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  • Book reviews Underlined titles indicate that the paper is a review/summary of a book.
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13146. Public Opinion (Walter Lippmann). This paper provides a critical review of 1922 book on the news media's tendency to distort reality. Criticizes the author's condescending tone, his elitist views, and the vagueness of his arguments. Also points out that more information sources exist today than in Lippmann's time. Overall, however, the book is a sincere effort to make people more aware and to pave the way toward future improvements. KEYWORDS: walter lippmann public opinion media theory. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
13144. "America's Information Edge" (Nye and Owens). Discussion of Foreign Affairs article on the importance of knowledge as power and the role of the U.S. in the current information revolution. Covers military uses of information, the concept of "soft power," knowledge as deterrence, and selective sharing of knowledge with allies. Also refers to the views of other authors on the topic. 11 pages, 56 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
13100. Merit Pay. Discusses the use of pay for performance as a tool for motivation and job satisfaction, with emphasis on its usefulness in the public sector. Describes both the advantages and disadvantages, and argues that the system can work if it is properly implemented and includes effective appraisal methods. 6 pages, 34 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $42
13082. "The German Question" (1914-1945). Argues that there were several factors involved in the rise of the Nazi dictatorship and the onset of the Second World War. These factors included Germany's colonial ambitions, the ineffectualness of the Weimar Republic, economic crises, fears of communism, Hitler's ability to mobilize the public, the support of the lower middle class, the assistance of the ruling elites and big business, and the failure of the European powers to contain Germany's expansion. 21 pages, 80 footnotes, 13 bibliographic sources.   $133
13075. Utopia (Thomas More). How More's Utopia deals with nine specific issues (self-identity and self development; equality; individual vs. group rights; stability of the society; utility vs. pleasure; moral truth vs. practicality; warfare; transmission of the system; and the goals of progress). Overall, More's Utopia is a communist society in which emphasis is placed on the attainment of happiness and the importance of scholarship and the culture of the mind. 12 pages, 66 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
13059. Locke and Rousseau on the Political Significance of the Family. Both philosophers believed that political structures arose from natural family structures. In addition, they both emphasized the importance of the consent of family members, and the role of the family in the education and socialization of children. However, they also both contributed to the sexist views of the time in which women were expected to be submissive to men. 12 pages, 49 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
13056. Cooperation and Conflict: Hindu and Muslim in the Indian Nationalist Movement, 1914-1925. Very detailed political history of Hindu-Muslim relations in Indian politics, extending well before the years mentioned in title. Basically, 1916-20 were the high point of Hindu-Muslim cooperation, which gradually but relentlessly eroded to the separatism of later decades. Thorough coverage of historical attitudes toward British Raj in the two communities, major issues and sources of tension, voting rights issues before 1914, the Lucknow Pact establishing common goals, rise of Ghandi and his use of Caliphate Movement 1919-21, Muslim criticisms of Ghandi, lasting sources of communal tensions. Concludes that no new sense of identity transcended the ancient religious divide. 12 pages, 37 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $84
13052. The Crowd in the French Revolution by George Rude. Brief, favorable review of Rude's study of the role of the lower classes in the French Revolution. Describes the author's methodology, summarizes Rude's conclusions about the underlying economic motivations of the crowd in various insurrections, and presents Rude's appraisal of the overall importance of the crowd in the Revolution. 6p., 1b., 2f.   $42
13038. The Political and Economic Effects of Colonialism in Indonesia. A survey of Indonesian political and economic history since before 1500, focusing on questions of colonialism. Summarizes Indonesia's initial position as "a region of cultural, political and economic complexity that rivaled or even surpassed Europe..." and contrasts with the political and economic changes that made Java the most thoroughly colonized land in Asia before 1800. Excellent summaries of 19th & 20th Century Indonesian political history through war of independence 1945-9, and of the economic changes dictated by colonialism which meant huge transfers of wealth from Javanese peasants to European middle and upper classes, contributing to today's disparity of wealth between the EuroAmerican west and the Asian east. 11p., 5b., 21f.   $77
13031. Sovereignty: Changing Norms in a New World Order. This report examines and analyzes the changing conceptions of sovereignty in the post-Cold War world and in the context of the gradual emergence of a new international system. The analysis begins with a definition, overview and history of sovereignty. Included in this section is a discussion of the inherent conflict between sovereignty and self-determination. The remainder of the paper examines more recent and emerging changes to the norms of sovereignty and then attempts to make predictions about the role and shape of sovereignty in the post-Cold War international order. 15 pages, 42 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.

TAGS: national sovereignty, self-determination, supranational organizations, supranationality, European Union, international organizations, international order, regional alliances.


