing objectives. Public health issues were the most commonly chosen “products” in the entertainment media-based social marketing efforts examined in this review. It is recommended that future research investigate how to best maximize the potential of entertainment media to fulfill a broad variety of social marketing objectives not only in developing countries where media is under close government control, but also in developed nations such as the United States where private media interests dominate. KEYWORDS: social marketing television entertainment public service health. APA Style. 33 pages, 142 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources. 10,854 words.   $133
18263. Tribune Company, 2007 Harvard Business School Case Study 9-208-148. This paper provides a Berkeley Research case analysis and case study solution to a financial management case study on the proposed acquisition of the newspaper giant Tribune Company by Sam Zell in 2007. The case focuses on the details of the proposed acquisition, including its unusual aspects (two-tiered, employs an ESOP as the acquisition vehicle, high leverage, etc.). The case includes problem identification, problem analysis, identification and assessment of alternatives, recommendations, and implementation plan. KEYWORDS: Harvard case study tribune company case solution financial management mergers acquisition sam zell restructuring buyouts valuation esop private equity newspapers leveraged buyouts. APA Style. 11 pages, 8 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $77
18208. The Cell Phone Market in Singapore. This paper discusses the rapid growth of cell phone consumers in Singapore in recent years, which is due to the demands of business and also of youth (who use the phones for text messaging and receiving video content as well as for making phone calls). The paper also discusses the relative performance of the country’s three major service providers, the local cell phone manufacturing industry, and the use of phones for marketing campaigns. KEYWORDS: business marketing manufacturing cellular phones mobile phones Singapore. MLA Style. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $49
18091. Assassination of Journalists & Censorship. This paper discusses the problem of journalists being killed (by corrupt politicians, rebels, gangsters, terrorists, etc.) in order to silence them. The paper provides some background on the problem and discusses the role of watchdog organizations such as Reporters Without Borders and the Committee to Protect Journalists. Examples of the problem are given from such places as Iraq, Russia, the Philippines, Latin America, and elsewhere. It is argued that the problem is perpetuated by a lack of punishment and that it interferes with the important role that a free press is supposed to play in society. The paper includes an outline. KEYWORDS: journalism censorship free press. MLA Style. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 2,558 words.   $70
18037. Effective Listening Strategies. This paper discusses the importance of effective listening strategies in the improvement of interpersonal communications. The research paper covers the definition of key concepts, theories, the value of using listening strategies, and the steps to effective listening. It concludes with a personal viewpoint on what can be done to improve one's own listening skills. KEYWORDS: interpersonal communications listening strategies. APA Style. 8 pages, 17 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,949 words.   $56
17728. Effective Listening Strategies in Interpersonal Communication. This paper provides an overview and analysis of effective listening strategies, a vital element of interpersonal communication. “Listening” is defined and distinguished from mere “hearing” and key concepts in effective listening such as “dialogue”, “empathizing” and the use of open-ended questions are defined and discussed. Following a discussion of theories of listening (particularly those related to psychologist Carl Rogers), the paper discusses the elements of effective listening, providing specific examples. A concluding section takes a personal viewpoint on how an individual might improve his or her own listening style. KEYWORDS: interpersonal communications listening carl rogers. APA Style. 8 pages, 10 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,890 words.   $56
17636. The Media and the Vietnam War. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the role of the media in shaping public opinion during the Vietnam War. Drawing on newspaper and television reports from the throughout the lengthy war, the analysis looks at how media helped to turn the tide of public opinion against the war. Concludes that the media played a critical role, convincing Americans that the war was a costly mistake, that their government had misled (or even lied to) them, and – most importantly – that America was not likely to win the war, notwithstanding its high costs and casualties. KEYWORDS: Vietnam war american public opinion media effects newspapers television. MLA Style. 8 pages, 21 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources. 1,970 words.   $56
17633. A Content Analysis Study of Gender Role Portrayals in Children’S Literature. This paper presents a study exploring the changes (or lack thereof) in gender role portrayal and stereotyping in children’s literature, with particular attention to gender asymmetries. A content analysis methodology was used to explore a sample of children’s books originally published prior to 1970 with a sample of children’s books published after 1990. The study sample consisted of five male-character-oriented and five female-character-oriented books (total sample = 20) from each time period. The study tested three hypothesis: 1) Females are more often portrayed in non-traditional roles in the post-1990 literature than in the pre-1970 literature; 2) Females are more frequently depicted in non-traditional roles in the post-1990 literature than male characters; and 3) There appears to be little change in the gender role depictions of male characters between the pre-1970 and post-1980 literature samples. Strong support was found for all three hypotheses. Included in the study write-up are twenty (one for each book) content analysis coding sheets specifying dependent and independent variables and gender role coding for each book analyzed. KEYWORDS: gender roles female characters male characters. APA Style. 26 pages, 32 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources.   $133
17609. Scandals at the New York Times. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the impact of the scandals involving Jayson Blair and Judith Miller (and other reporters) on the reputation of the New York Times. The paper provides details on the scandals at the Times and evaluates the newspaper’s responses to the scandals. Argues that the scandals could have been prevented or greatly mitigated through better editorial oversight. Concludes that while the Times’ reputation was damaged by these scandals, by making a concerted effort to deal with the problems and prevent them from occurring again, the Times will undoubtedly be able to restore its credibility. KEYWORDS: new york times scandals journalistic integrity jayson blair Judith miller. 6 pages, 19 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources. 1,464 sources.   $42