Democracy in the EU Research Paper

Regional Disparities and Infrastructure Investment in the European Union Research Paper

Suprantionality and the Decline of State Sovereignty: The Case of the European Union Research Paper

European Unification and US Federalism Research Paper

Eastern European and European Union (EU) Expansion Research Paper

Supranational Organizations Research Paper

13023. Democratization in Brazil. This report examines both the process and the results to date of democratization in Brazil. The first section examines theories of democratic transition, drawing on Samuel P. Huntington's (1991) The Third Wave and considering its application to Brazil. The rest of the report presents a case analysis of democratization in Brazil, looking first at how Brazil made the transformation from an authoritarian to a democratic form of rule, and then examining and evaluating Brazil's progress and success to date with democratization. 14 pages, 34 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $98
13013. Corporate & Political Structure & the Asian Economic Crisis. Using World Bank president James Wolfensohn's recent comment that the Asian economic crisis revealed that "political, financial and corporate structures were not well suited to cope with the demands of an increasingly globalized economy" as a stimulus for discussion and analysis, this report takes a retrospective and look at the Asian economic crisis. Following an overview of the crisis (its chronology and central features), the analysis considers in greater detail the causes of the crisis and the relative contribution to the crisis made by the factors cited by Wolfensohn and other analysts. The concluding section looks at the prospects for recovery in the troubled Asian economies, and considers the political, corporate, cultural, and economic transformations which must be completed in order to achieve a renewal of the "Asian miracle." 22 pages, 43 footnotes, 29 bibliographic sources.   $133
12748. Imperialism, Profits and Leadership: The Failures of Independent Africa. Scholarly examination of the practice of "kleptocracy" in recent decades in Africa. Beginning with a look at theories of "modernization" and "dependency," moves quickly to focus on how both the successes and failures of colonialism served to establish corrupt native elites, which only grew stronger and greedier after independence, using Sierra Leone as a major case. Also covers military/political frameworks of dependence & corruption in Chad, Angola and elsewhere, and a strong focus on Mobutu's Zaire as a classic case of what Max Weber called "the patrimonial state," including evidence of how even the IMF can be outwitted by corruption. Concludes that while modernization may yet come, at present there are new social structures which absolutely prevent wide spread development (and Western nations support this in many ways). 12p. 9b. 30f.   $84
12746. The Struggle for Indonesia's Independence. Thorough, scholarly, summary of the details of Indonesian history. Beginning with the "cultivation system" of 19th century Dutch colonialism, the study covers the beginnings of Indonesian nationalism in early 20th century, origins of Sukarno's political career, Japanese conquest in World War II, Indonesian-Japanese relations and tensions, events of August 1945 declaration of independence, Allied attempts to re-occupy Indonesia, battle of Surabaya and other conflicts, international involvement and peace making, Dutch counterattacks and repression, First and Second Dutch "police actions," attitudes and actions of USA as chief mediator, why the Dutch were unable to prevail militarily, final treaty and implementation. 20p. 12b. 33f   $133
12721. How Significant Is the Study of Philosophy for Political Life. The paper focuses on the role of philosophy in the formulation of political theory, and the connection between the study of philosophy and the understanding of political theory and practice. Through analysis of the ancient Greeks, utilitarian philosophy, and democratic politics, the paper argues that politics, even in its primitive forms, is inevitably based on concepts and principles that ultimately derive from philosophy. 22 pages, 32 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $133
12719. Moynihan's Pandemonium. Concise summary and review of Sen. Daniel P. Moynihan's attempt to place ethnic theory (and himself as a leading ethnic theorist) at the center of international relations theory. Covers Moynihan's argument why ethnic theory has been neglected in 20th Century political science, Moynihan's record in coming as close as anyone to predicting break-up of the USSR, Moynihan's critique of "self-determination" and his criticism of Woodrow Wilson and FDR for adopting it as international principle, Moynihan's evocation of a 'golden age' of ethnic harmony in 19th Cent. Austro-Hungarian empire, and his cautious and non-prescriptive conclusion. Conclusion thanks Moynihan for raising questions, but finds few pointers for future. 10p. 1b 19f.   $70
12717. Francis Fukuyama's the End of History & the Last Man: Critical Review. Tough, thorough review of F. Fukuyama's 1992 attempt to re-define political science theory. Gives complete summary of Fukuyama's end-of-history concept (it comes from Kant and Hegel) and the meandering journey of the book's five sections, with withering criticisms of Fukuyama's inconsistencies, his inability to face strong opposing arguments, his Western-elite assumptions, his borrowings from Hegel, Kojeve and Nietzsche, and his desertion of the end-of-history concept in the last chapter. 9 pages, 15 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
12714. Plato and Aristotle on Politics, Government and Justice. Compares and contrasts the two philosophers for their political theory, models of government, and concepts of justice and wisdom. Plato is seen as more intuitive and idealistic, Aristotle as more rational, scientific and logical. 12 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $84
12556. Analysis of the Persian Gulf Using the Balance of Power Theory. Discusses the roles of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and other nations. Also discusses U.S. interests, and the failed use of a "dual containment" policy in the region. Argues instead for an integrative, multicentric approach. 18 pages, 42 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $126
12550. Discourse Analysis of the Persian Gulf War. How the war and its leaders were conceptualized by U.S. politicians and the media. Discusses how Saddam was depicted as an evil "power mad bully," while Bush was depicted as a benevolent protector. Also discusses other concepts related to the war such as the "Vietnam stigma" and the "new world order." 24 pages, 75 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
12549. H. George Frederickson's the Spirit of Public Administration. The paper reviews H. George Frederickson's The Spirit of Public Administration by looking at the basic assumptions, definitions and values that Frederickson uses. The paper argues that Frederickson takes a broad, generalist approach to public administration, but one based on assumptions of certain common values and ideals (morality and ethics in public officials, belief in fairness, justice, responsiveness, and so on). 7 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $49
12548. Imperialism Versus Imperialism: The Sino-Soviet Conflict and Political Science Theory. Complete, well-written survey of this crucial yet often overlooked aspect of late 20th Century world history. Covers from 1949 to 1981, including early signals of conflict, and the slow evolution from "esoteric" arguments couched in abstract Marxist theory (after 1956) to name-calling behind closed doors (after 1960) to public name-calling and border clashes of regular troops and solicitation of America's support (after 1969), the complications of the Vietnam war and Kissinger's diplomacy, and finally the all-out "proxy war" involving Cambodia, Vietnam, and China's invasion of Vietnam 1979-81. conclusion emphasizes the lack of popular participation, the small rewards gained by both sides, Mao's lack of cunning and vision in his strategies and tactics, the inabilities of classic theories of imperialism to explain this history, and how this sorry tale of useless imperial greed can be reconciled with realist and environmentalist political science theories. 25p. 15b. 70f. SEE ALSO SECTION 19D.   $133
12547. Theory of Refugee Production. Summarizes the theories of refugee production, which emphasize the role of the nation-state (versus other push-pull factors) in creating refugees, and applies it recent refugee situations in Europe (former Yugoslavia) and Africa. 7 pages, 31 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $49
12546. Two Major Paradoxes of Public Administration. The essay focuses on two major paradoxes of organizational theory: the paradox of individuality and instrumentalism and the paradox of democracy and bureaucratic hierarchy. Explains each paradox, reviews their relationship, and discusses the impact they have individually and collectively on the effectiveness of public organizations. 11 pages, 19 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $77
12543. Understanding and Predicting Revolutions: Is It Possible. Intelligent, well-organized summary of the development and progress of a 1990's scholarly debate on political revolution, featuring Jack Goldtone, Nikki Keddie, Charles Tilly and others. Includes definition and importance of revolution, the evolution of structuralism and its critics since the 1960's, notable recent studies of revolution, Goldtone's claim to predict revolutions and the critical response, factors preventing predictions, conclusion stresses scholarship's never-ending search for fundamental factors despite infinite variety of actual cases. 11p., 26 notes in text, 4b.   $77
12542. Environmental Factors in Nation-State Behavior. Well-informed discussion of the question, "which environmental variable dictate the behavior of nation/states. their leaders and peoples?" Covers environmental theory in poli. sci., how large abstractions such as "international security" and "the world economy" relate to individuals, distinction between "normal-time" environmental needs and "emergency situation" needs, how leaders defend the "perceived cultural, political and economic needs" of their peoples, how environment creates bias toward stability of existing institutions, possibility of future economic conflicts over scarce resources. 6p., 3 notes in text, 3b.   $42
12530. Man's Natural State in Rousseau and Freud. Summary of how two quite different thinkers considered the hypothetical "state of nature." Rousseau the philosopher postulated an individual without family, language or rational thought, which he used to argue that only civilization brought aggression and conflict. Freud the scientist described a world of unhappiness, ruled by the two basic emotions of love and aggression, whose interactions produce increasing civilization and increasing guilt. Conclusion gives points to both. 12p., 33 notes in text, 5b.   $84
12529. Locke and Rousseau on "The State of Nature." Both philosophers agreed that people must give up their natural state of innocence in order to become part of a political society. However, Locke believed that people remain essentially the same after this process, whereas Rousseau argued that politics encourages people to become more corrupt. 6 pages, 13 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.