17567. Media and Women’S Self-Image. This paper examines the view that the media has a generally negative impact on the self-image of women. The paper describes and documents how media representations present an unattainable ideal for female appearance and behavior and how women – especially young women – accept this ideal and develop a negative self-image when they fail to achieve the ideal. It is argued that the best way to overcome this problem is to increase women’s awareness that they are being manipulated by the media for the sake of increased profits. KEYWORDS: mass media images women self-esteem women’s negative self-image media portrayal ideal women. MLA Style. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources. 1,845 words.   $56
17442. Media Reporting on Immigration: California Proposition 187 & Arizona Proposition 200. Both Proposition 187 and its progeny, Proposition 200, generated considerable attention in the local and national press. Following a brief overview of terms and a short review of the literature on anti-immigrant discourse in the media, this paper examines how the media framed each proposition, in the period leading up to and immediately following the 1994 and 2004 elections. The investigation is carried out through a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles published three weeks prior to and three weeks after each election. Data for analysis were drawn from three media outlets, encompassing a local and a national outlet covering each proposition. For the 1994 Proposition 187 analysis, data were drawn from articles appearing three weeks prior to and three weeks after the November 7th election in either the San Francisco Chronicle (representing the “local” outlet) or the Los Angeles Times (representing the “national” media outlet for this proposition). For the 2004 Proposition 200 analysis, data were drawn from articles appearing three weeks prior to and three weeks after the November 2nd election in either the Phoenix-based Arizona Republic (representing the local outlet) or the Los Angeles Times (again representing the national outlet). KEYWORDS: media analysis framing immigration media bias. 21 pages, 74 footnotes, 62 bibliographic sources. 4740 words   $133
17398. The Scope and Limits of Media Power. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the scope and limits of media power in modern societies. The first section provides theoretical background, defining and describing power as it applies to media. The next section examines media power in contemporary Western society, drawing on examples from the United States, U.K., and Europe. Another section examines media power in a very different society – the countries of the Middle East, particularly the Arab states. A concluding section summarizes the findings on the overall limits of media power. KEYWORDS: media power media influence western society arab society. APA Style. 23 pages, 92 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources. 6,454 words.   $133
17320. Mass Media and Voting Behavior in the United Kingdom. This paper examines the extent to which the mass media have an effect on voting in Britain. It is found that the mass media indeed have an influence on British voters; however, this influence is moderated somewhat by other factors. KEYWORDS: mass media voters voting press newspapers elections. 9 pages, 18 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,185 words.   $63
17285. Computer Games and Society. This paper provides an overview and critical analysis of the impact of computer games and video games and gaming (especially youth) on American society. Considers the major objections to gaming related to violent and sexist content as well as possible links between gaming and obesity, lowered self-esteem, violent behavior, and diminished ambition. Reviews the gaming industry’s responses to the criticisms including First Amendment claims and criticisms of study methodologies. Argues that computer and video games are, for the most part, less harmful than critics charge. Argues that there is no “smoking gun” evidence linking computer and video games with violent behavior, sexist behavior, obesity, or diminished self-esteem among gamers. KEYWORDS: gaming video games computer games violence sexism social impact. 14 pages, 35 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources. 3,201 words.   $98
17279. An Analysis of Political Cartoons of u.s. Involvement in Iraq. This paper examines the situation in Iraq circa early 2005 from the perspective of political cartoons appearing in The Los Angeles Times and The International Herald-Tribune. Following a brief discussion of what constitutes an effective political cartoon and a quick review of the major Iraq news stories in the first months of 2005, the paper analyzes specific cartoons published in the two newspapers. Each cartoon is described and assessed for “effectiveness” in terms of its ability to deliver a clear and powerful message to its audience. KEYWORDS: Iraq cartoons. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources. 2,139 words.   $63
17192. Should the Fcc Be Given Broad Regulative Powers? Review of the Literature. Following a brief history of freedom of speech, this paper presents a review of the literature on FCC (Federal Communications Commission) regulation of speech and expression on all types of media. Key concepts and existing theories related to government regulation of media and speech are identified. Contradictions, shortcomings, and gaps in the evidence related to FCC regulation of media are discussed. Keywords: FCC regulation media broadcasting free speech ownership television radio. MLA Style. 8 pages; 49 footnotes; 24 bibliographic sources. 1,891 words.   $56
17186. Evolution of Climate Change Report Content and Presentation Style. Taking the perspective of a climate change policy maker, this paper provides a critical commentary on the evolution of the presentation style and content of climate change science from the time of the IPCC’s Second Assessment Report (1995) to the December 2003 presentations to the UNFCCC’s Conference of the Parties (COP-9). Following a background discussion of the history and framework for the coordination of climate change science and policy, the evolution of the style and content of climate change science over the eight year period is examined. Keywords: climate change global warming international agreements climatology science. 12 pages; 42 footnotes; 34 bibliographic sources. 3,789 words.   $84
17137. Do National Media Still Matter? Drawing on examples from the U.S., U.K., and countries of the Middle East, this paper considers the issue of whether or not national media still matter in this era of globalization. The analysis begins with an overview of the issues on globalization and media. Drawing on examples from Palestine, Iran, Kuwait, and Arab satellite TV, the changing role of national media in the Middle East is considered. Another section of the analysis considers the role of U.S. and U.K. national media in depictions of events and issues in the Middle East, looking in particular at the 1991 Gulf War, U.S. and U.K. media reports on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and the U.S. -led war on Iraq. It is argued that notwithstanding extensive globalization of media, national media continue to matter – indeed, the process of globalization has in many cases heightened the importance of national media. Keywords: media globalization national Arab British US. 18 pages; 51 footnotes; 34 bibliographic sources. 5,228 words.   $126
17136. Talk Shows as Public Spheres: The Role of the Mass Media in Civic Participation. Drawing on the literature on TV talk shows as public spheres, this paper provides an overview and analysis of the role of the mass media in civic participation. The analysis draws on specific examples of talk shows broadcast in the U.S. and/or U.K. (e.g., Donahue, Oprah, Geraldo, Kilroy, Jerry Springer, etc.). It is argued that he audience-participation format talk show as it emerged in the 1970s and 1980s did in fact help to create multiple new public spheres and thus made a positive contribution to sparking civic participation, especially within segments of society traditionally excluded from the public sphere. At the same time, it is argued that the newer (late 1980s-early 1990s) forms focused on confrontation (e.g., Ricki Lake, Jerry Springer, Jenny Jones) have resulted in a deterioration of the talk show as a public sphere. 12 pages; 47 footnotes; 25 bibliographic sources. 4,971 words.   $84
17114. Evaluating Media Performance in Democratic Societies. This essay addresses the question, “By what standard should we evaluate media performance in democratic societies?” The analysis begins with the premise that the appropriate standards for evaluating media performance in democratic societies are necessarily condition by the form of democracy and the underlying political and social values of the democratic society. Focusing on Anglo-American democratic societies, the analysis then defines and discusses the traditional and emerging roles of media within the democracy, considering also the constraints and limitations on the execution of these roles. Based on the articulation of these roles, the appropriate standards for the evaluation of media are outlined, along with general performance indicators and measurements. 12 pages; 27 footnotes; 14 bibliographic sources. 3,622 words.   $84
17109. The Evolution of the Free Press in America. This paper traces the evolution of the free press in America from the early Colonial Era through the 19th century. Argues that notwithstanding the First Amendment provisions, freedom of the press existed more as an idea than as a reality for the first decades of American nationhood and that when finally put into practice, a “free press” was not the equivalent of a “responsible press”. Includes analysis of the press in Colonial America, looking at America’s English newspaper heritage and discussing the pamphlet and broadside forerunners of the first newspapers; considers the foundations of press freedom as established through key early libel cases such as the Zenger case; profiles the role of newspapers in the American Revolution; traces the development of the popular press; considers freedom of press during the Civil War; and examines the development of the modern press in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 31 pages; 69 footnotes; 17 bibliographic sources. 9,026 words.   $133
17023. "The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind" by Julian Jaynes (Book Review). This paper discusses Jaynes’s unique theory on the emergence of self-consciousness in humans, including the existence of hallucinatory voices in ancient man and the ‘vestiges’ of the bicameral mind in the contemporary world. Although the theory is both speculative and controversial, it is worthy of further study and debate. Keywords: human consciousness ancient. 5 pages; 9 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $35
17020. Primate Communication. This paper examines the research on how primates use visual signals, sounds, scents and touch to communicate amongst themselves. The paper also addresses the controversy over whether or not primates can learn to use and understand “human type” communication such as sign language. Keywords: primates communication signals language. 7 pages; 33 footnotes; 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
15946. Cellular Phones. This paper argues that cellular phones were the most successful product of the 1990s. The paper covers the development of the technology prior to the 1990s, and the growth in the use of cell phones since that time. It also discusses the reasons for the product’s popularity, problems and controversies, and the ongoing search for improvements and new features. KEYWORDS: cell mobile phones history product innovation. 16 pages; 51 footnotes; 15 bibliographic sources. 3,724 words.   $112
15905. "The Power of News" by Michael Schudson (Book Review). This paper presents a critical review of Schudson’s book, which is a collection of essays and research articles. In the book, Schudson argues that the power of the American news media is “cultural” rather than “political.” Keywords: media culture newspapers press politics. 6 pages; 16 footnotes; 1 bibliographic source.   $42
15847. Communications Systems in Emergency Management. This paper addresses the importance of communications systems in emergency management and considers various proposals for improving such systems in the wake of the terrorist attacks of 9/11. Topics addressed include: the need for redundancy (back-up systems); the need for interoperability; and the idea of enabling civilian-based emergency managers to connect to military communications systems. 14 pages; 40 footnotes; 13 bibliographic sources, 2 appendices.   $98
15803. Dolphin Communication. This paper provides an overview and analysis of dolphin communication patterns and systems. The analysis explores the channels of communication used by dolphins, considers the normal environmental limitations on communication related to life in an aquatic versus terrestrial environment, discusses the cognitive and sensory basis of dolphin communication systems, and examines the evidence that dolphins have language. While the focus of the analysis is on intraspecies dolphin communication, the possibility of dolphin-human communication is necessarily also considered in that assessments of dolphin language potential often involve investigations of human-dolphin symbolic interaction. KEYWORDS: animal communications dolphin language intraspecies interspecies communication. 12 pages, 42 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. 3,740 words.   $84