Individual Rights and Community Cohesion in the Ideal State Term Paper

The Social Contract: Rousseau and the Modern View

Rousseau's Thoughts on the State of Nature Term Paper

12465. Differences in Historical Interpretations of Nazism. An analysis of Ian Kershaw's The Nazi Dictatorship and its thoughtful discourse on the debate between the traditionalist, historicist, "intentionalist" view of Nazism and the more contemporary, "revisionist," structural-methodological approach. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
12385. Public Personnel Management and the Supervisor. This paper, which is structured as a draft letter from the Chief of Personnel in a public organization to newly selected supervisors, emphasizes the new and critical role each supervisor plays in human resource management. Drawing upon public administration texts and recent literature, the report addresses the key human resources management responsibilities of the new supervisors. The analysis and recommendations consider EEO, employee motivation and job satisfaction, employee training and development, performance appraisal, employee discipline and grievance procedures, and the management of diversity. 11 pages, 24 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $77
12350. The Transformation of a Symbol: The Swastika. Calm, thorough discussion of how the swastika went from an innocent 10,000 year history as a decorative motif to a device contaminated by Nazi associations for generations to come. Includes examples of earliest knows swastikas in ancient artifact, design variations, attempts (all unsuccessful) to prove a specific meaning for the ancient swastika, summary of work of 19th Century ethnographers on swastika, role of Schliemann, Burnouf and Zmigrodski in linking swastika to late 19th Cent. German anti-Semitism, beginnings of the Nazis, Hitler's personal role in defining and designing swastika as THE central symbol of Nazism. 12p., 5b., 35 notes in text.   $84
12284. Anarchy, State, and Utopia by Robert Nozick. Analyzes the principles of distributive justice in Nozick's work on political theory. Argues for a limited power of redistribution in order to rectify injustices. 10 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $70
12259. The Theory of Hegemonic Stability. An examination of the role of hegemonies (dominant nations) in encouraging free trade and creating world stability. It is concluded that there are many flaws in the theory and therefore it is not appropriate for explaining conditions in the United States today. 7 pages, 24 footnotes in text, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
12258. World-System and Distance-Decay Approaches to Geopolitics. Discusses how these two approaches presume that international politics is "set in its ways." The world-system approach claims that conflict arises because of the exploitations of peripheral nations by core nations. The distance-decay theory is based on the idea that conflict is caused by proximity. It is argues that both approaches contain contradictions, and that both are based on simplistic and inflexible views of the world. \8 pages, 23 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $56
12248. Hobbes and Resisting the State. Essay on the right of the people to resist the state when it threatens them and violated their rights. Looks at the examples of Antigone, Socrates, Thoreau and King in their forms of disobedience. 5 pages, 0 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
12195. Civil Society & Democracy in America. This paper examines one of the central features Tocqueville identified as making American democracy great - the existence of a strong and active civil society. First provides an overview of Tocqueville's conceptualization of American civil society and its critical link with the consolation of democracy and then looks at some of the factors which Tocqueville believed helped to build and support that strong civil society. The concluding section examines the link between civil society. The concluding section examines the link between civil society and democracy in contemporary America. 16 pages, 29 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $112
12177. The Recognition of Governments. Explains the purpose of recognition and its link with the concept of state sovereignty within the international system. Critically considers the arguments in favor of and against the recognition of governments within this framework. 7 pages, 11 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $49
12176. Self-Determination and International Law. The purpose of this paper is to examine critically the various aspects of self-determination under international law. The analysis begins with an historical overview of the development of the concept of self-determination and its place in the context of international law. The investigation then examines contemporary aspects of self-determination dating from the UN resolutions on self-determination made in the early 1960s. Included is an assessment of the status of self-determination as a "right" under international law and consideration of the legal and political problems entailed within the broadbased pursuit of self-determination. 15 pages, 43 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $105
12124. The Decline of Sovereignty and Issues of Intervention. This paper examines the decline of the concept of sovereignty, the rise of the doctrine of self-determination among nations and ethnic groups (versus sovereign states), the increasing international recognition of the principles of human rights, and the implications these changes have for the norm of non-intervention in the domestic affairs of sovereign states. 10 pages, 17 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $70