15673. Western Media Portrayals of Arabs and Muslims During the Gulf War Crisis of 1990/91. This paper examines the media-filtered American interpretations of the Arab world through an analysis of Western (mainly U.S.) media portrayals and interpretations of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab women (especially Saudi, but also Kuwaiti, and other women of the Gulf) during the Gulf War and surrounding period of Gulf Crisis (a period defined as extending from August 1990 through the spring of 1991 and the withdrawal of U.S. forces following the end of the Gulf War). The investigation begins with a brief overview of the historical problems and distortions involved in media coverage of wars or other military conflicts, and the specific position of the media in the Gulf War. Also considered is the U.S. media's tradition of foreign news coverage. Following this, the analysis examines U.S. newspaper coverage and post-war published analyses of media (broadcast and print) coverage of the Gulf War and crisis in an effort to present a profile of U.S. media portrayals of Arabs and Muslims in general, and Arab/Muslim women in particular, with a special focus on media images and interpretations of Saudi men and women. KEYWORDS: newspaper coverage arab gulf war western media portrayal arabs muslims. 25 pages, 55 footnotes, 34 bibliographic sources. 7,291 words.   $133
15580. Military History: Operation Desert Storm and the Use of Information Warfare. This paper discusses how Desert Storm was a turning point in the use of Information Warfare (IW). The operation was the first major testing of information-based weapons, strategies and tactics. In addition, the quick Coalition victory was attributed in part to the successful use of IW, in contrast to the failure of Iraq's information-based systems. 8 pages, 27 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $56
15466. Effective Business Communications. This paper presents an overview and analysis of effective business communications from the perspective of a manager in the finance industry. Following a brief definition of business communication and an outline of its scope, the analysis considers the effective application of written, oral, aural (listening) and non-verbal communication. The analysis specifically includes discussions of persuasive communications (written and spoken); the delivery of good and bad news; the preparation of business reports, investment research reports and general correspondence; the uses and abuses of email; preparing and delivering oral presentations, seminars and speeches; the importance of listening in effective communications; and the role of non-verbal communication. KEYWORDS: business communications essay research paper. APA Style. 20 pages, 41 footnotes, 26 bibliographic references.   $133
15445. PG&E: Media Spin and the California Energy Crisis. This term paper examines media coverage of Pacific Gas & Electric Company’s (PG&E) role in the California energy crisis of 2000-2001, looking both at PG&E’s efforts to spin the cover in its favor, and biases (for and against PG&E) demonstrated in the media coverage. The central thesis of the essay is that while PG&E has attempted to use the media to portray itself as a blameless ‘victim’ in the energy crisis, strong editorial biases in the press (especially in California) have contributed to the overall failure of this strategy. It is also argued that the company’s reputation, its historical relationship with its customers, and its recent efforts to protect its assets by shifting billions of dollars to its parent companies have also poisoned PG&E’s reputation and its relations with the public. Keywords: utility companies blackouts energy shortage cost shifting media strategy public relations news bias. APA Style. 12 pages; 32 footnotes; 21 bibliographic sources.   $84
15234. The Firestone Tire Recall. This term paper analyzes the handling of the August 9, 2000 Firestone tire recall. The paper traces the history of the recall, examining Firestone's own knowledge of the tire problems, Firestone's relationship with Ford, and Firestone's public response following the August 9th recall announcement. The essay concludes that Firestone missed the opportunity to learn from the mistakes made during the massive 1978 recall of its Firestone 500 tires and the ensuing public relations disaster. KEYWORDS: firestone tire recall scandal business ethics bridgestone response term paper. APA Style. 10 pages, 58 footnotes, 27 bibliographic references.   $70
15182. The Transcontinental Telegraph and Transcontinental Railroad. These two technologies, arising in the 1860s, had an important impact on business and the nation by increasing the flow of information, goods and people. This paper discusses how the telegraph and railroad developed during the late nineteenth century. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic references.   $49
15122. Iridium Phones: A Failed Product Innovation. This termpaper provides an overview and analysis of the Iridium satellite phone system (Iridium LLC), with a focus on the critical factors in Iridium's failure. Following an introduction and summary of the Iridium project and its importance as an innovation in telecommunications, the research paper analyzes Iridium's strengths and weaknesses along with the key factors leading to the project's (and company's) failure. A concluding essay considers some of the lessons learned from this failed innovation. KEYWORD: new product failure satellite phone iridium innovation failure term paper. 12 pages + 1 page Appendix; 41 footnotes, 27 bibliographic sources. 4,321 words.   $84
15014. Internet Gambling. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Internet gambling. Following an overview and profile of the history and current scope of the Internet gambling and a discussion of the reasons why the U.S. is likely to continue to maintain a strong position against Internet gambling, the research paper reviews the various legal and regulatory approaches to curtailing Internet gambling. Included is a discussion of the varied approaches of non-U.S. jurisdictions and the treatment of Internet gambling under international law; existing and proposed federal law concerning Internet gambling; and state laws on Internet gambling and a review of recent federal and state court cases concerning Internet gambling. The concluding section speculates on the future of Internet gambling and makes recommendations on federal/state action in this arena. KEYWORDS: internet gambling online gaming term paper. 27 pages, 105 footnotes, 41 bibliographic sources. 9,123 words.   $133