12085. Islamic Democracy. This paper examines the proposition that there are several principles or institutions built into the traditions of Islam that provide a basis for an Islamic form of democracy. Considers the ideas of Islamic poet and philosopher, Muhammad Iqbal, his son, Javid, and Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Turabi who all argued that democratic principles could be found in the Islamic principle of tawhid, the emphasis on the consensus (ijma) of the community, and in the way that the caliphs (leaders) were chosen in the early years of the faith. Draws on the work of other Islamic and Western scholars to compare and contrast the Islamic ideas of democracy with those of Western-style liberal democracy. Keywords: Islamic doctrine democratic principles comparative political philosophy. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
12077. The Decolonization of China, Vietnam and India. Argues that China and Vietnam abandoned their traditional culture when they gained independence. Also argues that by accepting the Communist ideology, the two nations simply replaced foreign imperialism with a new form of imperialism. By contrast, the transition to independence in India was more successful because the nation did not sacrifice its traditions. 9 pages, 12 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $63
12076. Role of the Urban Lower Middle Class in the Islamic Movements of the Middle East. Discusses the two main arguments that explain why the urban lower middle class is the social basis for Islamic movements: the culturalist perspective (behavior is caused by cultural beliefs) and the political economy perspective (behavior is caused by socio-economic factors). Argues that both of these factors have contributed to the rise of Islamic movements. 9 pages, 33 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $63
12074. Types of Nationalism: Western Versus Eastern. Compares and contrasts the Western (primarily European) and Eastern (Asian and Middle Eastern) forms of nationalism. Defines nationalism, identifies its central features, and then makes distinctions between Western and Eastern nationalist movements, citing multiple specific historical examples. 11 pages, 14 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $77
12073. Conflict Resolution and International Organization. Uses a case analysis approach to examine whether and how knowledge and professional expertise matters in U.N. peacekeeping and peace-building efforts. Analyzes whether rationalist or "reflectivist" assumptions about cooperation and conflict management best explain these efforts. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $70
12072. Theories of Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict. Noting the increasingly dominant role of ethnicity and nationalism in post-Cold War conflicts, this analysis looks at what case can be made for an ethnic "primordialism" aroused to action by particular threats as opposed to a view of ethnicity as a "social construction" invented anew under novel circumstances. 11 pages, 32 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $77
12062. The Theories of Warfare of Carl Von Clausewitz and Sun Tzu. Compares and contrasts the views of Clausewitz (19th Century Prussia) and Sun Tzu (4th Century B.C. China). Also discusses how the two men influenced subsequent military thinkers in the West and East. The "total war" concept of Clausewitz is contrasted with such ideas of Sun Tzu as flexibility, deception, and avoiding war whenever possible. 25 pages, 92 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
12049. Thucydides' Account of the Melian Debate and the Lessons for International Order. Considers the classic statement of the debate between power and morality as articulated by Thucydides in his History of the Peloponnesian War. Argues that while the Athenian/power-oriented position appears well-grounded in political reality, the Melian/morality-oriented position provides a better foundation for international peace and world order. 8 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $56
11898. Aristotle and Machiavelli on How a Ruler Avoids Being Overthrown. Presents Aristotle's Negative and Cooperative models of government. Examines Machiavelli's authoritarian interpretation of Aristotle's Cooperative model. Both philosophers believe a ruler must study warfare and not offer clemency. 5 pages, 11 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
11717. The Political Theory of John Locke. Examines Locke's political theory with a focus on his conception of the struggle for power in society, drawing on his work An Essay Concerning the True Original Extent and End of Civil Government. Considers how Locke would have reacted to the recent changes in the balance of power between Executive and Legislative branches of government. 5 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
11688. The Cycle of Revolution and England's Failed Revolution. Examines England's "revolution that wasn't" in the late 18th-early 19th century from the viewpoint of Brinton's lifecycle of revolutions. Draws upon data in Thompson's "Making of the English Working Class" to assess the reasons why the revolution never completed the lifecycle. 8 pages, 18 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $56
11687. Social Change and Its Consequences. Describes and analyzes Cohn's account (Pursuit of the Millennium) of social change and its consequences during the pre-industrial period. The merits of Cohn's arguments are assessed based on the evidence presented by Hobsbawn (Primitive Rebels) and Thompson (Making of the English Working Class). 8 pages, 20 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
11686. Two Perspectives on Crowds in History (Lebon and RudÉ. Examines the characteristics, motivations, behaviors and outcomes of crowds or popular dissent in pre-industrial Europe. Compares and contrasts the viewpoints of Gustave LeBon (so-called "father of crowd psychology") and those of historian George Rude. 7 pages, 16 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
11685. Religious, Secular, & Pre-Political Ideologies in Popular Dissent. An essay examining the relationship between religious and secular political ideologies in pre-industrial revolutions. Presents contrasting viewpoints from four noted historians and sociologists. 7 pages, 18 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $49