14806. Economic and Media Influences on Race Relations in America. This paper addresses two separate questions related to economic and media influences on racial discrimination, race relations and opportunities available to racial minorities: 1) How does the structure of the US economy influence the opportunities and life chances of minorities; and 2) How do controlling images in the media objectify Asian-, African,- and Latino-Americans? Separate references are provided for each section. KEYWORDS: media minorities media race economy media race discrimination. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources. 1,547 words.   $42
14038. Advertising or Pornography: Photographic Images of the Benetton and Calvin Klein Advertising Campaigns. Examines the legal, social and aesthetic implications of the shock-effect ad campaigns of two fashion firms. Compares the social protest of the Colors of Benetton images with the soft-core eroticism of the Calvin Klein ads. 22 pages, 21 footnotes, 20 bibliographical references.   $133
14034. New Media & Youth Culture. Focusing especially on the Internet, both in terms of its emergence as a new communications medium (e.g. email, chat rooms, news and information source) in its own right and on the blurring of boundaries between the Internet and more traditional mass media, this paper investigates how technology-driven communications and entertainment media are influencing popular youth culture. The investigation focuses in particular on the interrelationships between new media and youth culture in the United States and the United Kingdom. An important theme explored will be the extent to which the new media has arguably both “globalized” and “Americanized” youth culture. KEYWORDS: internet youth new media forms adolescent culture. 45 pages, 165 footnotes, 54 bibliographic sources. 12,575 words.   $133
13994. The Imbalance in the International Flow of News. This paper discusses the economic and political factors that have caused the imbalance in the flow of news, and argues that this problem is related to international imbalances and underdevelopment in general. It is also noted that news about the world is distorted as a result of this problem, and that the people of the developing world need better news sources because information is power and is needed to make democracies work. 11 pages, 37 footnotes, 10 bibliographic references.   $77
13984. Masculinity and Stereotypes in the Mass Media Based on Race and Class. This paper uses two studies on African American males (Slim’s Table by Duneier and There Are No Children Here by Kotlowitz), and one study on Asian American males (“Vanishing Son” by Kashiwabara). Using these sources, it is argued that the mainstream media perpetuates stereotypes about men of different races and classes and that these stereotypes do not reflect reality. 11 pages, 24 footnotes, 3 bibliographic references.   $77
13941. Patient-Provider Communications. This report investigates communication aspects of the provider-patient relationship. In particular, the analysis considers the extent to which individual patient and provider (physician and other ) characteristics influence communication in the medical consultation. In addition to looking at specific characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, patient knowledge, and physician specialty, the analysis discusses the extent to which the new managed care environment shapes the context and content of patient-provider communications. 14 pages, 35 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $98
13935. The Future of Radio. This paper describes innovations such as digital sound, satellite transmissions, and Internet “webcasting.” Various benefits of the new technology are discussed, including improved sound quality, increased program choices, increased portability, the opening of new markets, and the ability of people to make their own “webcasts.” 11 pages, 41 footnotes, 13 bibliographic references.   $77
13914. Business Communications at United Airlines. Analyzes and evaluates the flow of business communications at United Airlines. Argues that UA's commercial success is largely attributable to the effectiveness of its corporate communications systems - a competitive factor uniquely important in the information-intensive global airline industry. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $63
13617. Information Inequality (Herbert Schiller) and Neuromancer (William Gibson). Compares the views of the two authors on how the media and technology will affect society in the near future. Argues that both have a pessimistic view on the subject, and compares their attitudes with the attitudes of other authors. 11 pages, 34 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
13585. Information Technology as a Competitive Tool. This paper provides an overview and analysis of the "Information Revolution" in contemporary business. Focusing on the explosive growth of the Internet and the concomitant develop of business intranets, the analysis considers how information technology serves as a crucial competitive tool and is rapidly evolving as the central basis of competition in today's business environment. 12 pages, 32 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources.   $84
13473. Women in Sports Journalism. Topics covered include the difficulties women have faced in being accepted, the controversy over locker room interviews, and the contributions of individual women to the field. Also argues that there is a current trend toward increased equality for women writers and sportscasters. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $56
13468. The Need for Censorship of Arts and Culture. Discusses the problem of obscene or hateful forms of expression that harm others. Also discusses Supreme Court rulings that have failed to censor such forms of expression, and argues that the First Amendment does not guarantee the right to use them. 7 pages, 15 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $49
13423. Culture and Communication: High-Context vs. Low-Context Cultures. This paper provides an overview and analysis of high context/low context communication cultures and their relevance and impact for international business operations. The analysis begins with a discussion of high-context/low-context communication cultures within the framework of Hofstede’s four dimensions of national culture. The next sections examine the nuances of the high/low context clash through an examination of cross-cultural comparisons, with a special focus on Middle Eastern (high-context)/American (low-context) studies and Asian (high-context)/Non-Asian (low-context) studies. 9 pages, 29 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $63
13300. Information Technology and Organizational Communications. This term paper considers the proposition that "mastery of information technology is critical to effective organizational communication." This statement is discussed and analyzed with regard to practical examples including the role and importance of email, the Internet, corporate intranets, database technologies, telecommuting, groupware, and decision-making technologies. The essay begins with an overview of the function and importance of communications within the organization and a look at how information technology has transformed the structure and scope of organizational communications. KEYWORDS: information technology organizations organizational communications intranets. 14 pages, 37 footnotes, 22 bibliographic sources.   $98