11658. Africa's Need for Democracy and Prospects for a Democratic Transition. Argues that a transition to democracy presents one of the best opportunities for the resolution of the current African crisis. Recognizes that African countries face many impediments to the successful implementation of democratic government and considers both the realistic prospects for African democracy and some of the steps which must be taken to overcome the barriers to a successful transition. 10 pages, 24 footnotes, 19 bibliographic sources.   $70
11651. Do Elections Matter? Consider the issue of whether or not elections matter by examining whether there is a difference between candidates and whether the makeup of the electorate in a given election makes a difference on policy. Concludes that elections do matter. 4 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $28
11648. Voter Turnout. Discusses three reasons for variations in voter turnout, two demographic and one psychological/rational, and considers whether each reason is more important for explaining change in turnout over time or across a cross-section within a single election. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $35
11647. Self-Interest in Democracy. Considers the validity of the theory that self-interest drives politics and political actors. Individual self-interest as a motivating factor for political candidates and lobby groups is specifically examined. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
11645. Civic Culture and Democracy. Considers the factors which may explain why democracy fails in one region and succeeds in another. Looks in particular at whether a strong tradition of civic culture and social capital is a necessary and sufficient condition for the process of democratization, drawing on evidence from Putnam's work in Italian democracy. 5 pages, 12 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
11637. Review of Sharp's the Politics of Nonviolent Action. Summary and review of this book, which provides a overview of the principles of Ghandi and King, from the basis of power in human society, through the principles of nonviolent action, to examples of nonviolent action and optimistic hopes for the future. 5p. Notes in Text. 1b.   $35
11636. Petra Kelly's Fighting for Hope. Sympathetic review of this collection of pieces by one of the founding members of Germany's Green Party. Brings out the bigger themes in Kelly's thought: bankruptcy of the system, need for change, need for greater democracy and participation, creative non-violent action. 6p. Notes in Text. 1b.   $42
11586. Re-Establishing Civil Society and Democracy in Africa. This analysis considers some of the problems and prospects for re-establishing civil society and democracy in Africa's so-called failed societies. The legacies of colonialism and the Cold War, tribal and ethnic rivalries and the scarcity of resources are among the factors considered. 10 pages, 14 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $70
11585. World Order Under Conditions of Global Anarchy. Considers the world order paradigm from the perspective of a future of global anarchy. Following a summary of the World Order paradigm, and an analysis of the central tiger points and features of a vision of global anarchy now already manifested in the Third World, this analysis considers how a world order approach might or might not obtain peace under conditions of global anarchy. 11 pages, 18 footnotes, 15 bibliographic sources.   $77
11523. Abortion Law in the United States and Germany. This paper provides a clear, professional summary of legal history of abortion in the U.S. since Roe and in modern Germany, using legal vocabulary and sources. Cites major cases influencing abortion policy and law in both countries and provides a comparison and assessment of the two systems. 25 pages, 57 footnotes, 16 bibliographic sources.   $133
11463. Pluralism Versus Elitism in American Democracy. Examines the pluralism versus elitism interpretations of the American political process. Gives an overview of the definitions of pluralism and elitism. Examines some of the problems in pluralism democracy and considers the evidence for the existence of "elites" in contemporary American politics. 9 pages, 16 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $63
11449. American Political System & Political Institutions. This paper provides a brief overview of the U.S. political system and political institutions. Discusses the importance of the Constitution in the framework of the political system, considers the impact of the doctrine of separation of powers, describes the party system and discusses the reasons for the dominance of the two-party system, discusses the electoral college and the process of indirect presidential elections. Argues that the worst aspect of the American political system is campaign financing and the best aspect is the existence of a balance of power. KEYWORDS: two party system political parties electoral college constitution separation of powers. 5 pages, 7 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources. 1,247 words.   $35
11447. Realism and Transnationalism. Attempts to update the realist/idealist argument in international political relations to the post-1990 world, using Luard's definition of "transnationalism" as a substitute for idealism. Explores CSCE and other multilateral diplomatic initiatives for evidence of transnationalism, concludes that "neorealism" is the most appealing theory. 9 pages, 23 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $63
11434. Two Political Theorists: Hannah Arendt & Max Weber. This paper compares and contrasts the political theories of Hannah Arendt and Max Weber. Examines their definitions of the political sphere and people's role in politics, the separation/conflict between the political and public spheres, and the role of power in politics. 12 pages, 34 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $84
11433. More's "Utopia", Kipling's "The Man Who Would Be King" and Conrad's "Lord Jim". Compares and contrasts ideas of utopia, criticism of governments, and the proper role of the citizen in these three works. 6 pages, 0 footnotes, 0 bibliographic sources.   $42
11432. Huxley's Brave New World and Skinner's Walden Two. An analysis which considers how Skinner's book answers many of the difficulties that Huxley found in utopian schemes as presented in Brave New World. 6 pages, 4 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
11403. The Role of Religion in the Bosnian War. Personal view of the role of religion in the modern Bosnian war through the events of mid-1994. Argues that religion per se is not necessary the problem, but its identification with national differences which become involved in bloody civil wars under modern conditions, creating a situation all worthwhile religions must deplore. 10 pages, 15 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $70
11314. Castiglione and Machiavelli Compared. Compares Castiglione's "Book of the Courtier" with Machiavelli's "The Prince" for their tone and ideals. Castiglione is seen as sincere and idealistic, while Machiavelli is a brutal realist with no patience for virtue and delicacy of manners. 7 pages, 9 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $49
11256. Liberation Theology in Latin America. Argues that Latin American movement known as liberation theology in Roman Catholic Church offers new approaches to religious and political freedoms for residents. Brief history of movement, along with central themes of movement and relation to Marxism. 11 pages, 33 footnotes, 8 bibliographic sources.   $77
11239. Linz on Democracy and Models. Describes theories of Juan Linz and Matthew Shugart regarding presidential and parliamentary democracies, comparing and contrasting degrees of freedom in both models and analyzing Linz's arguments on legitimacy efficacy. 21 pages, 31 footnotes, 7 bibliographic sources.   $133
11238. Hume and Hobbes on Self-Interest. Compares the 18th century skeptic with the 17th century author of Leviathan for their treatment of self-interest as a motivating force in human behavior. KEYWORDS: david hume thomas hobbes self interest. 7 pages, 8 footnotes, 3 bibliographic sources.   $49
11132. The Role of Political Parties in Democratic Societies Discusses development of political parties, proportional representation, and personality or entrepreneurial politics, and professional politicians. Considers the effect of mass media, the decline of unifying ideologies, fund raising, and the moderating/stabilizing effects of political parties. 25 pages, 18 footnotes, 14 bibliographic sources.   $133
11096. Max Weber on Bureaucracy. The German sociologist's theory of the modern legal rational system of control as a bureaucracy is analyzed. The concepts of legal norm, hierarchal organization, and impersonal rational operators are described. 17 pages, 18 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $119
11090. Sociological Analysis of Members of the British House of Commons. Discusses differences between amateur and professional politicians: effective scope of influence, personal and professional traits. Summarizes survey of British House of Commons from 1918 - 1955 and reports general characteristic groups, factored by time period. Considers impact of system of government efficiacy. 6 pages, 9 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
11080. German Nationalism in Wwi and Wwii. Analyzes role of nationalism in fostering national unity, independence and imperialism. Gives detailed account of power alliances leading to WWI and describes nationalistic sentiments particular to WWII, especially Nazi racism. 14 pages, 22 footnotes, 5 bibliographic sources.   $98
11065. Mills and Rawls on Liberty and Justice. Compares the "fairness" theory of the modern political philosopher and ethicist John Rawls with the utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill. 6 pages, 14 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
10679. Multi-Party Mediation in the Independence of Zimbabwe. Examines the mediation styles and results of American and British diplomacy in 1976 and 1979 talks concerning the independence of former Rhodesia. Mediation theory and practice are analyzed in detail, and shuttle diplomacy is contrasted with leveraged bargaining. 24 pages, 28 footnotes, 17 bibliographic sources.   $133
10644. National Sovereignty and International Communications Overview, analysis and evaluation of this 1979 reader which addresses the increasing globalization of communications and the effect of such globalization on issues of national sovereignty, particularly in developing nations. More than a decade following its publication, the arguments and issues raised remain relevant. 5 pages, 9 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $35
10635. Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services by Michael Lipsky. Considering the overworked and autonomous workers in schools, police and welfare departments, legal and other services, Lipsky discusses the range of decisions street-level bureaucrats make and their effect on society. 8 pages, 0 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $56
10625. The Evolution of Human Rights Since the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This paper reports on the various international bodies whose members promote human rights, noting the themes of their cases and the extent of their influence. The paper concludes with predictions and rationale for future human rights advances. 19 pages, 32 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $133
10613. Machiavelli, Italy, and the Renaissance. Compares the views of Niccolo Machiavelli on fortune and power with those of earlier Italian humanist like Petrarch and Ficino. Machiavelli is seen as a radical break with the neoclassical spirit, toward a new national patriotism. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $35