13231. Sports in the Media. Discusses how sports are portrayed in movies, TV, and music, and argues that sports provide an effective analogy for the struggles of life that all people must experience. 10 pages, 18 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $70
13192. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (Marshall Mcluhan). Analysis of the book's thesis, assumptions, concepts, and use of catch-phrases. Notes certain shortcomings in the arguments, but concludes that the book contributes to an understanding of communication. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
13191. Media Coverage of the Clinton Sex Scandal. Emphasizes how economic and structural factors of the media (specifically, the Internet and competitive pressures) had an impact on the direction and tone of the coverage. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
13150. Lucent Technologies, Inc. This paper provides an overview and analysis of Lucent Technologies, Inc., assessing its history and background, current position, and future outlook. Includes an examination of major business segments and market position within each area of operation, organizational structure and corporate culture, and financial position. Presents a strategic analysis of Lucent, looking at its marketing, international, and growth strategies; examining the company's key strengths and weaknesses; and appraising the key challenges and opportunities in Lucent's operating environment. Concludes with a summary assessment of Lucent and considers its outlook for the future. 17 pages, 54 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $119
13146. Public Opinion (Walter Lippmann). This paper provides a critical review of 1922 book on the news media's tendency to distort reality. Criticizes the author's condescending tone, his elitist views, and the vagueness of his arguments. Also points out that more information sources exist today than in Lippmann's time. Overall, however, the book is a sincere effort to make people more aware and to pave the way toward future improvements. KEYWORDS: walter lippmann public opinion media theory. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
13140. Mncs and Communications. This report provides an overview an analysis of the role and structure of communications in MNCs. The analysis begins with a general overview of the importance of communications in the MNC, conducted through the perspective of an assessment and response to the statement that "control of MNCs is primarily a matter of communication." Following this, the analysis examines the components of and differences between the one-way and two-way patterns of communication, considering their implications for MNCs in general and for Western-based MNCs operating in Asia in particular. 10 pages, 28 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $70
13117. A Survey and Comparison of Newspapers in Japan and the United States. Profiles industry structure and trends in circulation, revenues, and readership in the US and Japanese newspaper industries, with a focus on the daily newspaper. Includes a discussion of similarities and differences in newspaper history, content, format, and focus as well as a comparison of reader demographics. Concludes with a table summarizing the major points of comparison. 22 pages, 102 footnotes, 55 bibliographic sources.   $133
13077. John F. Harris, Staff Reporter for Washington Post. A discussion of the work of this staff reporter for The Washington Post and his specialty in covering White House events. Describes his avoidance of personal opinions and his use of quotes, paraphrases, examples, facts and anecdotes as being typical of the "journalistic style." 6 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
13050. Media Coverage of the Death and Funeral of Princess Diana. Points out some examples of exploitation, hypocrisy and excessiveness in the coverage, but argues that it was, for the most part, respectful and ethical. Also notes Diana's role in British society and thus argues that the media event was historically important and that it played a role in reassuring the public. 6 pages, 20 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
12705. Negative Influence of the Mass Media on Teenage Sex. Argues that the media glorifies premarital sex and thereby encourages sexual activity and irresponsible views in young people. Also expresses concern over increased references to premarital sex in the media, and calls for more research in the area as well as programs for educating young people on the true risks involved. 12 pages, 32 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources..   $84
12702. Prospects for the Future of Telecommunications. A discussion of how emerging technologies will enable people to connect with one another around the world. Covers such topics as the Internet, interactivity, multimedia, mergers between television and telephone companies, the role of the government and competition, and the need for accessibility. Also notes various positive aspects of the new technologies, including the ability to encourage the spread of democracy. 9 pages, 28 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
12667. Human Communication in Counseling. The paper reviews the most successful techniques now being used by therapists and counselors to facilitate the human communication which lies at the center of the counseling process. The paper focuses on the theories of Thomas Gordon ( Parent Effectiveness Training); Virginia Satir and Don D. Jackson (Conjoint Therapy); Eric Berne and Jay Haley (Transactional Analysis); Carl Rogers (Client-Centered Therapy); Gregory Bateson (the Double-Bind in Family Therapy); and Paul Watzlawick (Therapeutic Communication). The paper argues that a key element of each of these recent theories is the crucial role of the transactional structure or grammar of communication in therapy. KEYWORDS: counseling communication therapeutic relationships bateson virginia satir don jackson paul watzlawick jay haley eric berne thomas gordon. 14 pages, 31 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $98
12665. How Global Media Becomes a Global Market. Developments in communications are creating new opportunities for people to participate in the global economy. This paper discusses how the Internet affects work and business and how it can be used for the marketing of goods and services. The paper also considers potential problems of commercialization and lack of accessibility, but argues that these problems can be easily controlled or overcome in upcoming years. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $42
12641. Celebrity Privacy. Examines the question of whether the media should explore the private lives of celebrities; looks at the Diana case, the tabloid media and the legal issues and protections. 6 pages, 8 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $42
12595. Celebrity Role Models. Discusses their influence on socialization and the development of self-concept. Also discusses identification with negative celebrity role models and the need for young people to be taught that celebrities are not infallible and that "everyday heroes" can also be role models. 17 pages, 34 footnotes, 21 bibliographic sources.   $119
12501. The Many Uses of the Internet. This paper provides an overview and summary of the many ways that the Internet can be helpful to people, focusing first on how it can be useful to students, and then looking at the uses of the Internet in business and in personal lives. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $70
12497. Sex, Violence, and Commercialism in the Media. Argues that popular entertainment is driven by commercialism in its production of obscene and violent programs. 6 pages, 6 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $42
12400. Commercial Online Services: American Online (Aol) Versus the Microsoft Network (Msn). A marketing analysis of the number one and number three commercial online service/Internet service providers. Provides a comparative assessment and analysis of each firms' marketing objectives, goals, pricing strategy, advertising and promotional strategy, and unique selling points. Considers the major strengths and weaknesses of each service and makes recommendations for improvement. Includes AOL vs. MSN summary comparison chart. 21 pages, 49 footnotes, 38 bibliographic sources.   $133
12371. The Impact of the Internet on Business. A survey and overview of how the Internet is impacting U.S. business. Looks at the Internet's impact on business strategies, hiring, organizational structure, organizational communications, relations with suppliers, and relations with customers. The analysis considers both the opportunities and the obstacles in achieving the potential cost savings, revenue growth and increased efficiencies presented to business by the Internet. 16 pages, 51 footnotes, 33 bibliographic sources.   $112
12156. Racism and the Media. This paper examines how contemporary media (both news and entertainment) deals with racial tension in the United States. The principal focus of the investigation is on 1980s and 1990s trends, themes in media's treatment of racial issues and the problem of racial tension between the dominant white majority and the country's racial minorities. Although the analysis considers media treatment of racial tension in general, the main focus is on the treatment of racial tension between the dominant racial group (whites) and the country's largest racial minority (African-Americans). 12 pages, 42 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $84
12067. The Communications Decency Act of 1996: Censorship on the Internet. Taking the perspective of a Supreme Court Justice, this paper evaluates the constitutionality of the Communications Decency Act of 1995. Following a background discussion on the internet and some of the events which led to the passage of the Exon amendment, the analysis draws on appropriate legal precedents and rationales to arrive at a hypothetical Supreme Court ruling finding the new law unconstitutional. 12 pages, 43 footnotes, 18 bibliographic sources. + Table of Authorities.   $84
11946. A Five Forces Analysis of the Cellular Phone Industry. Following a brief overview of the cellular telephone industry and its place within the larger telecommunications industry, this paper analyzes the factors affecting cellular telephone industry competition according to Porter's model (threat of new entrants, threat of substitute products, bargaining power of customers, bargaining power of suppliers, and rivalry among existing competition). 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $70
11926. Networking in Organizations. This paper investigates the topic of networking within organizations, with a special focus on networking in large corporations and bureaucracies. Following a definition of networks, a discussion of the various types of networks and their main purposes, and an overview of the major models of network formation and network process, the analysis looks more closely at the impact of networking on the organization and the impact of the organization on networking. KEYWORDS: organizational networks networking. 21 pages, 47 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $133
11892. The Technology Behind Virtual Reality. An intensive discussion of the tracking devices, sensors, and computer languages used to create virtual reality. Covers the compatibility of this software with personal computers and the future of virtual reality. 15 pages, 15 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $105
11828. The Emergence of Cable Television Companies in the Telecommunications Marketplace. Considers the pros and cons of the entry of cable television companies, especially TCI, into the telecommunications marketplace. Explores the unique technological viability for cable companies to convert their wiring for telecommunications business. Financial potentials, managerial aspects, public policy aspects, and competitive aspects are considered. 21 pages, 26 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $133
11825. The Merger of Time Warner and Turner Broadcasting. Explores the merger of Time Warner with Turner Broadcasting which created the world's largest media conglomerate. Describes the financial climate of a series of similar media mergers and considers the impact this merger will have upon film studios, TV networks, and cable networks. 20 pages, 14 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $133
11470. Benetton: A Study in Advertising Controversy. This paper examines the Benetton advertising controversy. Following a brief history and review of the central themes in Benetton's campaign, print advertisements from 1990-1994 are analyzed in terms of their implicit and explicit messages. Public and industry reaction to the ads are also considered. Summarizes the short- and long-term impact of the campaign in terms of company sales, corporate image and credibility. 15p. + 5p. ads, 41f. 27b.   $105
11465. Eastern European Telecom: Reaching to the West and to Mobile. Examines Eastern Europe's poor and inefficient telecom service and analyzes current trends (privatization, investment from the West, growth of mobile telecom). 5 pages, 19 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $35
11363. Constitutional Guarantees and the Media in the o.j. Simpson Trial. Examines the conflict between the constitutional guarantees of free press and the defendant's right to a public trial against the constitutional guarantees of due process and the defendant's right to a fair trial by an impartial jury. Concludes that tabloid news media who pay witnesses are not protected under First Amendment rights, since they have infringed upon the defendant's constitutional rights to due process and a fair trial. 5 pages, 11 footnotes in text, 9 bibliographic sources.   $35