10506. The Marxist Method of Political Analysis. Begins with an overview of Marxist method and its critics, then discusses key Marxist issues: how to categorize time epoches, how to classify groups of people, how to define the units of social and economic change. Concludes with an excellent example of a Marxist analysis concerning the breakaway of Eastern European countries from the former USSR. 9 pages, 6 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
10495. State and Society in Mexico. Discusses the special relationship between civil society and a "strong" government in Mexico, elaborating on the historical conditions that enabled the formation of a strong state in Mexico and discussing its implications for political stability and democracy. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
10494. The Working Class in Argentina. Discussion and analysis of the rise of the working class in Argentina during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Analyzes its link with Peronism and its relation to political instability and prospects for democratic government. 5 pages, 13 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $35
10482. Latvia: The Questions of Sovereignty and National Identity. Provides a history of foreign rule in Latvia, its contact with Western influences, an account of its nationalistic movements and a social profile of the country. TAGS: Latvia history, former USSR, sovereignty, independence. Chicago Style with Parenthetical Notes. 11 pages, 30 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $77
10479. Public Choice Theory & the Liberal Agenda. Considers how the ideas espoused by four public choice theorists can be utilized both as an indictment of the need for political reform (from the liberal or radical perspective) and as a roadmap for effecting reform along a radical or left-wing agenda. 9 pages, 24 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $63
10478. How Common Practices of Government Undermine Democratic Values. Discusses practices which paradoxically undermine the same system that generated them: lack of trust, vote trading in the legislature, self-interest among legislators, zero-sum rationality in the court system, special interest lobbies are all viewed as inevitable byproducts of the democratic system. 11 pages, 17 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources. 10478   $77
10442. The Rise of Fascism in Germany. Examines the causes for the rise of Nazi power, including the terms imposed after defeat in the First World War, economic and political problems in the 1920s, anti-Semitism, and the appeal of Nazi romantic mythology. Argues against any one-sided explanation for German fascism. 8 pages, 12 footnotes, 6 bibliographic sources.   $56
10438. A Comparison and Contrast of the Interpretive Approaches of Bernard Bailyn and Edward Countryman to the American Revolution. A provocative discussion of the persuasiveness of a complex view of the causes of the American revolution versus one that emphasizes the central importance of ideology and written materials supporting that ideology. 6 pages, 16 footnotes, 2 bibliographic sources.   $42
10431. Kingship and Religion-Origins and Nature of Their Association. Ancient Middle Eastern and Greco-Roman views of kingship and its sacred component are described, and the evolution of the theory of divine rights of kings during the period of nationalism and absolutism in 15th-17th Century Europe is reviewed. 14 pages, 19 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $98
10429. European Nationalism in the Post-War Era. The history of nationalism from its "death" in 1945 to 1989 is closely discussed. The paper views the upswing in nationalism as a product of the forced stabilization and movement towards unification found in the late 1980s. Potential for European unification is discussed in light of events up to 1989. 12 pages, 27 footnotes, 23 bibliographic sources.   $84
10427. The Catholic Church and the Nicaraguan Revolution. The development of Catholic radicalism was a startling change in a region where the Catholic Church had for centuries been a leading defender of the status quo. Motivational and historical factors leading to the emergence of radical positions, such as Liberation Theology, among Catholics in Nicaragua and other Latin American countries are examined. It is concluded that neither motivational theory nor historical trends can fully account for the decisions of individuals. 22 pages, 27 footnotes, 9 bibliographic sources.   $133
10416. The Limits of Democratization in Nicaragua. Nicaragua is examined in the context of the history of Latin America to identify the factors that have led to a state of dependency, and to examine how dependency has shaped Nicaraguan politics. The papers argues that genuine democratization is unlikely in the face of continued dependency and persistent extremes of wealth and poverty. 25 pages, 18 footnotes, 12 bibliographic sources.   $133
10396. The Participant Observation Approach. Examines the elements and procedures of the participant observation approach to scholarly research, focusing on the application to political science. 9 pages, 2 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
10316. Social Structures and Socialization Among the Ik. Analysis of Colin Turnbull's anthropology study "The Mountain People," noting the disintegration of social structures, values and behaviors by starvation and sickness. 9 pages, 14 footnotes, 1 bibliographic source.   $63
10308. Violent and Non-Violent Revolution: India and China. Analyzes the two kinds of ideologies in the struggle for liberation from colonialism; the cases of India (non-violent resistance) and China (violent communist revolution) are described. 5 pages, 8 footnotes, 4 bibliographic sources.   $35
10227. The Japanese Constitution. A history and analysis of the theories and points behind the 1947 constitution imposed on Japan by the American occupation forces under MacArthur. The reasons for failure of reform movements are noted; and questions of traditionalism and military preparedness are reviewed. 21 pages, 32 footnotes, 10 bibliographic sources.   $133
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