11306. Mass Communications: A Critical Field of Inquiry. This paper argues that mass communications and mass media represents an important area of study and examination. Reviews the meaning and uses of mass communications and illustrates the importance of its study by looking at several recent examples of its impact and influence. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 11 bibliographic sources.   $35
11276. Analysis of Class Representation in American Media. Examines the depiction of class conflict and social stratification in the American media. The universal image of the upper middle-class on television is noted in the program Cheers. 6 pages, 4 footnotes in text, 3 bibliographic sources.   $42
11230. Bosnia in the Media. Compares the different newsweekly coverage of the Bosnian war from December, 1993 through February, 1994. Political bias and visual imagery are related to theories of McLuhan, Chomsky and others about managed news. 12 pages, 14 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $84
11208. Communication Theory. Compares nature and circumstances involving different examples of communication and analyzes them as being essentially similar, with differences in degree of involvement rather than kind. Special emphasis on theorist's attempts at graphing communication events. 11p. (+1 p. of graphs) 2f. 3b.   $77
11202. Television and the Aesthetics of Postmodernism. Postmodernist criticism of overload, constant availability, recycling, and radical juxtaposition of TV images. Analyzes the emergence of the postmodernist aesthetic as a response to the changes in the way our sensibilities are overwhelmed by input from broadcast media. 10 pages, 27 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $70
11201. The Global Telecommunications Industry. A profile of the global telecommunications industry, with a close focus on the major U.S. and U.K.-based global competitors, AT&T, MCI, and BT. Profiles these major competitors and their strategies as well as the cost structure, nature of demand, market structure and market trends in the industry. 15 pages, 61 footnotes, 50 bibliographic sources.   $105
11195. Videoconferencing: Business Application. Analyzes the potential impact of videoconferencing on business. Discusses efficiency benefits, traditional communication channels, and development in listening/receiving techniques and data transfer. 5 pages, 15 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
11189. Communication Theory Analysis of Model Transactions Between a Bank Teller, Manager, and Customer. Presents two brief exchanges in a bank setting. Analyzes elements of communication, determining factors, two-party versus small group communication, and predetermined versus emergent communication. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $70
11178. Communication Theory in a Business Environment. Compares and contrasts three models of communication as they apply to formal and informal business conferences. Discusses communication patterns in effective organizations. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
11176. Proposed Merger of Sprint and the French and German National Phone Companies. Roadblocks from U.S. regulators and planned liberalization of France Telecom are discussed. Concludes the chances of the deal going through are dependent on France and Germany becoming open markets for telecommunications competition. 5 pages, 16 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $35
11129. The Information Superhighway and Mis. A detailed examination of the proposed 500-channel fiber optic cable network of the future. The core technology of interactive television and online information services is described; hardware and software requirements are summarized. The implications of the system for management information systems of business and industry are reviewed, and the problems and prospects for integration of MIS into the new network are analyzed. 30 pages, 44 footnotes, 24 bibliographic sources.   $133
11077. Space as a Factor in Non-Verbal Communication. Focuses on significance of space and distance or proximity communication. Discusses cultural variations in use of personal space and field of proxemics. 5 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $35
11064. Interactive Multimedia (Im): State of the Art and Future Potential. Considers technological and economic obstacles to widespread implementation of IM, industry alliances and their projects, current applications in education and entertainment, and contrasts visions of IM: home marketing technology or information and communication resource. 11 pages, 27 footnotes, 26 bibliographic sources.   $77
11039. Information Technology and Organizational Change. Examines the role of advancing telecommunications and data processing technology on the structure and operations of organizations. IT in startups, mature and declining organizations are compared, and strategies for more effective communication of information are analyzed. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
10644. National Sovereignty and International Communications Overview, analysis and evaluation of this 1979 reader which addresses the increasing globalization of communications and the effect of such globalization on issues of national sovereignty, particularly in developing nations. More than a decade following its publication, the arguments and issues raised remain relevant. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
10641B. Interactive Television and the Future of Interactive Mass Communications. Following an overview and analysis of the current "state of the art" of interactive TV-- including an analysis of supporting technology, pioneering companies, sample products and applications, and market projections --the technology is analyzed from the perspective of international mass communications theory. 17 pages, 68 footnotes, 31 bibliographic sources.   $119
10605. Family Business: Communication Problems and Solutions. A case study of troubled business led by four brothers. The paper notes that problems in lateral communication have impaired company performance. Following an analysis of the company communication structures, several possible solutions are offered. 9 pages, 10 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $63
10578. Information and the Crisis Economy by Herbert I. Schiller. Review and analysis of Schiller's 1984 monograph concerning information technology and mass communication. Contends that Schiller's failure to anticipate the availability of inexpensive information technology (i.e. persona; computers) renders many of his arguments invalid in the 1990s. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
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